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Kathleen M Gura, McGreggor Crowley
Intravenous lipid emulsions are an integral part of nutrition therapy in the intestinal failure patient. In addition to being a concentrated source of non-protein calories, they provide the essential fatty acids necessary for growth and development. Depending upon the oil source used in these products, complications such as intestinal failure associated liver disease (IFALD) can occur. This review will discuss the risks and benefits associated with these products, especially as they relate to the pediatric intestinal failure patient...
August 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
Vijay Mishra, Kuldeep K Bansal, Asit Verma, Nishika Yadav, Sourav Thakur, Kalvatala Sudhakar, Jessica M Rosenholm
Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are nanocarriers developed as substitute colloidal drug delivery systems parallel to liposomes, lipid emulsions, polymeric nanoparticles, and so forth. Owing to their unique size dependent properties and ability to incorporate drugs, SLNs present an opportunity to build up new therapeutic prototypes for drug delivery and targeting. SLNs hold great potential for attaining the goal of targeted and controlled drug delivery, which currently draws the interest of researchers worldwide...
October 18, 2018: Pharmaceutics
Ernesta Malinauskytė, Jovita Ramanauskaitė, Milda Keršienė, Ina Jasutienė, Daiva Leskauskaitė, Tove G Devold, Gerd E Vegarud
This study explored the influence of different emulsification layers as mono- and bilayers on lipid digestion by using in vitro and in vivo digestion methods. The monolayer emulsion of rapeseed oil contained whey proteins and the bilayer emulsion, whey proteins and carboxymethyl cellulose. The in vitro digestion using human gastrointestinal enzymes showed that the lipid digestion as free fatty acids was slowed down in the bilayer emulsion compared with the monolayer. Droplet size was still low in the gastric phase and pseudoplasticity was well preserved (even though viscosity decreased) during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Zeng Wang, Yunsong Peng, Xinjun Cai, Yingying Cao, Guonong Yang, Ping Huang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Abdominal surgery significantly affects the structure and function of the gastrointestinal system of patients, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is an important nutrition support method for postoperative patients. However, in the process of TPN practice, the excessive fat emulsion and compound amino-acid prescriptions ratio are often prescribed by doctors. To address the problem, we developed the computerized TPN prescription management system to promote the personalized provision of TPN...
October 17, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Lucía Gayoso, Diana Ansorena, Iciar Astiasarán
BACKGROUND: Bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds for functional food deserves to be evaluated. An in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model was applied to provide information about the extent of lipid hydrolysis, oxidative stability and bioaccessibility of algae oil (42% of docosahexaenoic acid - DHA), comparing three lipid delivery systems: bulk oil, soy protein stabilized O/W emulsion and carrageenan gelled emulsion. RESULTS: Lipid digestion kinetics was slightly influenced by the delivery systems...
October 16, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Haein Lee, Eunok Choe
This study evaluated contribution of minor compounds naturally present in peppermint ( Mentha piperita ) to the iron-catalyzed lipid oxidation of oil-in-water emulsion. Emulsions consisted of tocopherol-stripped soybean oil and pH 4.0 citrate buffer (4:6, w/w) with iron. Minor compounds included α-tocopherol, rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid, β-carotene, and chlorophyll b at natural concentration in 400 ppm of the peppermint extract. The emulsions were oxidized in the dark, and headspace oxygen contents, hydroperoxide contents, and p -anisidine values were determined...
October 2018: Food Science and Biotechnology
Jihee Kim, Eunok Choe
This study evaluated the pH effect on the lipid oxidation and polyphenols of the emulsions consisting of soybean oil, citric acid buffer (pH 2.6, 4.0, or 6.0), and peppermint ( Mentha piperita ) extract (400 mg/kg), with/without FeSO4 . The emulsions in tightly-sealed bottles were placed at 25 °C in the dark, and lipid oxidation and polyphenol contents and composition were determined. The lipid oxidation was high in the emulsions at pH 4.0 in the absence of iron, however, iron addition made them more stable than the emulsions at pH 2...
October 2018: Food Science and Biotechnology
Lorenzo Anez-Bustillos, Duy T Dao, Alexis K Potemkin, Antonio R Perez-Atayde, Bram P Raphael, Alexandra N Carey, Daniel S Kamin, Jay Thiagarajah, McGreggor Crowley, Kathleen M Gura, Mark Puder
A PN-dependent 3-year-old male with MVID presented with a history of worsening jaundice and severe pruritus. He was managed at an outside institution with low dose soybean oil-based lipid emulsion (SOLE) Intralipid® (Fresenius-Kabi, Uppsala, Sweden) at 0.2 g/kg/day as a strategy to prevent PN-associated liver disease (PNALD). At 11 months of age he complained of significant pruritus without dermatologic findings. Ursodiol and diphenhydramine were administered with partial resolution. This article is protected by copyright...
October 12, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Shun Onishi, Tatsuru Kaji, Seiro Machigashira, Waka Yamada, Ryuta Masuya, Kazuhiko Nakame, Masato Kawano, Keisuke Yano, Koji Yamada, Takafumi Kawano, Motoi Mukai, Takako Yoshioka, Akihide Tanimoto, Satoshi Ieiri
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Fish oil (FO) lipid emulsion and a new lipid emulsion (SMOF) are important treatments for intestinal failure-associated liver disease. We evaluated the efficacy of FO and SMOF lipid emulsion on intestinal mucosal adaptation using a total parenteral nutrition (TPN)-supported rat model of short bowel syndrome. MATERIAL & METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats underwent jugular vein catheterization and 90% small bowel resection and were divided into three groups: TPN with soy bean oil lipid emulsion (SO group), FO lipid emulsion (FO group), or SMOF (SMOF group)...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Shanshan Wang, Shanshan Wu, Songbai Liu
Novel amphiphilic antioxidant, (+)-catechin-β-sitosterol (CS), was designed and successfully prepared with integration of (+)-catechin and β-sitosterol through the linkage of succinic acid. Sequential esterification was carried out to connect (+)-catechin and β-sitosterol. The identity of CS was confirmed by NMR, IR and MS spectroscopies. DSC analysis revealed that ΔH of CS was much lower than those of (+)-catechin and β-sitosterol, indicating ameliorated crystallinity. The logP measurement demonstrated significantly increased lipophilicity...
January 30, 2019: Food Chemistry
Heesoo Park, Saehun Mun, Yong-Ro Kim
This study was performed to examine the stability of retinol contained within oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions under UV and during storage at different temperatures. O/W emulsions were prepared using different emulsifiers and oil concentrations. The stability of the retinol contained in the O/W emulsions was investigated by measuring the percentage of residual retinol in the samples after UV exposure and storage at different temperatures (4, 25, and 40 °C). The oil concentration of the emulsion had a greater impact on UV stability than the type of emulsifier used, whereas the storage stability at different temperatures was affected by both the choice of emulsifier and the oil concentration...
January 30, 2019: Food Chemistry
Lina Svanberg, Kajsa Malmberg, Graziele Gustinelli, Camilla Öhgren, Ingela Persson, Lena Brive, Sophia Wassén
The objective of this work was to explore the storage properties of a structured oil-in-water emulsion containing both water- and fat-soluble bioactive compounds from bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.). Bilberry seed oil (BSO) was dispersed in a continuous aqueous phase of anthocyanins (AC) and whey protein isolate. The microstructure was evaluated using light microscopy and the effect of anthocyanins on lipid oxidation and microbial growth was investigated. The results showed that it was possible to generate a stable emulsion structure that resisted phase separation during 25 weeks of storage...
January 30, 2019: Food Chemistry
JuHyuk Park, Seo Yeoung Gim, Jun-Yeong Jeon, Mi-Ja Kim, Hyung-Kyoon Choi, JaeHwan Lee
We conducted in vitro assays to investigate the antioxidant properties of aqueous or ethanolic extracts of roasted rice hulls. Phenolic compound contents were analyzed via HPLC, and comprehensive chemical profiles were obtained via 1 H NMR and 1 H-H COSY NMR. Rice hulls were roasted at 150, 180, and 230 °C for 20 min, after which the aqueous and 70% ethanol extracts were obtained. In vitro assays showed that rice hulls roasted at 230 °C possessed very strong antioxidant properties (p < 0.05)...
January 30, 2019: Food Chemistry
Andrew S Elder, John N Coupland, Ryan J Elias
Naturally derived antioxidants are in high demand as the food industry strives to meet consumer preferences for non-synthetic additives. Alkylresorcinols (ARs) represent a novel class of natural antioxidants that can be derived from a natural waste stream (bran) and have the potential to inhibit lipid peroxidation given their phenolic structure. The antioxidant activity of rye bran extract containing ARs was investigated in an oil-in-water emulsion and was found to inhibit lipid oxidation reactions. The concentration of ARs in the continuous phase of emulsions was measured to understand partitioning behavior, as this is known to impact antioxidant activity...
January 30, 2019: Food Chemistry
Bharath A Chhabria, Ashish Bhalla, Nusrat Shafiq, Susheel Kumar, Deba Prasad Dhibar, Navneet Sharma
INTRODUCTION: Organophosphate (OP) poisoning is an important public health concern in South-Asia especially in the farming population. Treatment of OP poisoning has remained unchanged since decades and case fatality is 10-40% despite best supportive care, anticholinergic agents and oximes. A new antidote is the need of the hour. Lipid emulsion being inexpensive, easily available and effective in management of other lipid soluble toxins may be a novel option. However, safety has not been established and efficacy is limited to animal studies and case reports in humans with OP poisoning...
October 11, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
Kavita Singh, Paushali Mukherjee, Ahmad Rushdi Shakri, Ankita Singh, Gaurav Pandey, Meenakshi Bakshi, Geetanjali Uppal, Rajender Jena, Ankita Rawat, Purnima Kumar, Rukmini Bhardwaj, Syed Shams Yazdani, Dhiraj Hans, Shantanu Mehta, Ajay Srinivasan, K Anil, R L Madhusudhan, Jaya Patel, Amit Singh, Rajeshwar Rao, Santosh Gangireddy, Rudrappa Patil, Swarnendu Kaviraj, Sanjay Singh, Darrick Carter, Steve Reed, David C Kaslow, Ashley Birkett, Virander S Chauhan, Chetan E Chitnis
Reticulocyte invasion by Plasmodium vivax requires interaction of the Duffy-binding protein (PvDBP) with host Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARCs). The binding domain of PvDBP maps to a cysteine-rich region referred to as region II (PvDBPII). Blocking this interaction offers a potential path to prevent P. vivax blood-stage growth and P. vivax malaria. This forms the rationale for development of a vaccine based on PvDBPII. Here we report results of a Phase I randomized trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of recombinant PvDBPII formulated with glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant-stable emulsion (GLA-SE)...
2018: NPJ Vaccines
Ruyuan Song, Dehong Hu, Ho Yin Chung, Zonghai Sheng, Shuhuai Yao
Hypoxia in solid tumors may be a hindrance to effective treatments of tumors in achieving their therapeutic potential, especially for photodynamic therapy (PDT) which requires oxygen as the supplement substrate. Oxygen delivery using perfluorocarbon emulsions or lipid oxygen microbubbles has been developed as the agents to supply endogenous oxygen to fuel singlet oxygen generation in PDT. However, such methods suffer from premature oxygen release and storage issues. To address these limitations, we designed lipid-polymer bilaminar oxygen nanobubbles with chlorin e6 (Ce6) conjugated to the polymer shell as a novel oxygen self-supplement agent for PDT...
October 9, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Bin Zhan, Sridhar Arumugam, Malcolm W Kennedy, Nancy Tricoche, Lu-Yun Lian, Oluwatoyin A Asojo, Sasisekhar Bennuru, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Peter J Hotez, Sara Lustigman, Thomas R Klei
Parasitic nematodes produce an unusual class of fatty acid and retinol (FAR)-binding proteins that may scavenge host fatty acids and retinoids. Two FARs from Brugia malayi (Bm-FAR-1 and Bm-FAR-2) were expressed as recombinant proteins, and their ligand binding, structural characteristics, and immunogenicities examined. Circular dichroism showed that rBm-FAR-1 and rBm-FAR-2 are similarly rich in α-helix structure. Unexpectedly, however, their lipid binding activities were found to be readily differentiated...
October 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Meng Zhang, Yuan Yuan, Qing Wang, Xiaobo Li, Jiuzhang Men, Mingxin Lin
An effective treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is urgently needed. In this study, we investigated whether the Chinese medicine Chai Hu Li Zhong Tang (CHLZT) could protect against the development of NAFLD. Rats in an animal model of NAFLD were treated with CHLZT, and their serum levels of cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were detected with an automatic biochemical analyzer...
October 5, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Ramina Nabiee, Barent Dubois, Laura Green, Ajay Sharma, Siu Fun Wong, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi
Topical application of Vitamin K1 has been demonstrated to effectively treat papulopustular skin rash, a serious and frequently encountered side effect of Epidermal Growth Factor Inhibitors (EGFRIs). Systemic absorption of vitamin K1 from skin and the resultant consequence of antagonizing EGFRIs anticancer effects jeopardizes the clinical acceptability of this rather effective treatment. The purpose of the present study was to rationally formulate and evaluate the release rate and transdermal absorption of a wide range of Vitamin K1 dermal preparations with a variety of physiochemical properties...
2018: PloS One
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