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Ocular blood

João Barbosa-Breda, Luis Abegão-Pinto, Karel Van Keer, Danilo A Jesus, Sophie Lemmens, Evelien Vandewalle, Amândio Rocha-Sousa, Ingeborg Stalmans
PURPOSE: Glaucoma studies have long taken into account the blood pressure (BP) status of patients. This study summarizes and evaluates the impact of the different criteria that have been used for BP-related variables in glaucoma research. METHODS: Studies included in two meta-analyses that reviewed the role of BP in glaucoma were analyzed. Additional studies published after the search periods of the meta-analyses were also included. Criteria for the definition of arterial hypertension and other BP-related variables, such as mean arterial pressure (MAP) and mean ocular perfusion pressure (MOPP), were retrieved...
October 12, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Pooja Patel, Alon Harris, Carol Toris, Leslie Tobe, Matthew Lang, Aditya Belamkar, Adrienne Ng, Alice C Verticchio Vercellin, Sunu Mathew, Brent Siesky
Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a multifactorial optic neuropathy characterized by progressive retinal ganglion cell death and visual field loss. Some speculate that gender plays a role in the risk of developing POAG and that the physiologic differences between men and women may be attributed to the variable effects of sex hormones on intraocular pressure (IOP), ocular blood flow, and/or neuroprotection. Estrogen, in the form of premenopausal status, pregnancy, and post-menopausal hormone therapy is associated with increase in ocular blood flow, decrease in IOP and neuroprotective properties...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Rosiah Muda, Valarmathy Vayavari, Deivanai Subbiah, Hamisah Ishak, Azian Adnan, Shelina Oli Mohamed
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine the clinical presentation, systemic risk factors, source of infective microorganism, treatment outcomes, and prognostic indicators of endogenous endophthalmitis at a main tertiary referral hospital for uveitis in Malaysia. A retrospective review of medical records of 120 patients (143 eyes) with endogenous endophthalmitis over a period of 9 years between January 2007 and December 2015 was undertaken. RESULTS: Identifiable systemic risk factors were present in 79...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
Marcella Nebbioso, Andrea Iannaccone, Marzia Duse, Michele Aventaggiato, Alice Bruscolini, Anna Maria Zicari
Background: Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a rare inflammatory disease involving the ocular surface, with seasonally exacerbated symptoms. Both type-1 and type-4 hypersensitivity reactions play a role in the development of VKC. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to assess the presence and evaluate the concentration of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in tear and blood samples from patients with VKC, during the acute phase, based on the histopathological vasculostromal structure of the tarsal papillae...
2018: Journal of Ophthalmology
Ekaterina Loskutova, Colm O'Brien, Igor Loskutov, James Loughman
Current treatment strategies for glaucoma are limited to halting disease progression and do not restore lost visual function. Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the main risk factor for glaucoma and IOP-lowering treatment remains the mainstay of glaucoma treatment, but even successful IOP reduction does not stop the progression of glaucoma in all patients. We review the literature to determine whether nutritional interventions intended to prevent or delay the progression of glaucoma can prove to be a valuable addition to the mainstay of glaucoma therapy...
October 5, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Sophie Kuntz, Romain Boulestreau, Sébastien Rubin, Antoine Cremer, Philippe Gosse
Hypertensive emergency. Stable incidence for several decades or even increasing (under diagnosed). Early and specific management improves prognosis. Absence of eye damage or lack of access to fundus should not delay or prevent the diagnosis. Multi Organ Damage Hypertension: new definition for an old entity: unusual, sudden and persistent blood pressure rise without threshold and ocular involvement or involvement of at least 3 target organs among brain, heart, kidney or endothelial disease.
October 4, 2018: La Presse Médicale
Lonnie G Petersen, Justin S Lawley, Alexander Lilja-Cyron, Johan Cg Petersen, Erin J Howden, Satyam Sarma, William K Cornwell, Rong Zhang, Louis A Whitworth, Michael A Williams, Marianne Juhler, Benjamin D Levine
KEY POINTS: During long-term missions, some astronauts experience structural and functional changes of the eyes and brain which resemble signs/symptoms experienced by patients with intracranial hypertension. Weightlessness prevents the normal cerebral volume and pressure "unloading" associated with upright postures on Earth, which may be part of the cerebral and ocular pathophysiology. By placing the lower body in a negative pressure device (LBNP) that pulls fluid away from cranial compartments, we simulated effects of gravity and significantly lowered pressure within the brain parenchyma and ventricle compartments...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Zorica Jović, Slobodan M Janković, Dejana Ružić Zečević, Dragan Milovanović, Srđan Stefanović, Marko Folić, Jasmina Milovanović, Marina Kostić
Second-generation triazoles were developed in response to the quest for more efficacious and safer therapeutic options for the treatment of severe systemic aspergillosis and candidiasis. These agents include voriconazole, posaconazole, isavuconazole, and ravuconazole. The aim of this review was to present and compare the pharmacokinetic characteristics of second-generation triazoles for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis and candidiasis, emphasizing their clinical implications. The MEDLINE, Scopus, EBSCO, Google Scholar, and SCIndeks databases were searched using advanced search options, including the names of second-generation triazoles and pharmacokinetic terms as keywords...
October 3, 2018: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Jonathan C Poe, Wei Jia, Julie A Di Paolo, Nancy J Reyes, Ji Yun Kim, Hsuan Su, John S Sundy, Adela R Cardones, Victor L Perez, Benny J Chen, Nelson J Chao, Diana M Cardona, Daniel R Saban, Stefanie Sarantopoulos
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). The tyrosine kinase SYK contributes to both acute and chronic GVHD development, making it an attractive target for GVHD prevention. Entospletinib (ENTO) is a second-generation highly selective SYK inhibitor with a high safety profile. Potential utility of ENTO as GVHD prophylaxis in patients was examined using a preclinical mouse model of eye and skin GVHD and ENTO-compounded chow. We found that early SYK inhibition improved blood immune cell reconstitution in GVHD mice and prolonged survival, with 60% of mice surviving to day +120 compared with 10% of mice treated with placebo...
October 4, 2018: JCI Insight
Evgenii G Belykh, Xiaochun Zhao, Claudio Cavallo, Michael A Bohl, Kaan Yagmurlu, Joseph L Aklinski, Vadim A Byvaltsev, Nader Sanai, Robert F Spetzler, Michael T Lawton, Peter Nakaji, Mark C Preul
Background We assessed a new robotic visualization platform with novel user-control features and compared its performance to the previous model of operative microscope. Methods In a neurosurgery research laboratory, we performed anatomical dissections and assessed robotic, exoscopic, endoscopic, fluorescence functionality. Usability and functionality were tested in the operating room over 1 year. Results The robotic microscope showed higher sensitivity for fluorescein sodium, higher detail in non-fluorescent background, and recorded/presented pictures with color quality similar to observation through the oculars...
July 30, 2018: Curēus
Sneha Singh, Ashok Kumar
Despite flaviviruses remaining the leading cause of systemic human infections worldwide, ocular manifestations of these mosquito-transmitted viruses are considered relatively uncommon in part due to under-reporting. However, recent outbreaks of Zika virus (ZIKV) implicated in causing multiple ocular abnormalities, such as conjunctivitis, retinal hemorrhages, chorioretinal atrophy, posterior uveitis, optic neuritis, and maculopathies, has rejuvenated a significant interest in understanding the pathogenesis of flaviviruses, including ZIKV, in the eye...
September 28, 2018: Viruses
Christopher Welsh, Sina Khalili, Lili-Naz Hazrati, Kamiar Mireskandari
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical, anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) and histopathological features of 2 infants with congenital corneal opacities (CCOs) and undiagnosed trisomy 8 mosaicism syndrome (T8mS). METHODS: This is a retrospective case report documenting ocular and systemic findings, imaging, pathology and management of 2 patients with T8mS. RESULTS: An 11-month-old white male infant and a 4-week-old Asian female were initially seen for unilateral and bilateral CCOs, respectively...
September 27, 2018: Cornea
Hyejin Jung, Shin Woo Kim, Hyun Ha Chang, Sang Ah Lee, Yoonjung Kim, Soyoon Hwang, Su Jeong Kim, Jong Myung Lee
BACKGROUND: Endogenous endophthalmitis (EE) is a fulminant ocular disease. This study was conducted to explore frequent pathogens and significant prognostic factors associated with poor ocular outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed in a tertiary hospital in Korea. Thirty-nine patients, treated between January 2000 and June 2017, were eligible for the analysis. Ocular outcomes were classified as follows: 1) no light perception (NLP), 2) light perception (LP), 3) hand motion (HM), 4) counting fingers (CF), and 5) 20/200 or better...
September 2018: Infection & Chemotherapy
Jingjiang Xu, Yuandong Li, Shaozhen Song, William Cepurna, John Morrison, Ruikang K Wang
We report the development of a 1300 nm swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system specifically designed to perform OCT imaging and optical microangiography (OMAG) in rat eyes in vivo and its use in evaluating the effects of intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation on ocular circulation. The swept laser is operated in single longitude mode with a 90 nm bandwidth centered at 1300 nm and 200 kHz A-line rate, providing remarkable sensitivity fall-off performance along the imaging depth, a larger field of view of 2...
September 26, 2018: Microvascular Research
Robert Kromer, Brendan Eck, Shafin Rahman, Carsten Framme
Introduction The evaluation of retinal vessels and the retinal blood flow is important for ocular diseases. We introduce a spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) based method for facilitating a retinal blood vessel analysis using the scattering properties of retinal vessels. The intensity of the distal shadow of vessels caused by the scattered signal is measured, correlated with the pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF), and its repeatability is analysed. Methods 20 eyes of 20 healthy, young participants (mean age 23...
September 27, 2018: Current Eye Research
Jack W Hickmott, Uvini Gunawardane, Kimberly Jensen, Andrea J Korecki, Elizabeth M Simpson
The small eye (Sey) mouse is a model of PAX6-aniridia syndrome (aniridia). Aniridia, a congenital ocular disorder caused by heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in PAX6, needs new vision saving therapies. However, high phenotypic variability in Sey mice makes development of such therapies challenging. We hypothesize that genetic background is a major source of undesirable variability in Sey mice. Here we performed a systematic quantitative examination of anatomical, histological, and molecular phenotypes on the inbred C57BL/6J, hybrid B6129F1, and inbred 129S1/SvImJ backgrounds...
September 26, 2018: Gene Therapy
Safal Khanal, Philip R K Turnbull, Ehsan Vaghefi, John R Phillips
BACKGROUND: Quantifying blood perfusion in ocular tissues is challenging, partly because the majority of the blood is carried by the choroid, which is difficult to visualize because it is located between the retina and sclera. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: To evaluate the intra- and interday repeatability of MRI measures of chorio-retinal blood perfusion. STUDY TYPE: Prospective, cross-sectional, observational study. POPULATION: Twenty young healthy adults (six male, age: 25 ± 5 years) scanned twice within a single session repeated at the same time of day on 2 days...
September 25, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Elmar Torres, Paulo H Morales, Olimpio J N V Bittar, Nacime S Mansur, Solange R Salomão, Rubens Jr Belfort
This study was performed to evaluate a healthcare strategy based on teleophthalmology for diagnosis and management of primary healthcare users. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted to review the medical records of patients from January 2013 to December 2014 from primary care units in the city of São Paulo. The units referred patients, who had diabetes or high blood pressure, and were users of chloroquine compounds, for a fundus examination. The images were sent to a reading center for review, diagnosis, and patient referrals...
2018: Medical Hypothesis, Discovery and Innovation in Ophthalmology
J González-Miguel, M A Valero, M Reguera-Gomez, C Mas-Bargues, M D Bargues, F Simón, S Mas-Coma
Human fascioliasis is a worldwide, pathogenic food-borne trematodiasis. Impressive clinical pictures comprising puzzling polymorphisms, manifestation multifocality, disease evolution changes, sequelae and mortality, have been reported in patients presenting with neurological, meningeal, neuropsychic and ocular disorders caused at distance by flukes infecting the liver. Proteomic and mass spectrometry analyses of the Fasciola hepatica excretome/secretome identified numerous, several new, plasminogen-binding proteins enhancing plasmin generation...
September 24, 2018: Parasitology
Kelly E Knickelbein, Mary E Lassaline, Rebecca R Bellone
OBJECTIVE: To document a case of limbal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in a Rocky Mountain Horse stallion determined to be homozygous for the genetic risk factor (DDB2 c.1013C>T) strongly associated with the disease in Haflinger and Belgian horses, and to determine the frequency of this allele in a larger population of Rocky Mountain Horses. ANIMALS STUDIED: One privately owned Rocky Mountain Horse and 84 Rocky Mountain Horses screened for allelic frequency. PROCEDURES: A complete ophthalmic examination was performed on a Rocky Mountain Horse stallion for assessment of a mass affecting the right eye...
September 20, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
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