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Executive functioning

Kalliopi Tournikioti, Panagiotis Ferentinos, Ioannis Michopoulos, Maria Alevizaki, Constantin R Soldatos, Dimitris Dikeos, Athanasios Douzenis
Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with impairment in cognitive domains such as verbal memory and executive functions. However, visual paired associative learning (PAL) has been far less researched. Neurocognitive dysfunction in BD patients has been related to several clinical factors, but data on the effect of medication are relatively scarce and inconsistent. The aim of our study was to explore the effect of clinical and treatment-related parameters on executive functions and visual memory/learning, including PAL, in BD...
October 25, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Caterina Pauletti, Daniela Mannarelli, Nicoletta Locuratolo, Luca Pollini, Antonio Currà, Lucio Marinelli, Steno Rinalduzzi, Francesco Fattapposta
Fatigue is a non-specific symptom that is common in chronic diseases and represents one of the most disabling symptoms in Parkinson's disease. PD patients often experience cognitive deficits related above all to executive functions. The relationship between cognitive changes and fatigue in PD patients has not been explored in depth. The Attention Network Test (ANT) is a rapid, widely used test to measure the efficiency of three attentional networks, i.e., alerting, orienting, and executive, by evaluating reaction times (RTs) in response to visual stimuli...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Qiyong Gong, Xinyu Hu, William Pettersson-Yeo, Xin Xu, Su Lui, Nicolas Crossley, Min Wu, Hongyan Zhu, Andrea Mechelli
The neuroimaging literature provides compelling evidence for functional dysconnectivity in people with psychosis. However, it is likely that at least some of the observed alternations represent secondary effects of illness chronicity and/or antipsychotic medication. In addition, the extent to which these alterations are specific to psychosis or represent a trans-diagnostic feature of psychiatric illness remains unclear. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the diagnostic specificity of functional dysconnectivity in drug-naïve first episode psychosis...
October 26, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
N Erbil, Suha Yagcioglu
The Poffenberger paradigm is a well-known measure of interhemispheric transfer delays, calculated on the basis of the crossed vs uncrossed reaction time difference (CUD). However, the proper interpretation of CUD is extensively debated in the literature. In this study we used connectivity measures in an attempt to interpret CUD from the perspective of functional connectivity. Accordingly, we tried to define functional couplings in the Poffenberger paradigm; we used a simple choice version of the paradigm, and included a stimulation only (SO) condition for comparison...
October 26, 2016: Functional Neurology
Jan Bressler, Thomas H Mosley, Alan Penman, Rebecca F Gottesman, Beverly Gwen Windham, David S Knopman, Lisa M Wruck, Eric Boerwinkle
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and is characterized by impairment in memory, behavioral changes, and gradual loss of autonomy. Since there is a long latent period prior to diagnosis, the aim of this study was to determine whether twenty single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association analyses of AD are associated with cognitive change in 8,320 white and 2,039 African-American middle-aged adults enrolled in the prospective Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study...
October 26, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Alexandra Ursache, Kimberly G Noble
BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence links socioeconomic status (SES) to children's brain structure. Few studies, however, have specifically investigated relations of SES to white matter structure. Further, although several studies have demonstrated that family SES is related to development of brain areas that support executive functions (EF), less is known about the role that white matter structure plays in the relation of SES to EF. One possibility is that white matter differences may partially explain SES disparities in EF (i...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
Xianjuan Kou, Xingran Liu, Xianbing Chen, Jie Li, Xiaoqi Yang, Jingjing Fan, Yi Yang, Ning Chen
The underlying molecular mechanisms for aging-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) are not fully understood. Currently, growing evidences have revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in aging and aging-related diseases. The up-regulation of miR-34a has been reported to be associated with aging-related diseases, and thus it should be a promising therapeutic target. Ampelopsin, also called dihydromyricetin (DHM), a natural flavonoid from Chinese herb Ampelopsis grossedentata, has been reported to possess multiple pharmacological functions including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-cancer functions...
October 21, 2016: Oncotarget
Fan Yang, Peter Hsu, Susan D Lee, Wen Yang, Weihao Xu, Claire Moore, Gabriele Varani
3'-end processing of pre-mRNAs prior to packaging and export to the cytoplasm of the mature transcript is a highly regulated process executed by several tens of protein factors that recognize poorly conserved RNA signals. Among them is Pcf11, a highly conserved, multi-domain protein that links transcriptional elongation, 3'-end processing and transcription termination. Here we report the structure and biochemical function of Pcf11's C-terminal domain, which is conserved from yeast to humans. We identify a novel zinc finger fold, resembling a trillium flower...
October 25, 2016: RNA
Gulben Senturk, Basar Bilgic, Ali Bilgin Arslan, Ali Bayram, Hasmet Hanagasi, Hakan Gurvit, Murat Emre
BACKGROUND: Anosognosia is a common feature in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The brain substrates of anosognosia are not fully understood, and less is known about the cognitive substrates of anosognosia in prodromal and early stages of AD. METHODS: Fourty-seven patients with amnestic-type mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) (n = 26) and early-stage AD (n = 21) were included, and Clinical Insight Rating Scale and Anosognosia Questionnaire for Dementia (AQ-D) were used to assess anosognosia...
October 26, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
Benjamin W Mooneyham, Michael D Mrazek, Alissa J Mrazek, Kaita L Mrazek, Dawa T Phillips, Jonathan W Schooler
During tasks that require continuous engagement, the mind alternates between mental states of focused attention and mind-wandering. Existing research has assessed the functional connectivity of intrinsic brain networks underlying the experience and training of these mental states using "static" approaches that assess connectivity across an entire task. To disentangle the functional connectivity between brain regions as the mind fluctuates between discrete brain states, we employed a dynamic functional connectivity approach that characterized brain activity using a sliding window...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Xueling Suo, Du Lei, Fuqin Chen, Min Wu, Lei Li, Ling Sun, Xiaoli Wei, Hongyan Zhu, Lingjiang Li, Graham J Kemp, Qiyong Gong
Purpose To use diffusion-tensor (DT) imaging and graph theory approaches to explore the brain structural connectome in pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Materials and Methods This study was approved by the relevant research ethics committee, and all participants' parents or guardians provided informed consent. Twenty-four pediatric patients with PTSD and 23 control subjects exposed to trauma but without PTSD were recruited after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. The structural connectome was constructed by using DT imaging tractography and thresholding the mean fractional anisotropy of 90 brain regions to yield 90 × 90 partial correlation matrixes...
October 25, 2016: Radiology
Caroline de Oliveira Cardoso, Natália Dias, Joana Senger, Ana Paula Cervi Colling, Alessandra Gotuzo Seabra, Rochele Paz Fonseca
This systematic review aimed to characterize empirical studies on neuropsychological interventions to stimulate executive functions in children with typical development. Searches were conducted according to the PRISMA method. Nineteen (19) studies on the analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention programs in pre-school and school children were obtained. There was a predominance of studies that used computerized cognitive training, most of them involving the stimulation of working memory. Others used pen and paper forms, or hybrid tasks, and some programs used a school curriculum approach aiming to improve self-regulation...
October 25, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Thomas G Burns, Natasha N Ludwig, Tiffany N Tajiri, Nick DeFilippis
The objective of this study was to assess cognitive performance and behavioral symptoms in a sample of children diagnosed with partial epilepsy who were seizure controlled on AED monotherapy for one year. Ninety-eight seizure-controlled children on AED monotherapy were included in this study. Specific AEDs examined included topiramate, divalproex sodium, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, and oxcarbazepine. Groups did not differ on age, region of focal epilepsy, or Full-Scale IQ. Direct measures included the WISC-IV and selected tests from the DKEFS (Verbal Fluency and Trail Making Test)...
October 25, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
E Huertas-Hoyas, E J Pedrero-Perez, M Martinez-Campos, M Laselle-Lopez
INTRODUCTION: The use of self-reports about symptoms of malfunctioning in daily life derived from functional deficits of a prefrontal origin has become widespread in clinical practice, since they allow incremental ecological validity to be added to other specific tests. Yet it remains to be determined whether self-assessment is sufficient on its own or if the participation of an external evaluator would be preferable. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The Prefrontal Symptoms Inventory (PSI) was administered to 115 subjects being treated for a range of brain pathologies...
November 1, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
Igor V Tetko, Uko Maran, Alexander Tropsha
Thousands of (Quantitative) Structure-Activity Relationships (Q)SAR models have been described in peer-reviewed publications; however, this way of sharing seldom makes models available for the use by the research community outside of the developer's laboratory. Conversely, on-line models allow broad dissemination and application representing the most effective way of sharing the scientific knowledge. Approaches for sharing and providing on-line access to models range from web services created by individual users and laboratories to integrated modeling environments and model repositories...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Informatics
Ana Sánchez Azofra, Trilokesh D Kidambi, Rita J Jeremy, Peggy Conrad, Amie Blanco, Megan Myers, James Barkovich, Jonathan P Terdiman
BACKGROUND: Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant hereditary colon cancer syndrome caused by mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) with both colonic and extra-colonic manifestations. Case reports have noted an association with FAP and intellectual disability and animal studies have shown that APC is implicated in neural development and function, but no studies have investigated neuropsychological, behavioral, or structural brain characteristics of patients with FAP...
2016: Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice
Min Xiao, Haitao Ge, Budhachandra S Khundrakpam, Junhai Xu, Gleb Bezgin, Yuan Leng, Lu Zhao, Yuchun Tang, Xinting Ge, Seun Jeon, Wenjian Xu, Alan C Evans, Shuwei Liu
Functional neuroimaging studies have indicated the involvement of separate brain areas in three distinct attention systems: alerting, orienting, and executive control (EC). However, the structural correlates underlying attention remains unexplored. Here, we utilized graph theory to examine the neuroanatomical substrates of the three attention systems measured by attention network test (ANT) in 65 healthy subjects. White matter connectivity, assessed with diffusion tensor imaging deterministic tractography was modeled as a structural network comprising 90 nodes defined by the automated anatomical labeling (AAL) template...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Jason S Nomi, Shruti Gopal Vij, Dina R Dajani, Rosa Steimke, Eswar Damaraju, Srinivas Rachakonda, Vince D Calhoun, Lucina Q Uddin
Despite extensive research into executive function (EF), the precise relationship between brain dynamics and flexible cognition remains unknown. Using a large, publicly available dataset (189 participants), we find that functional connections measured throughout 56minutes of resting state fMRI data comprise five distinct connectivity states. Elevated EF performance as measured outside of the scanner was associated with greater episodes of more frequently occurring connectivity states, and fewer episodes of less frequently occurring connectivity states...
October 21, 2016: NeuroImage
S R T Veerman, P F J Schulte, J B Deijen, L de Haan
BACKGROUND: In a recent placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover trial (n = 52), significant beneficial effects on memory (d = 0.30) and negative symptoms (d = 0.29) were found after 12 weeks of memantine augmentation in patients with clozapine-refractory schizophrenia. In this open-label 1-year extension study we report the long-term effects and tolerability of memantine add-on therapy to clozapine. METHOD: Completers of the first trial who experienced beneficial effects during 12 weeks of memantine treatment received memantine for 1 year...
October 25, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Doris Koesling, Evanthia Mergia, Michael Russwurm
NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (NO-GC) acts as the receptor for nitric oxide and by the increase in cGMP executes most of the NO effects in the cardiovascular and neuronal system. Two isoforms of NO-GC exist whose existence has not been paid much attention to probably because they reveal comparable regulatory and catalytic properties and therefore cannot be differentiated in vivo. Analysis of mice in which either one of the isoforms has been genetically deleted unequivocally establishes the coexpression of NO-GC1 and NOGC2 in any tissue tested to date with the exception of platelets...
2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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