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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429116/dutch-national-immunization-schedule-compliance-and-associated-characteristics-for-the-primary-series
#1
Elsemieke D Scheepers, Alies van Lier, Ingrid H Drijfhout, Guy Berbers, Nicoline A T van der Maas, Hester E de Melker, Mirjam J Knol
In the Netherlands, the recommended priming immunization schedule for diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and polio (DTaP-IPV) is at 2, 3 and 4 months of age. We evaluated the compliance with the recommended schedule, as well as its characteristics. We included all infants born between 2007 and 2012 who received minimally one DTaP-IPV vaccination (n = 1,061,578). Infants complied with the schedule if they received the first vaccination between 6 and 9 weeks of age, and the second and third vaccination 2-6 weeks after the first and second vaccination...
April 20, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428831/cord-blood-hematopoietic-cells-from-preterm-infants-display-altered-dna-methylation-patterns
#2
Olivia M de Goede, Pascal M Lavoie, Wendy P Robinson
BACKGROUND: Premature infants are highly vulnerable to infection. This is partly attributable to the preterm immune system, which differs from that of the term neonate in cell composition and function. Multiple studies have found differential DNA methylation (DNAm) between preterm and term infants' cord blood; however, interpretation of these studies is limited by the confounding factor of blood cell composition. This study evaluates the epigenetic impact of preterm birth in isolated hematopoietic cell populations, reducing the concern of cell composition differences...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428252/low-frequency-blood-pressure-oscillations-and-inotrope-treatment-failure-in-premature-infants
#3
Zachary Andrew Vesoulis, Jessica Hao, Christopher McPherson, Nathalie El Ters, Amit M Mathur
BACKGROUND: The underlying mechanism as to why some hypotensive preterm infants do not respond to inotropic medications remains unclear. For these infants, we hypothesize that impaired vasomotor function is a significant factor and is manifested through a decrease in low-frequency blood pressure variability across regulatory components of vascular tone. METHODS: Infants born 28 weeks estimated gestational age underwent prospective recording of mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) for 72h after birth...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426651/association-of-candidate-gene-polymorphisms-with-clinical-subtypes-of-preterm-birth-in-a-latin-american-population
#4
Lucas G Gimenez, Allison M Momany, Fernando A Poletta, Hugo B Krupitzki, Juan A Gili, Tamara D Busch, Cesar Saleme, Viviana R Cosentino, Mariela S Pawluk, Hebe Campaña, Enrique C Gadow, Jeffrey C Murray, Jorge S Lopez-Camelo
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth (PTB) is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. PTB is often classified according to clinical presentation: Idiopathic (PTB-I), preterm premature rupture of membranes (PTB-PPROM), and medically induced (PTB-M). The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between specific candidate genes and clinical subtypes of PTB. METHODS: 24 SNPs were genotyped in 18 candidate genes in 709 infant triads. Of them, 243 were PTB-I, 256 PTB-PPROM, and 210 PTB-M...
April 20, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426649/the-importance-of-appropriate-initial-bacterial-colonization-of-the-intestine-in-newborn-child-and-adult-health
#5
REVIEW
W Allan Walker
The fetus does not reside in a sterile intrauterine environment and is exposed to commensal bacteria from the maternal gut/blood stream which crosses the placenta and enters the amniotic fluid. This intestinal exposure to colonizing bacteria continues at birth and during the first year of life and has a profound influence on lifelong health. Why is this important? Intestinal crosstalk with colonizing bacteria in the developing intestine affects the infant's adaptation to extrauterine life (immune homeostasis) and provides protection against disease expression (allergy, autoimmune disease, obesity, etc...
April 20, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425256/predictive-values-of-plasma-kl-6-in-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-in-preterm-infants
#6
Dilek Dilli, Ahmet Özyazici, Arzu Dursun, Serdar Beken
BACKGROUND/AIM: It has been suggested that plasma KL-6 increases in premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). We aimed to evaluate the predictive values of KL-6 in BPD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was performed in preterm neonates with birthweight ≤1500 g and gestational age ≤32 weeks. Plasma KL-6 levels were measured on postnatal days 1, 7, and 14. RESULTS: BPD was identified in eight of the 28 study infants. On postnatal days 1 and 7, plasma KL-6 levels were similar in infants with BPD [on day 1: 8...
April 18, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425254/wheezing-asthma-and-atopy-in-premature-infants-at-2-years-of-age
#7
Sevim Ünal, Ayşenur Kaya, Leyla Bilgin, Emine Misirlioğlu, Can Naci Kocabaş
BACKGROUND/AIM: We aimed to evaluate wheezing, bronchial asthma (BA), and atopy in premature infants at 2 years of age via a cross-sectional study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Premature infants at <37 weeks of gestational age (GA) were assessed for atopy by skin-prick test and serum immunoglobulin E level at 2 years of age. The family's and infant's histories of allergy, BA, atopy, and wheezing were obtained by questionnaire and from hospital records. RESULTS: There were 98 infants, with mean birth weight (BW) 1517...
April 18, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425202/examining-solutions-to-missing-data-in-longitudinal-nursing-research
#8
Mary B Roberts, Mary C Sullivan, Suzy B Winchester
PURPOSE: Longitudinal studies are highly valuable in pediatrics because they provide useful data about developmental patterns of child health and behavior over time. When data are missing, the value of the research is impacted. The study's purpose was to (1) introduce a three-step approach to assess and address missing data and (2) illustrate this approach using categorical and continuous-level variables from a longitudinal study of premature infants. METHODS: A three-step approach with simulations was followed to assess the amount and pattern of missing data and to determine the most appropriate imputation method for the missing data...
April 2017: Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing: JSPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424764/diffusion-tensor-imaging-colour-mapping-threshold-for-identification-of-ventilation-induced-brain-injury-after-intrauterine-inflammation-in-preterm-lambs
#9
Dhafer M Alahmari, Beatrice Skiöld, Samantha K Barton, Ilias Nitsos, Courtney McDonald, Suzanne L Miller, Valerie Zahra, Robert Galinsky, Qizhu Wu, Michael John Farrell, Timothy J Moss, Stuart B Hooper, James T Pearson, Graeme R Polglase
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to examine whether advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques can detect early brain injury caused by intrauterine inflammation and inappropriate initial respiratory support in preterm lambs. HYPOTHESIS: Neuropathology caused by intrauterine inflammation is exacerbated by mechanical ventilation at birth and is detectable with advanced MRI techniques. METHODS: Pregnant ewes received intra-amniotic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 7 days prior to delivery at ~125 days of gestation (85% of gestation), whereupon lambs were delivered and randomised to receive an injurious (LPS + INJ, n = 6) or protective (LPS + PROT, n = 6) ventilation strategy...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424255/analysis-of-milk-from-mothers-who-delivered-prematurely-reveals-few-changes-in-proteases-and-protease-inhibitors-across-gestational-age-at-birth-and-infant-postnatal-age
#10
Veronique Demers-Mathieu, Søren Drud Nielsen, Mark A Underwood, Robyn Borghese, David C Dallas
Background: Peptidomics research has demonstrated that protease activity is higher in breast milk from preterm-delivering mothers than from term-delivering mothers. However, to our knowledge, the effect of the degree of prematurity and postnatal age on proteases and protease inhibitors in human milk remains unknown.Objective: We aimed to determine the change of proteases and protease inhibitors in milk from mothers who delivered prematurely across gestational age (GA) and postnatal age.Methods: Milk samples were collected from 18 mothers aged 26-40 y who delivered preterm infants and who lacked mastitis...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423192/systematic-review-of-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-palivizumab-among-infants-and-young-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#11
Kok Pim Kua, Shaun Wen Huey Lee
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common pathogen in infants with cystic fibrosis (CF). The use of palivizumab prophylaxis for RSV infection as the standard of care for infants with CF remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of palivizumab in reducing the incidence of RSV hospitalization in children with CF who are younger than 2 years of age. METHODS: Four electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and CENTRAL) were searched from inception until January 31, 2017 for clinical studies investigating the use of palivizumab in infants with CF aged less than 2 years...
April 19, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422941/metabolism-related-micrornas-in-maternal-breast-milk-are-influenced-by-premature-delivery
#12
Molly C Carney, Andrij Tarasiuk, Susan L DiAngelo, Patricia Silveyra, Abigail Podany, Leann L Birch, Ian M Paul, Shannon Kelleher, Steven D Hicks
BACKGROUND: Maternal breast milk (MBM) is enriched in microRNAs, factors that regulate protein translation throughout the human body. MBM from mothers of term and preterm infants differ in nutrient, hormone, and bioactive-factor composition, but the microRNA differences between these groups have not been compared. We hypothesized that gestational age at delivery influences microRNA in MBM, particularly microRNAs involved in immunologic and metabolic regulation. METHODS: MBM from mothers of premature infants (pMBM) obtained 3-4 weeks post-delivery was compared with MBM from mothers of term infants obtained at birth (tColostrum) and 3-4 weeks post-delivery (tMBM)...
April 19, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422440/blood-parameters-of-preterm-neonates-postnatal-evolution-according-to-gestational-age
#13
P Roudil, C Vasselon, B Trombert-Paviot, C Berger, H Patural
INTRODUCTION: The blood count provides qualitative and quantitative essential information on bloodlines. Reference hematologic parameters have been established in children and neonates, but few data are available regarding the premature population during the first month of life. The main objective of this study was to establish normative values for blood parameters for premature infants born between 26 and <37 weeks of gestation, during the first month of life, taking into account gestational and postnatal age and treatments that can impact the threshold values...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421173/cerebral-autoregulation-brain-injury-and-the-transitioning-premature-infant
#14
REVIEW
Zachary A Vesoulis, Amit M Mathur
Improvements in clinical management of the preterm infant have reduced the rates of the two most common forms of brain injury, such as severe intraventricular hemorrhage and white matter injury, both of which are contributory factors in the development of cerebral palsy. Nonetheless, they remain a persistent challenge and are associated with a significant increase in the risk of adverse neurodevelopment outcomes. Repeated episodes of ischemia-reperfusion represent a common pathway for both forms of injury, arising from discordance between systemic blood flow and the innate regulation of cerebral blood flow in the germinal matrix and periventricular white matter...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420777/retinopathy-of-prematurity
#15
Alice L Bashinsky
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a vasoproliferative retinal disorder unique to premature infants. As premature births increase in many areas of the world, ROP has become a leading cause of childhood blindness. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of ROP, adherence to strict screening guidelines, and evolution of treatment options have reduced the number of sight-threatening complications from ROP.
March 2017: North Carolina Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420694/caffeine-preferentially-protects-against-oxygen-induced-retinopathy
#16
Shuya Zhang, Rong Zhou, Bo Li, Haiyan Li, Yanyan Wang, Xuejiao Gu, Lingyun Tang, Cun Wang, Dingjuan Zhong, Yuanyuan Ge, Yuqing Huo, Jing Lin, Xiao-Ling Liu, Jiang-Fan Chen
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is the leading cause of childhood blindness, but current anti-VEGF therapy is concerned with delayed retinal vasculature, eye, and brain development of preterm infants. The clinical observation of reduced ROP severity in premature infants after caffeine treatment for apnea suggests that caffeine may protect against ROP. Here, we demonstrate that caffeine did not interfere with normal retinal vascularization development but selectively protected against oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) in mice...
April 18, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420365/social-determinants-of-antibiotic-misuse-a-qualitative-study-of-community-members-in-haryana-india
#17
Anna K Barker, Kelli Brown, Muneeb Ahsan, Sharmila Sengupta, Nasia Safdar
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is a global public health crisis. In India alone, multi-drug resistant organisms are responsible for over 58,000 infant deaths each year. A major driver of drug resistance is antibiotic misuse, which is a pervasive phenomenon worldwide. Due to a shortage of trained doctors, access to licensed allopathic doctors is limited in India's villages. Pharmacists and unlicensed medical providers are commonly the primary sources of healthcare. Patients themselves are also key participants in the decision to treat an illness with antibiotics...
April 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420272/resveratrol-suppresses-hyperoxia-induced-nucleocytoplasmic-shuttling-of-sirt1-and-ros-production-in-pbmc-from-preterm-infants-in-vitro
#18
Xi Yang, Wen-Bin Dong, Xiao-Ping Lei, Qing-Ping Li, Lian-Yu Zhang, Ling-Ping Zhang
OBJECTIVE: By assessing silent mating-type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), this study aimed to explore the role of SIRT1 in premature infants after exposure to hyperoxia and assess the protective effects of resveratrol (Res). METHODS: Firstly, ROS levels as well as SIRT1 translocation and expression in PBMCs samples were evaluated from 40 premature infants with different oxygen amounts received at birth...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419544/adults-born-preterm-a-review-of-general-health-and-system-specific-outcomes
#19
REVIEW
Tonse N K Raju, Sonia Buist, Carol J Blaisdell, Marva Moxey-Mims, Saroj Saigal
In this review of 126 publications, we report that an overwhelming majority of adults born at preterm gestations remain healthy and well. However, a small, but a significant fraction of them remain at higher risk for neurological, personality and behavioral abnormalities, cardio-pulmonary functional limitations, systemic hypertension, and metabolic syndrome compared to their term-born counterparts. The magnitude of increased risk differed across organ systems, and varied across reports. The risks were proportional to the degree of prematurity at birth and seemed to occur more frequently among preterm infants born in the final two decades of the 20(th) century and later...
April 17, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419427/how-i-manage-children-with-neutropenia
#20
REVIEW
David C Dale
Neutropenia, usually defined as a blood neutrophil count <1·5 × 10(9) /l, is a common medical problem for children and adults. There are many causes for neutropenia, and at each stage in life the clinical pattern of causes and consequences differs significantly. I recommend utilizing the age of the child and clinical observations for the preliminary diagnosis and primary management. In premature infants, neutropenia is quite common and contributes to the risk of sepsis with necrotizing enterocolitis...
April 17, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
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