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Premature infants

Darius M Moshfeghi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights the common areas of medicolegal risk during retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening. RECENT FINDINGS: Most malpractice risk in ROP comes from systemic errors that ultimately result in failure to screen the patient in a timely fashion, resulting in failures to intervene and/or refer in a timely fashion. Currently, the emphasis is engaging the family members, the hospital staff, and clinic staff to pro-actively manage ROP patients and ensure that they are screened in a timely fashion...
March 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Raquel González, Clara Pons-Duran, Mireia Piqueras, John J Aponte, Feiko O Ter Kuile, Clara Menéndez
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for malaria for all women who live in moderate to high malaria transmission areas in Africa. However, parasite resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine has been increasing steadily in some areas of the region. Moreover, HIV-infected women on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis cannot receive sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine because of potential drug interactions. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify alternative drugs for prevention of malaria in pregnancy...
March 21, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ajay P Anvekar, Piyush S Shah, Elizabeth A Nathan, Dorota A Doherty, Sanjay K Patole, Karen N Simmer
OBJECTIVE: To assess if high frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) is associated with reduced odds of death or discharge home on oxygen in preterm infants. METHODS: A case control study (1 February 2010 - 1 June 2014) comparing the primary outcome as "death or discharge home on oxygen" in preterm infants who needed HFJV (Cases) versus those who did not (Controls). Controls were matched to cases (1:1) on gestation, birthweight, gender, place of birth, growth status, antenatal glucocorticoids, and dexamethasone as treatment for severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD)...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
John R Weinstein, Lisa M Thompson, Anaité Díaz Artiga, Joe P Bryan, William E Arriaga, Saad B Omer, John P McCracken
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is the leading cause of death among children <5 years of age. Accurate determination of prematurity is necessary to provide appropriate neonatal care and guide preventive measures. To estimate the most accurate method to identify infants at risk for adverse outcomes, we assessed the validity of two widely available methods-last menstrual period (LMP) and the New Ballard (NB) neonatal assessment-against ultrasound in determining gestational age and preterm birth in highland Guatemala...
2018: PloS One
Alhassane Diallo, Heike Jacobi, Arron Cook, Robyn Labrum, Alexandra Durr, Alexis Brice, Perrine Charles, Cecilia Marelli, Caterina Mariotti, Lorenzo Nanetti, Marta Panzeri, Maria Rakowicz, Anna Sobanska, Anna Sulek, Tanja Schmitz-Hübsch, Ludger Schöls, Holger Hengel, Bela Melegh, Alessandro Filla, Antonella Antenora, Jon Infante, José Berciano, Bart P van de Warrenburg, Dagmar Timmann, Sylvia Boesch, Massimo Pandolfo, Jörg B Schulz, Peter Bauer, Paola Giunti, Jun-Suk Kang, Thomas Klockgether, Sophie Tezenas du Montcel
BACKGROUND: Spinocerebellar ataxias are dominantly inherited progressive ataxia disorders that can lead to premature death. We aimed to study the overall survival of patients with the most common spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, and SCA6) and to identify the strongest contributing predictors that affect survival. METHODS: In this longitudinal cohort study (EUROSCA), we enrolled men and women, aged 18 years or older, from 17 ataxia referral centres in ten European countries; participants had positive genetic test results for SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, or SCA6 and progressive, otherwise unexplained, ataxias...
April 2018: Lancet Neurology
Filiz Mine Çizmecioğlu, Jeremy Huw Jones, Wendy Forsyth Paterson, Sakina Kherra, Mariam Kourime, Ruth McGowan, M Guftar Shaikh, Malcolm Donaldson
OBJECTIVE: Early diagnosis is of proven benefit in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). We therefore examined key perinatal features to aid early recognition. METHODS: Data were collected from case records of subjects attending a multi-disciplinary clinic and from a retrospective birth questionnaire. RESULTS: Ninety patients (54 male: 36 female) were seen between 1991-2015, most with paternal deletion (n=56) or maternal isodisomy (n=26). Features included cryptorchidism in 94% males, preterm birth (26%), birthweight <2500g (24%), polyhydramnios (23%), breech presentation (23%) and need for nasogastric feeding (83%)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Sophie J E Cramer, Janneke Dekker, Jenny Dankelman, Steffen C Pauws, Stuart B Hooper, Arjan B Te Pas
Apnea of prematurity (AOP) is one of the most common diagnoses in preterm infants. Severe and recurrent apneas are associated with cerebral injury and adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. Despite pharmacotherapy and respiratory support to prevent apneas, a proportion of infants continue to have apneas and often need tactile stimulation, mask, and bag ventilation and/or extra oxygen. The duration of the apnea and the concomitant hypoxia and bradycardia depends on the response time of the nurse. We systematically reviewed the literature with the aim of providing an overview of what is known about the effect of manual and mechanical tactile stimulation on AOP...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Anna Clara F Vieira, Cláudia M Alves, Vandilson P Rodrigues, Cecília C Ribeiro, Isaac S Gomes-Filho, Fernanda F Lopes
BACKGROUND: The rates of preterm births have been increasing worldwide. Complications related to preterm births are associated with increased costs of care, and have a direct impact on the health system of the countries. Therefore, it is important to address factors associated with preterm birth in order to provide prevention strategies. OBJECTIVE: This case-control study investigated oral, systemic, and socioeconomic factors associated with preterm birth in postpartum women...
March 15, 2018: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
M Kotowski, Z Litwinska, P Klos, E Pius-Sadowska, E Zagrodnik-Ulan, P Ustianowski, J Rudnicki, B Machalinski
Umbilical cord blood (UCB), rich in stem/progenitor cells, is partially eliminated from the bloodstream during childbirth because the cord is immediately clamped. We hypothesize that transfusion of autologous UCB to premature infants after delivery could serve as an adjuvant modality for preventing the development of prematurity-related complications. We randomly enrolled 20 preterm infants born before 32 weeks of gestational age (GA), all of whom developed anemia, necessitating transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs)...
December 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Katie A Hunt, Yosuke Yamada, Vadivelam Murthy, Prashanth Srihari Bhat, Morag Campbell, Grenville F Fox, Anthony D Milner, Anne Greenough
OBJECTIVES: End tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2 ) monitoring can facilitate identification of successful intubation. The aims of this study were to determine the time to detect ETCO2 following intubation during resuscitation of infants born prematurely and whether it differed according to maturity at birth or the Apgar scores (as a measure of the infant's condition after birth). DESIGN: Analysis of recordings of respiratory function monitoring. SETTING: Two tertiary perinatal centres...
March 17, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
J Edy Siswanto, Nani H Widodo, Pieter J J Sauer
BACKGROUND: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a well-known complication in preterm infants. Data on the incidence of ROP in Indonesia, in relation to birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA), are limited. OBJECTIVE: To report the incidence of ROP in one of the oldest and largest neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Indonesia. METHODS: We studied the incidence and severity of ROP in inborn infants with a BW of ≤1500 g and/or GA of ≤32 weeks, who were admitted to the NICU of Harapan Kita Women and Children Hospital, Jakarta...
March 17, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Il Hwan Byun, Jong Won Hong, Mohammed Ahmed Hussein, Yong Oock Kim
PURPOSE: Craniosynostosis (CRS) is a congenital condition resulting premature fusion of one or more cranial sutures. CRS is classified according to the involved sutures into sagittal, metopic, unicoronal, unilambdoid, bicoronal, and multiple-suture CRS, with sagittal suture fusion known to be the most common type. Although multiple studies have presented demographic characteristics of CRS patients, to date, there is no study representing an Asian population. We sought to compare the demographic characteristics of Asian patients to those of Western patients, considering previous reports...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Tina Tian, Joshua Coons, Hong Chang, Walter J Chwals
BACKGROUND: Injury severity induces a proportionate acute metabolic stress response, associated with increased risk of hyperglycemia. We hypothesized that excess caloric delivery (overfeeding) during high stress states would increase hyperglycemia and disrupt response homeostasis. METHODS: Gestational age, daily weight, total daily caloric intake, serum C-reactive protein (CRP), prealbumin, and blood glucose concentrations in all acutely-injured premature NICU infants requiring TPN over the past 3years were reviewed...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Charmaine M Teo, Woei Bing Poon, Selina Ky Ho
INTRODUCTION: Neonatal care advances have resulted in improved survival but have raised concerns of increase in neurodevelopmental impairment. This study looked at long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes at ages 5 and 8 years of very low birthweight infants born in the 2000s as compared to the 1990s. Neurodevelopmental assessment at 2 years old was compared to that at 5 and 8 years to determine if assessment at 2 years was predictive of later outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of consecutive infants with birthweight less than 1250 grams admitted to a tertiary centre in Singapore between January 1994 to December 1995 (Epoch I) and January 2004 to December 2005 (Epoch II) were included...
February 2018: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
Nathaly M Sweeney, Shareef A Nahas, Shimul Chowdhury, Miguel Del Campo, Marilyn C Jones, David P Dimmock, Stephen F Kingsmore, Rcigm Investigators
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) results from incomplete formation of the diaphragm leading to herniation of abdominal organs into the thoracic cavity. CDH is associated with pulmonary hypoplasia, congenital heart disease and pulmonary hypertension. Genetically, it is associated with aneuploidies, chromosomal copy number variants, and single gene mutations. CDH is the most expensive non-cardiac congenital defect: Management frequently requires implementation of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO), which increases management expenditures 2...
March 16, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
David Morrison, James Shaffer, Gui-Shuang Ying, Gil Binenbaum
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of treatment-related ocular complications and disease progression following treatment for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of eyes treated for ROP at 30 North American neonatal intensive care units in the Postnatal Growth and ROP (G-ROP) Study. Data from the time of treatment through 15 months were abstracted from medical records by certified data collectors. Treatment-related complication (cataract, hyphema, glaucoma, corneal abrasion/opacity), and disease-progression (retinal fold, dragging, or stage 4 or 5 detachment) were calculated by treatment modality...
March 13, 2018: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Anne K Jensen, Gui-Shuang Ying, Jiayan Huang, Graham E Quinn, Gil Binenbaum
BACKGROUND: An association between thrombocytopenia and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) has been suggested but not been studied longitudinally. We sought to identify the time period in postnatal development during which thrombocytopenia and the subsequent development of severe ROP are associated. METHODS: This was a retrospective case-control study of 100 subjects who received laser photocoagulation for type 1 ROP between 2005 and 2009 and 100 controls with no ROP or only stage 1 ROP...
March 13, 2018: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Krystin A Engelhardt, Elizabeth Hisle-Gorman, Gregory H Gorman, Nicole R Dobson
Background: The Military Health System (MHS) provides universal access to medical care to active duty service members, retirees, and their dependents. Observational data from small studies suggest lower preterm birth rates in the MHS compared with U.S. national averages. The objectives of this study are to determine the rate of preterm birth in the MHS from 2006 to 2012 compared with national rates and to analyze the impact of demographic factors on preterm birth in a universal access health care system...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Mariann H Bentsen, Trond Markestad, Thomas Halvorsen
Early prediction of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) may facilitate tailored management for neonates at risk. We investigated whether easily accessible flow data from a mechanical ventilator can predict BPD in neonates born extremely premature (EP). In a prospective population-based study of EP-born neonates, flow data were obtained from the ventilator during the first 48 h of life. Data were logged for >10 min and then converted to flow-volume loops using custom-made software. Tidal breathing parameters were calculated and averaged from ≥200 breath cycles, and data were compared between those who later developed moderate/severe and no/mild BPD...
January 2018: ERJ Open Research
Arantza Infante, Clara I Rodríguez
Aging is a complex biological process, which involves multiple mechanisms with different levels of regulation. Senescent cells are known to secrete senescence-associated proteins, which exert negative influences on surrounding cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), the common progenitors for bone, cartilage and adipose tissue (which are especially affected tissues in aging), are known to secrete a broad spectrum of biologically active proteins with both paracrine and autocrine functions in many biological processes...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
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