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Samantha Honeywell, Rena Zelig, Diane Rigassio Radler
A fish oil (FO)-containing intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE; FO ILE) has been approved for use in the United States; however, similar formulations have been used throughout Europe and China in intensive care units since the 1990s. This literature review evaluates the evidence regarding the effectiveness of FO ILE on clinical outcomes in the critically ill surgical patient population. The review of available evidence demonstrates that ILEs containing FO lower triglyceride concentrations, inflammatory markers, and liver function enzymes, and improve morbidity and mortality outcomes in critically ill surgical patients...
December 5, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Jing Zhang, Qing Yu, Yang Liu, Hui Liu, Mang Sun, Qin Tian, Shengfen Tu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of propofol combined with hypoxia on cognitive function of immature rats and the possible role of p38 pathway and tau protein in mediating such effects. METHODS: Ninety 7-day-old (P7) SD rats were randomized for daily intraperitoneal injection of propofol (50 mg/kg) or lipid emulsion (5.0 mL/kg) for 7 consecutive days. After each injection, the rats were placed in a warm box (38 ℃) with an oxygen concentration of 18% (hypoxia), 21% (normal air), or 50% (oxygen) until full recovery of the righting reflex...
November 30, 2018: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Bassel Akache, Felicity C Stark, Yimei Jia, Lise Deschatelets, Renu Dudani, Blair A Harrison, Gerard Agbayani, Dean Williams, Mohammad P Jamshidi, Lakshmi Krishnan, Michael J McCluskie
Archaeosomes are liposomes traditionally comprised of total polar lipids (TPL) or semi-synthetic glycerolipids of ether-linked isoprenoid phytanyl cores with varied glyco- and amino-head groups. As adjuvants, they induce robust, long-lasting humoral and cell-mediated immune responses and enhance protection in murine models of infectious disease and cancer. Traditional total polar lipid (TPL) archaeosome formulations are relatively complex and first generation semi-synthetic archaeosomes involve many synthetic steps to arrive at the final desired glycolipid composition...
2018: PloS One
L Pinon, L Montel, O Mesdjian, M Bernard, A Michel, C Ménager, J Fattaccioli
Characterized by a fluid and deformable interface, ligand-functionalized emulsion droplets are used as model probes to address biophysical, biological, and developmental questions. Functionalization protocols usually rely on the use of headgroup-modified phospholipids that are dissolved in the oil phase prior to emulsification, leading to a broad range of surface densities within a given droplet population. With the aim to coat particles homogeneously with biologically relevant lipids and proteins (streptavidin, immunoglobulins, etc...
December 3, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Yu Jie, Hongfei Zhao, Xiaoqi Sun, Xinran Lv, Zhuo Zhang, Bolin Zhang
BACKGROUND: Peptides can act as antioxidants in emulsion but the mechanism is poorly understood. Caragana ambigua seed is a potential protein source, the commercial applications of which have not been explored yet. Here we aimed to evaluate the bio-economic potential of C. ambigua by isolating and characterizing antioxidative peptides from its seeds' protein hydrolysate for the purpose of protecting lipids from oxidation. RESULTS: A novel decapeptide, identified as QITEGEDGGG, was purified by HPLC based on enrichment of antioxidant fractions, and its antioxidative activity for walnut oil was evaluated in terms of its effect on oil quality, primary and secondary peroxide formation, oxidation kinetics, and structure of oil droplets...
December 2, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Graeme A Deuchar, Josie C van Kralingen, Lorraine M Work, Celestine Santosh, Keith W Muir, Chris McCabe, I Mhairi Macrae
In acute stroke patients, penumbral tissue is non-functioning but potentially salvageable within a time window of variable duration and represents target tissue for rescue. Reperfusion by thrombolysis and/or thrombectomy can rescue penumbra and improve stroke outcomes, but these treatments are currently available to a minority of patients. In addition to the utility of Glasgow Oxygen Level Dependent (GOLD) as an MRI contrast capable of detecting penumbra, its constituent perfluorocarbon (PFC) oxygen carrier, combined with normobaric hyperoxia, also represents a potential acute stroke treatment through improved oxygen delivery to penumbra...
November 30, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
Helene Bohnert, Max Maurer, Philip C Calder, Johann Pratschke, Paul Thul, Verena Müller
BACKGROUND: Data on the use of lipid emulsions containing fish-oil (FO) derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in addition to medium- and long-chain triglycerides (MCT/LCT) for long-term home parenteral nutrition (HPN) are limited. This study aimed to compare HPN regimens containing either MCT/LCT/FO-derived n-3 PUFAs (test group) or MCT/LCT (control group) with respect to efficacy and safety during 8 weeks of HPN using a non-inferiority trial design with change of body mass index (BMI) as primary endpoint...
November 30, 2018: Nutrition Journal
Julieta N Naso, Fernando A Bellesi, Víctor M Pizones Ruiz-Henestrosa, Ana M R Pilosof
During the last decade a special interest has been focused on studying the relationship between the composition and structure of emulsions and the extent of lipolysis, driven by the necessity of modulate lipid digestion to decrease or delay fats absorption or increase healthy fat nutrients bioavailability. Because bile salts (BS) play a crucial role in lipids metabolism, understanding how typical food emulsifiers affect the structures of BS under duodenal conditions, can aid to further understand how to control lipids digestion...
November 12, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
BoRa Yi, Mi-Ja Kim, JaeHwan Lee
α-Tocopherol is known to show different activity depending on the concentration and food matrix. Effects of α-tocopherol at the concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mM were determined in oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions containing anionic, neutral, and cationic emulsifiers under different types of oxidative stress including riboflavin photosensitization, photooxidation, and autoxidation. Headspace oxygen depletion, lipid hydroperoxides, and conjugated dienes were analyzed to determine the oxidative stability of O/W emulsions...
December 2018: Food Science and Biotechnology
Reena Sheoran, Sukhbir Lal Khokra, Viney Chawla, Harish Dureja
BACKGROUND: During past decades' liposomes have emerged as efficient carriers for drugs, diagnostics, vaccines, nutrients and other bioactive agents. Liposomes, the spherical vesicles consisting of phospholipids bilayer have the ability to encapsulate both lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs. Extensive studies have been done in the past for investigating a number of drugs and genes for controlled release with liposomal formulation. Liposomes have also been investigated for their use in cancer treatment...
November 26, 2018: Recent Patents on Nanotechnology
Aurore Dupin, Friedrich C Simmel
Multicellularity enables the growth of complex life forms as it allows for the specialization of cell types, differentiation and large-scale spatial organization. In a similar way, modular construction of synthetic multicellular systems will lead to dynamic biomimetic materials that can respond to their environment in complex ways. To achieve this goal, artificial cellular communication and developmental programs still have to be established. Here, we create geometrically controlled spatial arrangements of emulsion-based artificial cellular compartments containing synthetic in vitro gene circuitry, separated by lipid bilayer membranes...
November 26, 2018: Nature Chemistry
Weiwei Jiang, GuangLin Chen, Jie Zhang, Xiaofeng Lv, Changgui Lu, Huan Chen, Wei Li, Hongxing Li, Qiming Geng, Xiaoqun Xu, Weibing Tang
BACKGROUND: There are many advantages of a SMOF emulsion (SMOF-lipid), such as liver-protective properties and anti-inflammatory effects. The objective of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of SMOF-lipid with medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) /long-chain triglycerides (LCT) in infants after intestinal surgery. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized study. Neonates receiving intravenous nutrient solution, including lipid emulsion after gastrointestinal surgery, were included in this study...
November 24, 2018: Pediatric Surgery International
Josep Llop-Talaveron, Maria B Badia-Tahull, Toni Lozano-Andreu, Ana Suarez-Lledo, Elisabet Leiva-Badosa
BACKGROUND: High doses and vegetable origin of lipid emulsions (LE) are prominent factors for liver test (LT) alterations in patients treated with parenteral nutrition (PN). This study aims to determine incidence of LT alterations, and risk factors related to these alterations in patients with short term PN with homogenous LE. METHODS: Adult non-critically ill hospitalized patients, with normal LTs at the beginning of PN, receiving 0.8 g/kg/day of an olive/soybean LE were included...
November 24, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Alime Cengiz, Talip Kahyaoglu, Karin Schröen, Claire Berton-Carabin
BACKGROUND: Interest in supplementing food with iron to counteract dietary deficiencies has been on the rise in recent years. A major challenge is the pro-oxidant activity of soluble iron, which compromises the chemical stability of the enriched food products. This problem could be mitigated by encapsulating iron, to physically keep it separated from oxidisable substrates, such as unsaturated fatty acids. In the present work, the physical and chemical stability of surfactant- or protein-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions fortified with iron was investigated...
November 24, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Etsuko Ohmae, Nobuko Yoshizawa, Kenji Yoshimoto, Maho Hayashi, Hiroko Wada, Tetsuya Mimura, Hiroaki Suzuki, Shu Homma, Norihiro Suzuki, Hiroyuki Ogura, Hatsuko Nasu, Harumi Sakahara, Yutaka Yamashita, Yukio Ueda
We introduced a method for producing solid phantoms with various water-to-lipid ratios that can simulate the absorption, and to some extent the scattering characteristics of human breast tissue. We also achieved phantom stability for a minimum of one month by solidifying the emulsion phantoms. The characteristics of the phantoms were evaluated using the six-wavelength time-domain diffuse optical spectroscopy (TD-DOS) system we developed to measure water and lipid contents and hemoglobin concentration. The TD-DOS measurements were validated with a magnetic resonance imaging system...
November 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Hongfei Chen, Fangfang Xia, Zhousheng Jin, Kejian Shi, Yun Xia, Le Liu, Thomas J Papadimos, Xuzhong Xu, Limei Chen
BACKGROUND: Successful resuscitation from asystole induced by bupivacaine requires the reestablishment of a sufficient coronary flow (CF) quickly. This study was designed to test whether levosimendan was superior to epinephrine in the reestablishment of crucial coronary flows after bupivacaine-induced asystole. METHODS: The isolated, perfused, nonrecirculating, Langendorff rat heart preparation was used. Bupivacaine 100 μmol/L was perfused into rat hearts to induce asystole, and then for 3 min thereafter...
November 20, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
Kate A Tauber, David Clark
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 19, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Caroline R Campbell, P Benson Ham, Walter Pipkin, Robyn Hatley, K Christian Walters
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2018: American Surgeon
Melina Dick, Lucas Dal Magro, Rafael Costa Rodrigues, Alessandro de Oliveira Rios, Simone Hickmann Flôres
Opuntia monacantha mucilage was investigated for its physicochemical characteristics and functional properties. The mucilage extraction yield was 12% (DW) and it consisted of 80.12% carbohydrates, 15.14% ashes, 3.55% proteins, and 1.19% lipids. Monosaccharide profiling demonstrated a predominantly presence of galactose, glucuronic acid, and arabinose. Viscosimetric measurements gave an intrinsic viscosity of 9.02 dL/g and a molar mass of 1.12 × 106  g/mol. Reconstituted mucilage solution (1% w/v) had a mean particle diameter (D4,3 ) of 648 nm and solubility above 85%...
November 14, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
M L Forchielli, A Bonoli, A Stancari, L L Bruno, F Piro, G Piazza, C Albertini, A Pession, C Puggioli, G Bersani
INTRODUCTION: High concentrations of trace elements (TE), in particular zinc and selenium, along with carnitine, are often added to parenteral admixtures in paediatric patients on long-term Parenteral Nutrition (PN). We aim to evaluate whether lipid droplet diameters of these admixtures maintain the recommended range of 0.4-1.0 μm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stability studies were carried out on six parenteral admixtures with carnitine, trace elements and electrolytes added in different amounts...
October 27, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
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