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Julie Y Ji
Endothelial cells that line the lumen of blood vessels are at the interface between hemodynamic forces and vascular wall biology. Endothelial cells transduce mechanical and biological signals from blood flow into intracellular signaling cascades through a process called mechanotransduction. Mechanotransduction is an important part of normal cell functions, as well as endothelial dysfunction which leads to inflammation and pathological conditions. For example, atherosclerosis preferentially develops in regions of disturbed fluid flow and low shear stress...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Henrico Badaoui Strazzi Sahyon, Afonso Chimanski, Humberto Naoyuki Yoshimura, Paulo Henrique Dos Santos
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: The color stability and mechanical properties of luting agents influence the esthetics and longevity of ceramic restorations. However, studies evaluating the color changes and mechanical properties of luting agents under ceramic laminates activated by using different methods are lacking. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of different modes of photoactivation on the nanohardness and elastic modulus of resin cements and dental adhesives and on the color stability of ceramic laminate veneers...
October 2018: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
ThaÍs Melo De Almeida, Rowland M Shelley, JosÉ Albertino Rafael
The monotypic taxon Xanthotropis n. gen. is established to accommodate Haematotropis media Golovatch, Hoffman Spelda, 2004, known only from the vicinity of Manaus, Brazil, as it is incompatible with both its originally assigned genus and Aphelidesmus Brölemann, 1898, a suggested alternative. Xanthotropis is defined primarily by minute teeth on paranota 2-4, a sublinear posterior margin of the telson, and an elongated, distally expanded/laminate acropodite. The Aphelidesmidae Brölemann, 1916, range from northeastern Mexico and Tobago to northern Brazil and southwestern Peru; a questionable more-northerly record, from Monterey, Mexico, requires verification with fresh material...
September 5, 2018: Zootaxa
Yi Pan, Lisa E Kelly, Heithem M El-Hodiri
BACKGROUND: The retinal homeobox (rx/rax) gene is a transcription factor expressed in the developing eye field that is necessary for normal eye development. rax is necessary for retinal specification and stem cell development. The genetic program of early retinal development, including rax expression, can be induced in naïve ectoderm by activation of IGF signaling. We have undertaken a microarray-based approach to identify rax-dependent IGF-induced genes. RESULTS: We identified 21 IGF-induced genes that exhibit at least a 2-fold decrease in expression when rax expression is knocked down...
October 12, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
Ali Lamin, Jonathan D Oakley, Adam M Dubis, Daniel B Russakoff, Sobha Sivaprasad
PURPOSE: To evaluate longitudinally volume changes in inner and outer retinal layers in early and intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD) compared to healthy control eyes using optical coherence tomography (OCT). METHODS: 71 eyes with AMD and 31 control eyes were imaged at two time points: baseline and after 2 years. Automated OCT layer segmentation was performed using OrionTM . This software is able to measure volumes of retinal layers with distinct boundaries including Retinal Nerve Fibre Layer (RNFL), Ganglion Cell-Inner Plexiform Layer (GCIPL), Inner Nuclear Layer (INL), Outer Plexiform Layer (OPL), Outer Nuclear Layer (ONL), Photoreceptors (PR) and Retinal Pigment Epithelium-Bruch's Membrane complex (RPE-BM)...
October 11, 2018: Eye
Haytham Mehsen, Vincent Boudreau, Damien Garrido, Mohammed Bourouh, Myreille Larouche, Paul S Maddox, Andrew Swan, Vincent Archambault
As a dividing cell exits mitosis and daughter cells enter interphase, many proteins must be dephosphorylated. The protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) with its B55 regulatory subunit plays a crucial role in this transition, but the identity of its substrates and how their dephosphorylation promotes mitotic exit are largely unknown. We conducted a maternal-effect screen in Drosophila melanogaster to identify genes that function with PP2A-B55/Tws in the cell cycle. We found that eggs that receive reduced levels of Tws and of components of the nuclear envelope (NE) often fail development, concomitant with NE defects following meiosis and in syncytial mitoses...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Alexios N Matralis, Dimitrios Xanthopoulos, Geneviève Huot, Stéphane Lopes-Paciencia, Charles Cole, Hugo de Vries, Gerardo Ferbeyre, Youla S Tsantrizos
Lamin A contributes to the structure of nuclei in all mammalian cells and plays an important role in cell division and migration. Mature lamin A is derived from a farnesylated precursor protein, known as prelamin A, which undergoes post-translational cleavage catalyzed by the zinc metalloprotease STE24 (ZPMSTE24). Accumulation of farnesylated prelamin A in the nuclear envelope compromises cell division, impairs mitosis and induces an increased expression of inflammatory gene products. ZMPSTE24 has been proposed as a potential therapeutic target in oncology...
October 4, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Lauren Proctor-Brown, Rebecca Hicks, Sarah Colmer, Danielle Guilfoyle, Barbara Dallap-Schaer, Amy L Johnson, Joy Tomlinson
Digital cryotherapy (DC) is frequently used as laminitis prophylaxis for horses. While DC with ice-water slurries is reported to be safe for up to 48 h, the safety of sleeve-style digital cryotherapy (SSDC) with ice in direct contact with the distal limb has not been evaluated. Our objective was to determine the incidence of distal limb pathologic conditions (DLPC) among horses treated with SSDC. A retrospective study of cases from 2011 to 2015 identified 285 horses treated with SSDC for a minimum of 12 h...
October 2, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Helene M De Nys, Placide Mbala Kingebeni, Alpha K Keita, Christelle Butel, Guillaume Thaurignac, Christian-Julian Villabona-Arenas, Thomas Lemarcis, Mare Geraerts, Nicole Vidal, Amandine Esteban, Mathieu Bourgarel, François Roger, Fabian Leendertz, Ramadan Diallo, Simon-Pierre Ndimbo-Kumugo, Justus Nsio-Mbeta, Nikki Tagg, Lamine Koivogui, Abdoulaye Toure, Eric Delaporte, Steve Ahuka-Mundeke, Jean-Jacques Muyembe Tamfum, Eitel Mpoudi-Ngole, Ahidjo Ayouba, Martine Peeters
To clarify the role of bats in the ecology of Ebola viruses, we assessed the prevalence of Ebola virus antibodies in a large-scale sample of bats collected during 2015-2017 from countries in Africa that have had previous Ebola outbreaks (Guinea, the Democratic Republic of the Congo) or are at high risk for outbreaks (Cameroon). We analyzed 4,022 blood samples of bats from >12 frugivorous and 27 insectivorous species; 2-37 (0.05%-0.92%) bats were seropositive for Zaire and 0-30 (0%-0.75%) bats for Sudan Ebola viruses...
December 17, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Le Sun, Ruiguo Chen, Ye Bai, Jia Li, Qian Wu, Qin Shen, Xiaoqun Wang
Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells are one of the earliest populations of neurons in the cerebral cortex of rodents and primates, and they play a critical role in corticogenesis and cortical lamination during neocortical development. However, a comprehensive morphological and physiological profile of CR cells in the mouse neocortex has not yet been established. Here, we systematically investigated the dynamic development of CR cells in Tg(Ebf2-EGFP)58Gsat/Mmcd mice. The morphological complexity, membrane activities and presynaptic inputs of CR cells coordinately increase and reach a plateau at P5-P9 before regressing...
October 11, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Keiko Nakanishi, Hiroyuki Niida, Hidenori Tabata, Tsuyoshi Ito, Yuki Hori, Madoka Hattori, Yoshikazu Johmura, Chisato Yamada, Takashi Ueda, Kosei Takeuchi, Kenichiro Yamada, Koh-Ichi Nagata, Nobuaki Wakamatsu, Masashi Kishi, Y Albert Pan, Shinya Ugawa, Shoichi Shimada, Joshua R Sanes, Yujiro Higashi, Makoto Nakanishi
SAD kinases regulate presynaptic vesicle clustering and neuronal polarization. A previous report demonstrated that Sada-/- and Sadb-/- double-mutant mice showed perinatal lethality with a severe defect in axon/dendrite differentiation, but their single mutants did not. These results indicated that they were functionally redundant. Surprisingly, we show that on a C57BL/6N background, SAD-A is essential for cortical development whereas SAD-B is dispensable. Sada-/- mice died within a few days after birth. Their cortical lamination pattern was disorganized and radial migration of cortical neurons was perturbed...
October 11, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Hannah Koenker, Fred Arnold, Fatou Ba, Moustapha Cisse, Lamine Diouf, Erin Eckert, Marcy Erskine, Lia Florey, Megan Fotheringham, Lilia Gerberg, Christian Lengeler, Matthew Lynch, Abraham Mnzava, Susann Nasr, Médoune Ndiop, Stephen Poyer, Melanie Renshaw, Estifanos Shargie, Cameron Taylor, Julie Thwing, Suzanne Van Hulle, Yazoumé Ye, Josh Yukich, Albert Kilian
BACKGROUND/METHODS: Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are the primary tool for malaria vector control in sub-Saharan Africa, and have been responsible for an estimated two-thirds of the reduction in the global burden of malaria in recent years. While the ultimate goal is high levels of ITN use to confer protection against infected mosquitoes, it is widely accepted that ITN use must be understood in the context of ITN availability. However, despite nearly a decade of universal coverage campaigns, no country has achieved a measured level of 80% of households owning 1 ITN for 2 people in a national survey...
October 11, 2018: Malaria Journal
Paula Dlugosz, Johannes Nimpf
Apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2) and VLDL receptor belong to the low density lipoprotein receptor family and bind apolipoprotein E. These receptors interact with the clathrin machinery to mediate endocytosis of macromolecules but also interact with other adapter proteins to perform as signal transduction receptors. The best characterized signaling pathway in which ApoER2 and VLDL receptor (VLDLR) are involved is the Reelin pathway. This pathway plays a pivotal role in the development of laminated structures of the brain and in synaptic plasticity of the adult brain...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Claudia Zanardello, Marzia Pezzolato, Katia Capello, Mario Botta, Elisa Baioni, Franco Mutinelli, Marta Vascellari, Elena Bozzetta
The illegal use of glucocorticoids (GCs) as growth-promoters (GPs) is prohibited in farm animals in the European Union because the strong pharmacological activity of most synthetic GCs produces residues that are dangerous for human consumption. Among the alternative methods proposed to increase the efficacy of official controls, histology was the technique of choice in Italy on account of its high performance level. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of immunohistochemistry (IHC) using anti-cleaved-Lamin A antibody to enhance the performance of the histological test applied to GC-related microscopic changes in the thymus...
October 10, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Yu-Jia Hu, Cheng Jiang, Wei Liu, Qian-Qian Yu, Yun-Lai Zhou
The behavior of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites at high temperature is a critical issue that needs to be clearly understood for their structural uses in civil engineering. However, due to technical difficulties during testing at high temperature, limited experimental investigations have been conducted regarding the thermal behavior of basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) composites, especially for the in-plane shear modulus of BFRP laminates. To this end, both an analytical derivation and an experimental program were carried out in this work to study the in-plane shear modulus of BFRP laminates...
October 8, 2018: Sensors
Emmanuel Cohen, Philippe Jean-Luc Gradidge, Amadou Ndao, Priscilla Duboz, Enguerran Macia, Lamine Gueye, Gilles Boëtsch, Patrick Pasquet, Michelle Holdsworth, Nicole Chapuis-Lucciani
Senegal is experiencing a rising obesity epidemic, due to the nutrition transition occurring in most African countries, and driven by sedentary behaviour and high-calorie dietary intake. In addition, the anthropological local drivers of the social valorization of processed high-calorie food and large body sizes could expose the population to obesity risk. This study aimed to determine the impact of these biocultural factors on the nutritional status of Senegalese adults. A mixed methods approach was used, including qualitative and quantitative studies...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Amy S Biddle, Jean-Francois Tomb, Zirui Fan
Due to modern management practices and the availability of energy dense feeds, obesity is a serious and increasingly common health problem for horses. Equine obesity is linked to insulin resistance and exacerbation of inflammatory issues such as osteoarthritis and laminitis. While the gut microbiome is thought to play a part in metabolic status in horses, bacterial communities associated with obesity have yet to be described. Here we report differences in metabolic factors in the blood of obese, normal and lean horses correlated with differences in gut microbiome composition...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Safia El-Bok, Cheima Jabri, Takwa Ben-Brahim, Oussama Lamine, Mohamed El-Gazzah, Aziza Zoghlami-Khélil
This study aimed to characterize eight accessions of Vicia narbonensis L. originated from different Mediterranean countries. The cytology of these species is rarely known despite the fact of its great socio-economical and ecological interest in these arid and semi-arid zones. This work aimed mainly to characterize the karyotype, morphological pod and seed traits of the species. Karyotypes of all accessions were similar to a diploid number of 2 n  = 2 x  = 14. All the accessions have submetacentric chromosomes with a secondary constriction attached to the long arm of pair VII close to the centromere...
November 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Kosuke Kusaba, Futoshi Komine, Junichi Honda, Kei Kubochi, Hideo Matsumura
This study investigated the effect of preparation design on the marginal and internal adaptation of laminate veneers (LVs) fabricated from translucent zirconia. Thirty-three resin teeth were prepared for LVs of three designs: window preparation (WP); incisal shoulder preparation (ISP); and incisal palatal chamfer preparation (IPP). Marginal adaptation was evaluated by measuring the vertical discrepancy between the LV margin and the finish line at 60 points. The internal adaptation was assessed by measuring the internal space width as the distance between the LV and the tooth at cervical, central, and incisal sites after sectioning...
October 5, 2018: European Journal of Oral Sciences
Chiaki Fujiwara, Yukiko Muramatsu, Megumi Nishii, Kazuhiro Tokunaka, Hidetoshi Tahara, Masaru Ueno, Takao Yamori, Yoshikazu Sugimoto, Hiroyuki Seimiya
Telomere maintenance by telomerase activity supports the infinite growth of cancer cells. MST-312, a synthetic telomerase inhibitor, gradually shortens telomeres at non-acute lethal doses and eventually induces senescence and apoptosis of telomerase-positive cancer cells. Here we report that MST-312 at higher doses works as a dual inhibitor of telomerase and DNA topoisomerase II and exhibits acute anti-proliferative effects on cancer cells and xenografted tumours in vivo. Our cell-based chemical fingerprinting approach revealed that cancer cells with shorter telomeres and lower expression of lamin A, a nuclear architectural protein, exhibited higher sensitivity to the acute deleterious effects of MST-312, accompanied by formation of telomere dysfunction-induced foci and DNA double-strand breaks...
October 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
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