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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938747/prevalence-of-endocrine-and-genetic-abnormalities-in-boys-evaluated-systematically-for-a-disorder-of-sex-development
#1
R Nixon, V Cerqueira, A Kyriakou, A Lucas-Herald, J McNeilly, M McMillan, A I Purvis, E S Tobias, R McGowan, S F Ahmed
STUDY QUESTION: What is the likelihood of identifying genetic or endocrine abnormalities in a group of boys with 46, XY who present to a specialist clinic with a suspected disorder of sex development (DSD)? SUMMARY ANSWER: An endocrine abnormality of the gonadal axis may be present in a quarter of cases and copy number variants (CNVs) or single gene variants may be present in about half of the cases. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Evaluation of 46, XY DSD requires a combination of endocrine and genetic tests but the prevalence of these abnormalities in a sufficiently large group of boys presenting to one specialist multidisciplinary service is unclear...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938250/listening-effort-how-the-cognitive-consequences-of-acoustic-challenge-are-reflected-in-brain-and-behavior
#2
Jonathan E Peelle
Everyday conversation frequently includes challenges to the clarity of the acoustic speech signal, including hearing impairment, background noise, and foreign accents. Although an obvious problem is the increased risk of making word identification errors, extracting meaning from a degraded acoustic signal is also cognitively demanding, which contributes to increased listening effort. The concepts of cognitive demand and listening effort are critical in understanding the challenges listeners face in comprehension, which are not fully predicted by audiometric measures...
September 21, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937982/protein-complex-prediction-via-dense-subgraphs-and-false-positive-analysis
#3
Cecilia Hernandez, Carlos Mella, Gonzalo Navarro, Alvaro Olivera-Nappa, Jaime Araya
Many proteins work together with others in groups called complexes in order to achieve a specific function. Discovering protein complexes is important for understanding biological processes and predict protein functions in living organisms. Large-scale and throughput techniques have made possible to compile protein-protein interaction networks (PPI networks), which have been used in several computational approaches for detecting protein complexes. Those predictions might guide future biologic experimental research...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937045/carotid-atherosclerosis-and-cognitive-impairment-in-nonstroke-patients
#4
REVIEW
Wei-Hong Chen, Wei Jin, Pei-Yuan Lyu, Yang Liu, Rui Li, Ming Hu, Xiang-Jian Xiao
OBJECTIVE: As a vascular risk factor, carotid atherosclerosis is crucial to cognitive impairment. While carotid intima-media thickness, carotid artery plaque, and carotid stenosis can reflect carotid atherosclerosis in different stages, this review aimed to explore researches on the role of carotid intima-media thickness, carotid artery plaque, and carotid stenosis in the progress of cognitive impairment in nonstroke patients and tried to illustrate the possible mechanisms. DATA SOURCES: We searched the PubMed database for recently published research articles up to July 2017, with the key words of "carotid atherosclerosis," "carotid intima-media thickness," "carotid plaque," "carotid stenosis," "nonstroke," and "cognitive impairment...
October 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937032/development-and-standardization-of-a-new-cognitive-assessment-test-battery-for-chinese-aphasic-patients-a-preliminary-study
#5
Ji-Bao Wu, Zhi-Hong Lyu, Xiao-Jia Liu, Hai-Peng Li, Qi Wang
BACKGROUND: Nonlinguistic cognitive impairment has become an important issue for aphasic patients, but currently there are few neuropsychological cognitive assessment tests for it. To get more information on cognitive impairment of aphasic patients, this study aimed to develop a new cognitive assessment test battery for aphasic patients, the Non-language-based Cognitive Assessment (NLCA), and evaluate its utility in Chinese-speaking patients with aphasia. METHODS: The NLCA consists of five nonverbal tests, which could assess five nonlinguistic cognitive domains such as visuospatial functions, attention test, memory, reasoning, and executive functions of aphasic patients...
October 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936707/immunoglobulin-genotypes-and-cognitive-functions-in-schizophrenia
#6
Janardan P Pandey, Aryan M Namboodiri, Paul J Nietert, Reiji Yoshimura, Hikaru Hori
Exposure to neurotropic viruses, such as herpes simplex virus type 1 and human cytomegalovirus, has been reported to be associated with cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. These viruses have evolved highly sophisticated strategies for decreasing the efficacy of the host immune response and interfering with viral clearance. Particular immunoglobulin GM (γ marker) genotypes modulate these viral immunoevasion strategies, influence antibody responsiveness to viral proteins, and are also associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia, providing an excellent rationale for determining their possible involvement in the cognitive functions in this highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder...
September 22, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936159/neural-coding-for-action-execution-and-action-observation-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-its-role-in-the-organization-of-socially-driven-behavior
#7
REVIEW
Stefano Rozzi, Leonardo Fogassi
The lateral prefrontal cortex (LPF) plays a fundamental role in planning, organizing, and optimizing behavioral performance. Neuroanatomical and neurophysiological studies have suggested that in this cortical sector, information processing becomes more abstract when moving from caudal to rostral and that such processing involves parietal and premotor areas. We review studies that have shown that the LPF, in addition to its involvement in implementing rules and setting behavioral goals, activates during the execution of forelimb movements even in the absence of a learned relationship between an instruction and its associated motor output...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934605/individual-differences-in-switching-and-inhibition-predict-perspective-taking-across-the-lifespan
#8
Madeleine R Long, William S Horton, Hannah Rohde, Antonella Sorace
Studies exploring the influence of executive functions (EF) on perspective-taking have focused on inhibition and working memory in young adults or clinical populations. Less consideration has been given to more complex capacities that also involve switching attention between perspectives, or to changes in EF and concomitant effects on perspective-taking across the lifespan. To address this, we assessed whether individual differences in inhibition and attentional switching in healthy adults (ages 17-84) predict performance on a task in which speakers identified targets for a listener with size-contrasting competitors in common or privileged ground...
September 18, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934359/microsaccades-during-reading
#9
Norick R Bowers, Martina Poletti
Recent research has shown that microsaccades contribute to high acuity vision. However, little is known about whether microsaccades also play a role in daily activities, such as reading, that do not involve stimuli at the limit of spatial resolution. While the functions of larger saccades in reading have been extensively examined, microsaccades are commonly regarded as oculomotor noise in this context. We used high-resolution eyetracking and precise gaze localization to investigate fine oculomotor behavior during reading...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934108/markers-of-microbial-translocation-and-immune-activation-predict-cognitive-processing-speed-in-heavy-drinking-men-living-with-hiv
#10
Mollie A Monnig, Christopher W Kahler, Patricia A Cioe, Peter M Monti, Kenneth H Mayer, David W Pantalone, Ronald A Cohen, Bharat Ramratnam
HIV infection and alcohol use disorder are associated with deficits in neurocognitive function. Emerging evidence points to pro-inflammatory perturbations of the gut-brain axis as potentially contributing to neurocognitive impairment in the context of HIV and chronic heavy alcohol use. This study examined whether plasma markers of microbial translocation (LPS) from the gastrointestinal tract and related immune activation (sCD14, EndoCAb) were associated with neurocognition in 21 men living with HIV who were virally suppressed on antiretroviral therapy...
September 21, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933904/sequential-whole-report-accesses-different-states-in-visual-working-memory
#11
Benjamin Peters, Benjamin Rahm, Stefan Czoschke, Catherine Barnes, Jochen Kaiser, Christoph Bledowski
Working memory (WM) enables a rapid access to a limited number of items that are no longer physically present. WM studies usually involve the encoding and retention of multiple items, while probing a single item only. Hence, little is known about how well multiple items can be reported from WM. Here we asked participants to successively report each of up to 8 encoded Gabor patches from WM. Recall order was externally cued, and stimulus orientations had to be reproduced on a continuous dimension. Participants were able to sequentially report items from WM with an above-chance precision even at high set sizes...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933882/maternal-depressive-symptoms-mother-child-interactions-and-children-s-executive-function
#12
Noa Gueron-Sela, Marie Camerota, Michael T Willoughby, Lynne Vernon-Feagans, Martha J Cox
This study examined the independent and mediated associations between maternal depression symptoms (MDS), mother-child interaction, and child executive function (EF) in a prospective longitudinal sample of 1,037 children (50% boys) from predominantly low-income and rural communities. When children were 6, 15 and 24 months of age, mothers reported their level of depressive symptomatology. At 24 and 36 months of age, mother-child interactions during play were rated for warmth-sensitivity and harsh-intrusiveness, and dyadic joint attention and maternal language complexity were assessed from a book sharing activity...
September 21, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933607/a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-web-based-multi-modal-therapy-program-to-improve-executive-functioning-in-children-and-adolescents-with-acquired-brain-injury
#13
Adina Piovesana, Stephanie Ross, Owen Lloyd, Koa Whittingham, Jenny Ziviani, Robert S Ware, Lynne McKinlay, Roslyn N Boyd
OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy of a multi-modal web-based therapy program, Move it to improve it (Mitii™) delivered at home to improve Executive Functioning (EF) in children with an acquired brain injury (ABI). DESIGN: Randomised Waitlist controlled trial. SETTING: Home environment. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty children with an ABI were matched in pairs by age and intelligence quotient then randomised to either 20-weeks of Mitii™ training or 20 weeks of Care As Usual (waitlist control; n=30; 17 males; mean age=11y, 11m (±2y, 6m); Full Scale IQ=76...
October 2017: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933261/pharmacological-treatment-of-cognitive-symptoms-in-major-depressive-disorder
#14
Zihang Pan, Radu C Grovu, Danielle S Cha, Nicole E Carmona, Mehala Subramaniapillai, Margarita Shekotikhina, Carola Rong, Yena Lee, Roger S McIntyre
: Background: Cognitive dysfunction is a core transdiagnostic domain of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and is a principal determinant of functional recovery. However, it has been insufficiently targeted within the current therapeutic framework for MDD. OBJECTIVE: To highlight these unmet cognitive needs in MDD. METHODS: An article search was conducted using PubMed from inception to November 2016: Major Depressive Disorder (and/or variant) was cross-referenced with the following terms: antidepressants, augmentation, cognition, cognitive deficits, cognitive dysfunction, functional outcomes, mechanism of action, and treatment...
September 18, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933064/the-influence-of-adipose-tissue-on-brain-development-cognition-and-risk-of-neurodegenerative-disorders
#15
Liliana Letra, Isabel Santana
The brain is a highly metabolic organ and thus especially vulnerable to changes in peripheral metabolism, including those induced by obesity-associated adipose tissue dysfunction. In this context, it is likely that the development and maturation of neurocognitive circuits may also be affected and modulated by metabolic environmental factors, beginning in utero. It is currently recognized that maternal obesity, either pre-gestational or gestational, negatively influences fetal brain development and elevates the risk of cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric disorders in the offspring...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932777/dataset-on-the-associations-between-sleep-quality-duration-and-cognitive-performance-in-cognitively-healthy-older-adults
#16
A Tsapanou, Y Gu, D M O'Shea, M Yannakoulia, M H Kosmidis, E Dardiotis, G Hadjigeorgiou, P Sakka, Y Stern, N Scarmeas
In the present data, we provide the details of the cross-sectional study examining the associations between sleep quality/sleep duration and cognitive performance. Data are from the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet (HELIAD). A total of 1484 older adults (65 y.o. or older) took part in the study. Sleep measurements were drawn from the sleep scale of the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS). Cognition was used as a z-score drawn by different tests. The domains examined were: executive function, visuo-spatial ability, language, attention- speed of processing, as well as the composite z-score of all the cognitive domains (including memory)...
October 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932652/psychosocial-treatment-options-for-major-depressive-disorder-in-older-adults
#17
Brenna N Renn, Patricia A Areán
Late-life depression (LLD) is a public health concern with deleterious effects on overall health, cognition, quality of life, and mortality. Although LLD is relatively common, it is not a normal part of aging and is often under-recognized in older adults. However, psychotherapy is an effective treatment for LLD that aligns with many patients' preferences and can improve health and functioning. This review synthesized the current literature on evidence-based psychotherapies for the treatment of depression in older adults...
March 2017: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931620/effects-of-physical-activity-on-poststroke-cognitive-function-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#18
Lauren E Oberlin, Aashna M Waiwood, Toby B Cumming, Anna L Marsland, Julie Bernhardt, Kirk I Erickson
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Despite the social, health, and economic burdens associated with cognitive impairment poststroke, there is considerable uncertainty about the types of interventions that might preserve or restore cognitive abilities. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of physical activity (PA) training on cognitive function poststroke and identify intervention and sample characteristics that may moderate treatment effects. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials examining the association between structured PA training and cognitive performance poststroke were identified using electronic databases EMBASE and MEDLINE...
September 20, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931460/brief-executive-function-training-for-individuals-with-severe-mental-illness-effects-on-eeg-synchronization-and-executive-functioning
#19
Michael W Best, Daniel Gale, Tanya Tran, Mashal K Haque, Christopher R Bowie
BACKGROUND: Executive Functioning (EF) is an important factor for community functioning for people with severe mental illness. Cognitive remediation programs often improve EF, but do so by using multiple therapeutic techniques. Little is known regarding how individual treatment elements promote cognitive improvement. Oscillatory brain activity is a potential neurophysiological mechanism that may change as a result of targeted training on computerized exercises. The current study aimed to examine the effects of a brief EF training program on EEG and neurocognitive measures...
September 18, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930751/dementia-predicting-cognitive-risk-score-and-its-correlation-with-cortical-thickness-in-parkinson-disease
#20
Byoung Seok Ye, Seun Jeon, Jee Hyun Ham, Jae Jung Lee, Jong Min Lee, Hye Sun Lee, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H Sohn
BACKGROUND: We developed a risk score system to predict risks of developing dementia in individual Parkinson disease (PD) patients using baseline neuropsychological tests. METHODS: A total of 216 nondemented PD patients underwent a baseline neuropsychological evaluation and were followed up for a mean of 2.7 (±1.1) years. Univariate Cox regression models controlled for age, gender, and education selected neuropsychological tests individually predicting dementia risk...
September 21, 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
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