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Wencke Walter, Martin Bornhäuser, Friedrich Stölzel, Anne Zeidler, Holger Knoth
BACKGROUND: Screening for Aspergillus (Asp-AG) and Candida antigen (Ca-AG) with immunoassays is established for stem cell recipients at high risk for invasive fungal infections (IFI). While parenteral nutrition (PN) will be applied in case of complications leading to insufficient alimentation, piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) is started at the onset of febrile neutropenia. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate drug-laboratory interactions between PN as well as TZP and both immunoassays which could affect the specificity of the assays and lead to false assumption of an IFI...
August 14, 2018: Mycoses
Jaleh Varshosaz, Somayeh Taymouri, Ali Jahanian-Najafabadi, Arezoo Alizadeh
Present investigation aimed to prepare, optimise, and characterise lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) for improving the solubility and bioavailability of efavirenz (EFV). EFV-loaded LNCs were prepared by the phase-inversion temperature method and the influence of various formulation variables was assessed using Box-Behnken design. The prepared formulations were characterised for particle size, polydispersity index (PdI), zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency (EE), and release efficiency (RE). The biocompatibility of optimised formulation on Caco-2 cells was determined using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay...
September 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
Xing Chen, David Julian McClements, Yuqing Zhu, Liqiang Zou, Ziling Li, Wei Liu, Ce Cheng, Hongxia Gao, Chengmei Liu
Fluid and gelled nutraceutical emulsions were formulated from quercetin-loaded caseinate-stabilized emulsions by addition of gellan gum with or without acidification with glucono-delta-lactone (GDL). Gellan gum addition increased the viscosity or gel strength of the fluid and gelled emulsions, respectively. The behavior of the nutraceutical emulsions in a simulated gastrointestinal tract depended on their initial composition. Fluid emulsions containing different gellan gum levels (0 to 0.2%) had similar protein and lipid hydrolysis rates, as well as similar quercetin bioaccessibility (~ 51%)...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Martin Wolf, Victoria Klang, Tatjana Stojcic, Carola Fuchs, Michael Wolzt, Claudia Valenta
Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) and nano-sized emulsions based on monoacyl-phosphatidylcholine (MAPL) were tested for their effect on physiological skin parameters in vivo during daily application over four weeks. The influence of the basic formulations on transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration, sebum content and pH was determined once per week and after a recovery period of three weeks. In addition, confocal Raman spectroscopy was employed to evaluate natural moisturising factor and urea content...
August 9, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Chao Li, Qian Ni, Yifang Pei, Yi Ren, Yufei Feng
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We performed a meta-analysis of data from recent studies to evaluate the safety and efficacy of parenteral nutrition (PN) with structured triglyceride (STG) lipid emulsions compared to medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)/long-chain triglyceride (LCT) lipid emulsions in Chinese patients. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Internet, Wanfang, and VIP were searched for randomized controlled trials comparing STGs with MCTs/LCTs published in English or Chinese between January 1987 and October 2017...
July 25, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Chanchan Sun, Rui Liu, Huanjing Sheng, Ruijun Wang, Zesheng Zhang, Jiang Zhao, Min Zhang
Since lipid digestion is an interfacial process, food emulsions are increasingly being seen as a mechanism for controlling lipid uptake. Oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by whey protein (WP) and protein-xanthan gum (XG) mixtures were designed to investigate the influence of interfacial structures on lipid digestion using an in vitro digestion model. The interfacial layers with different structures were designed using microparticulated whey protein (MWP) and MWP-XG mixtures. The increase in the volume average diameter of proteins indicated that the WPs aggregated to form micro-particles during microparticulation...
August 9, 2018: Food & Function
Naureen Memon, Karen Hussein, Thomas Hegyi, Aimee Herdt, Ian J Griffin
Multicomponent lipid emulsions, such as SMOFlipid, contain intermediate amounts of essential fatty acids (EFAs) compared with traditional soybean-oil based lipid emulsions and 100% fish-oil lipid emulsions. We describe the development of moderate EFA deficiency (EFAD) and slow weight gain in an infant with intestinal failure-associated liver disease managed with SMOFlipid reduction (1 g/kg/d). Once SMOFlipid dosage was increased (2-3 g/kg/d), EFA levels normalized, adequate growth resumed, and the infant's cholestasis resolved...
August 8, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
David Julian McClements
Application of bioactive phytochemicals in foods, supplements, and pharmaceuticals is often limited because of their poor solubility, stability, and bioavailability. Phytochemical oral delivery systems (PODS), consisting of phytochemical-loaded nanoparticles or microparticles, can overcome these challenges. PODS can be produced in liquid, gel, paste, or solid forms. They must be carefully formulated to be compatible with the product matrix, economical, robust, and maintain phytochemical bioactivity. This review evaluates recent advances in the development of PODS, including microemulsions, nanoemulsions, emulsions, solid lipid nanoparticles, liposomes, and biopolymer microgels...
August 4, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Mitja Pohlen, Luka Pirker, Matevž Luštrik, Rok Dreu
The purpose of the study was to develop a redispersible dry emulsion, containing a lipophilic, poorly water soluble model drug simvastatin, by employing fluid bed coating technology. The presented dry emulsion manufacturing approach produces pellets in a way, where a layer of the dry emulsion is applied to a neutral core. In the preliminary formulation development phase 1-oleoyl-rac-glycerol was chosen as the oily lipid phase, based on the high drug solubility and potential bioavailability enhancement capability...
July 31, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Seung-Hyun Jeong, Ji-Hun Jang, Hea-Young Cho, Yong-Bok Lee
With the current advance in nanotechnology, the development has accelerated of a number of nanoparticle-type drugs such as nano-emulsions, lipid emulsions, liposomes, and cell therapeutics. With these developments, attempts are being made to apply these new drugs to healing many intractable diseases related to antibody production, autoimmune disorders, cancer, and organ transplantation in both clinical and nonclinical trials. Drug delivery to the lymphatic system is indispensable for treating these diseases, but the core technologies related to the in vivo distribution characteristics and lymphatic delivery evaluation of these particle-type drugs have not yet been established...
August 3, 2018: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Mouming Zhao, Ming Jiao, Feibai Zhou, Lianzhu Lin, Weizheng Sun
The study aimed at improving the antioxidant activity of β-conglycinin to enhance the oxidative and physical stabilities of safflower oil-in-water emulsion stabilized by β-conglycinin. Heating promoted binding affinity and antioxidant activity of β-conglycinin. Catechin and chlorogenic acid showed higher binding affinities towards unheated (or heated) β-conglycinin than caffeic acid and quercetin. The enhancement efficiencies of the phenolics on the antioxidant activity of unheated (or heated) β-conglycinin decreased in the order of catechin > quercetin > chlorogenic acid > caffeic acid...
December 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Derya Algul, Gulengul Duman, Samet Ozdemir, Ebru Turkoz Acar, Gulgun Yener
Encapsulation of active agents in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) is an alternative to other controlled release systems for topical delivery. In this study, caffeine was encapsulated in SLNs to produce a delivery system with controlled release. Caffeine-loaded SLNs (Caf-SLNs) were prepared using the double emulsion method with homogenization and ultrasonication. The characterization studies were performed using dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses...
May 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Science
Xi Yuan, Xiaojuan Liu, David Julian McClements, Yong Cao, Hang Xiao
Effects of lipid type in excipient emulsions on the bioaccessibility of carotenoids (lutein and β-carotene) in spinach were studied using a simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Results showed that the lipid type only had a minor impact on the physical and structural characteristics of the spinach/emulsion mixtures as they passed through simulated mouth, stomach, and small intestine phases. However, a significant effect was observed on lipid digestion, mixed micelle formation, and carotenoid bioaccessibility...
July 25, 2018: Food & Function
Nancy Abdel Hamid Abou Youssef, Abeer Ahmed Kassem, Ragwa Mohamed Farid, Fatma Ahmed Ismail, Magda Abd Elsamea El-Massik, Nabila Ahmed Boraie
This work aimed at designing efficient safe delivery system for intranasal (IN) brain targeting of the water soluble anti- migraine drug Almotriptan malate (ALM). Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were prepared by w/o/w double emulsion-solvent evaporation method. Selection of the optimized SLNs formula was based on evaluating particle size (PS), poly dispersity index (PDI) and entrapment efficiency (%EE). Optimized formula exhibited acceptable ranges; PS of 207.9 nm, PDI of 0.41 and %EE of 50.81%. Poloxamer 407 (Plx) at different concentrations (16%, 18%, 20% w/v), with different mucoadhesive polymers (Carbopol-974P, Na alginate, Na-CMC) were evaluated for gelling time and temperature, pH and mucoadhesion...
September 5, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Smriti Ojha, Babita Kumar
Purpose: The objective of this study was to synthesize and statistically optimize dimethyl fumarate (DMF) loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) for better management of multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: SLNs were formulated by hot emulsion, ultrasonication method and optimized with response surface methodology (RSM). A three factor and three level box-behnken design was used to demonstrate the role of polynomial quadratic equation and contour plots in predicting the effect of independent variables on dependent responses that were particle size and % entrapment efficiency (%EE)...
June 2018: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Fang Pan, Zongyi Li, Haoning Gong, Jordan T Petkov, Jian R Lu
Surfactants are multifunctional molecules widely used in personal care and healthcare formulations to cleanse, help disperse active ingredients (e.g., forming emulsions) and stabilise products. With increasing demands on improving biosafety, there is now mounting pressure to understand how different surfactants elicit toxicities at molecular and cellular levels. This work reports the membrane-lytic behaviour of a group of sulphonated methyl ester (SME) surfactants together with representative conventional surfactants...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Nikhil Chauhan, Vishal Khatri, Priyankana Banerjee, Ramaswamy Kalyanasundaram
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a tropical parasitic infection of human transmitted by mosquitoes. Chronic infection results in severe physical disability in the infected patients. Although several potential vaccine antigens were identified by several groups, there are no licensed prophylactic vaccine to date against this infection in the human. Previous attempts from our laboratory to develop a trivalent prophylactic vaccine against LF showed that >90% protection could be achieved in rodent models. However, this trivalent vaccine gave only 35% protection in non-human primates...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Zhan Ye, Chen Cao, Yuanfa Liu, Peirang Cao, Qiu Li
The digestion fates of different edible oils are different. The objective of this study was to understand the influences of lipid composition on their digestion fates, and investigate the roles of bile salts (BS) played in emulsified lipid system (whey protein isolate as emulsifier) in the in-vitro small intestine digestion stage. Three typical oils (palm oil (PO), rapeseed oil (RO) and linseed oil (LINO)) were chosen. Results showed that with the BS addition increased from 0.0 to 2.0 mg/mL, the increasing magnitude of the different fatty acid (FA) apparent release rate constants were: PO > RO ≈ LINO...
September 2018: Food Research International
Qiong Gong, Peng Zhu, Binhao Zhang, Chang Shu, Zeyang Ding, Jingjing Wu, Bixiang Zhang, Xiao-Ping Chen
BACKGROUND: It is reported that lipid emulsion enriched in n-3 fatty acids (FAs) helps us to improve postoperative recovery for surgical patients with biliary tract disease. Its role for postoperative patients with obstructive jaundice is as yet unclear. The object of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of n-3 fatty acid-based parenteral nutrition (PN) for patients with obstructive jaundice following surgical procedures. METHODS: Data were collected from patients with obstructive jaundice who received PN, including n-3 PUFA-enriched lipid emulsions and standard non-enriched lipid emulsions (e...
July 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Kasper M Petersen, Niklas R Jørgensen, Søren Bøgevig, Tonny S Petersen, Thomas B Jensen, Kim P Dalhoff, Mikkel B Christensen
Background Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) is used to treat drug poisonings. The resultant hyperlipemia may affect laboratory tests but the consequences are poorly characterized. In a clinical trial we therefore investigated the effects of ILE on laboratory tests analyzed on common analytical platforms (Roche® cobas 8000 and SYSMEX® flow-cytometry). Methods Ten healthy participants each completed 4 trial days (two with ILE and two with placebo). ILE (5.25 mL/kg) was administered from 12.5 to 30 min from baseline...
July 13, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
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