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Successive AND Simultaneous Processing

Ashok Zakkula, Vinay Kiran, Umesh Todmal, Suresh P Sulochana, Ramesh Mullangi
A simple, specific and reproducible high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay method has been developed and validated for the quantitation of second generation antiandrogens and their active metabolites namely apalutamide, enzalutamide, N -desmethylenzalutamide (active metabolite of enzalutamide), darolutamide and ORM-15341 (active metabolite of darolutamide) in mice plasma. The method involves extraction of apalutamide, enzalutamide, N -desmethylenzalutamide, darolutamide and ORM-15341 along with internal standard (IS) from 100 µL mice plasma through a simple protein precipitation process...
December 10, 2018: Drug Research
Asaf Ilovitsh, Tali Ilovitsh, Josquin Foiret, Douglas N Stephens, Katherine W Ferrara
Standard ultrasound imaging techniques rely on sweeping a focused beam across a field of view; however, outside the transmission focal depth, image resolution and contrast are degraded. High-quality deep tissue in vivo imaging requires focusing the emitted field at multiple depths, yielding high resolution and high contrast ultrasound images but at the expense of a loss in frame rate. Recent developments in ultrasound technologies have led to user-programmable systems, which enable real-time dynamic control over the phase and apodization of each individual element in the imaging array...
December 5, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Noemí Encinas, Mercedes Angulo, Carlos Astorga, Montserrat Colilla, Isabel Izquierdo-Barba, María Vallet-Regí
The design of drug delivery systems needs to consider biocompatibility and host body recognition for an adequate actuation. In this work, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) surfaces were successfully modified with two silane molecules to provide mixed-charge brushes (-NH3 ⊕ /-PO3 ⊝ ) and well evaluated in terms of surface properties, low-fouling capability and cell uptake in comparison to PEGylated MSNs. The modification process consists in the simultaneous direct-grafting of hydrolysable short chain amino (aminopropyl silanetriol, APST) and phosphonate-based (trihydroxy-silyl-propyl-methyl-phosphonate, THSPMP) silane molecules able to provide a pseudo-zwitterionic nature under physiological pH conditions...
December 6, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Hiroshi Fujiwara, Hidetoshi Kuramochi, Tomoharu Maeseto, Kazutaka Nomura, Yukio Takeuchi, Katsuya Kawamoto, Shinichi Yamasaki, Kouki Kokubun, Masahiro Osako
Municipal solid waste (MSW) contaminated by radioactive cesium (r-Cs) has been incinerated since the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Eight thermal treatment plants with four different types of furnaces were comprehensively investigated to provide fundamental data to improve our understanding of the behavior of r-Cs in various types of MSW thermal treatment facilities. R-Cs tended to distribute to the fly ash (FA) more than to the residue from the bottom of the furnace (bottom ash, incombustibles or slag)...
November 2018: Waste Management
Bruno Iochins Grisci, Bruno César Feltes, Marcio Dorn
Microarrays are still one of the major techniques employed to study cancer biology. However, the identification of expression patterns from microarray datasets is still a significant challenge to overcome. In this work, a new approach using Neuroevolution, a machine learning field that combines neural networks and evolutionary computation, provides aid in this challenge by simultaneously classifying microarray data and selecting the subset of more relevant genes. The main algorithm, FS-NEAT, was adapted by the addition of new structural operators designed for this high dimensional data...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Qin Chen, Shengping Qiu, Huanhuan Li, Chaolong Lin, Yong Luo, Wenfeng Ren, Yidi Zou, Yale Wang, Ninghshao Xia, Chenghao Huang
BACKGROUND: Most monoclonal antibodies against mouse antigens have been derived from rat spleen-mouse myeloma fusions, which are valuable tools for purposes ranging from general laboratory reagents to therapeutic drugs, and yet selecting and expressing them remains a time-consuming and inefficient process. Here, we report a novel approach for the rapid high-throughput selection and expression of recombinant functional rat monoclonal antibodies with different isotypes. RESULTS: We have developed a robust system for generating rat monoclonal antibodies through several processes involving simultaneously immunizing rats with three different antigens expressing in a mixed cell pools, preparing hybridoma cell pools, in vitro screening and subsequent cloning of the rearranged light and heavy chains into a single expression plasmid using a highly efficient assembly method, which can decrease the time and effort required by multiple immunizations and fusions, traditional clonal selection and expression methods...
December 4, 2018: BMC Immunology
Agnieszka Owczarczyk-Saczonek, Lesław Bernard Lahuta, Magdalena Ligor, Waldemar Placek, Ryszard Józef Górecki, Bogusław Buszewski
INTRODUCTION: Myo -inositol and its derivatives cyclitols play an important role in the processes of cell regulation, signal transduction, osmoregulation, and ion channel physiology, and are a component of the cell membrane. Free cyclitols present in food or released during the degradation of galactosyl cyclitols by bacteria (in digestive tract) show some physiological benefits. AIM: The aim of this paper is to present and analyze the documented data about curative and healing properties of cyclitols...
December 3, 2018: Nutrients
Chang Sup Kim, Hye Ryoung Heo, Jeong Hyun Seo, Hyung Joon Cha
A functional glycan chip combined with on-chip enzymatic glycosylation was developed to prepare complex glycan sources and to apply glycan-involved applications simultaneously. GM3 trisaccharide, GM2 tetrasaccharide, and GM1 pentasaccharide were successfully directly biosynthesized on lactose-immobilized surfaces through three consecutive glycosyltransferase reactions along with small amounts of enzymes and donors, without any additional processes. Biosynthesized GM1 pentasaccharide-related complex glycans were demonstrated to provide information on the substrate specificity of whole cholera toxin...
December 3, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Yongchao Ma, Xiaoyan Yang, Xiujia Huan, Yu Gao, Weiwei Wang, Zhao Li, Zhikun Ma, Linda Perry, Guoping Sun, Leping Jiang, Guiyun Jin, Houyuan Lu
The process of rice domestication has been studied for decades based on changing morphological characteristics in assemblages of both macroremains, such as charred seeds and spikelet bases, and microremains, such as phytoliths, esp. bulliform and double-peaked phytoliths. The applicability of these indicators in determining if a specific assemblage is wild or domesticated, however, is rarely discussed. To understand the significance of these indicators in the determination of domestication, we collected 38 archaeological samples from eight Neolithic sites, dating from 10-2ka BP, in the lower Yangtze River region to analyze and compare the changes of these different indicators over eight thousand years...
2018: PloS One
Agung Dhamar Syakti, Nuning Vita Hidayati, Yales Veva Jaya, Sofyan Husein Siregar, Renald Yude, Suhendy, Laurence Asia, Pascal Wong-Wah-Chung, Pierre Doumenq
Despite Indonesia being considered as second highest source of marine plastic debris in the world, few studies have been conducted on plastic debris in Indonesia, particularly microplastics. By using a simple device to simultaneously grade floating microplastics, we investigated microplastic contamination in the ecosystem of small islands in Bintan Regency, Riau Island Province, Indonesia. The average number of floating microplastics from 11 beach stations around Bintan Island was 122.8 ± 67.8 pieces per station, which corresponds to 0...
December 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
K Ogawa, M Isobe, T Nishitani, T Kobuchi
In the currently performed neutral beam (NB) -heated deuterium plasma experiments, neutrons are mainly produced by a beam-plasma reaction. Therefore, time-resolved measurement of the neutron emission profile can enhance the understanding of the classical and/or anomalous transport of beam ions. To measure radial neutron emission profiles as a function of time, the vertical neutron camera (VNC) capable of operation with a counting rate in the MHz range was newly installed on the Large Helical Device (LHD). This is the world's first neutron camera for stellarator/heliotron devices...
November 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Wen Gao, Xiang Li, Zhenhua Liu, Wei Fu, Yuhui Sun, Wenhua Cao, Lili Tong, Bo Tang
Inflammation triggered by oxidative stress is the main determinant of atherosclerotic plaque disruption, which is the leading cause of myocardial infarctions and strokes. Hence, non-invasive mapping of alterations in redox status in vivo is highly desirable for accurate assessment of plaque inflammatory activity and vulnerability. Herein, two types of near-infrared fluorescence probes, specific for glutathione (GSH)/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) redox couple, were used to introduce the self-assembly of bovine serum albumin (BSA), forming a BSA-Cy-Mito nanoprobe for in vivo photoacoustic imaging of redox status...
November 30, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVEThe authors sought to compare methods of measurement for venous phase delay (VPD) or mean stump pressure (MSTP) to rank their potential to predict ischemic tolerance during balloon test occlusion in the internal carotid artery, exploring a more correlative and convenient way to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) that could be utilized even in the acute phase or in institutions not adequately equipped to measure CBF during the test.METHODSX-ray angiography perfusion analysis using diagnostic digital subtraction angiography (DSA) equipment enables 1-step examination (without any room-to-room transfer of patients) to measure CBF, VPD, and MSTP completely simultaneously, which has not been accomplished by any previous perfusion studies...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Shitian Zhuo, Tingshun Zhu, Liejin Zhou, Chengli Mou, Huifang Chai, Yunpeng Lu, Lutai Pan, Zhichao Jin, Yonggui Robin Chi
A new catalytic approach for asymmetric quick access to spirocycles is disclosed. The reaction involves a carbene and thiourea co-catalyzed desymmetrization process with simultaneous installation of a spirocyclic core. The use of a thiourea co-catalyst is critical to turn on this reaction, as no product was formed without the presence of the thioureas. Our study constitutes the first success in carbene-catalyzed enantioselective synthesis of all-carbon spirocycles. Products from our reactions can be readily transformed to sophisticated multi-cyclic molecules and chiral ligands...
November 26, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Xiaojun Jin, Fei Guo, Zhimei Liu, Yuan Liu, Hong Liu
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been tentatively applied for wastewater treatment, but the presence of nitrogen, especially nitrate, induces performance instability by changing the composition of functional biofilms. A novel denitrifying exoelectrogenic strain EB-1, capable of simultaneous denitrification and electricity generation and affiliated with Mycobacterium sp., was isolated from the anodic biofilm of MFCs fed with nitrate containing medium. Polarization curves and cyclic voltammetry showed that strain EB-1 could generate electricity through a direct electron transfer mechanism with a maximum power density of 0...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Leonidas Matsakas, Vijayendran Raghavendran, Olga Yakimenko, Gustav Persson, Eva Olsson, Ulrika Rova, Lisbeth Olsson, Paul Christakopoulos
For a transition to a sustainable society, fuels, chemicals, and materials should be produced from renewable resources. Lignocellulosic biomass constitutes an abundant and renewable feedstock; however, its successful application in a biorefinery requires efficient fractionation into its components; cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Here, we demonstrate that a newly established hybrid organosolv - steam explosion pretreatment can effectively fractionate spruce biomass to yield pretreated solids with high cellulose (72% w/w) and low lignin (delignification up to 79...
November 15, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Minsu Park, Tae Seok Seo
An integrated microfluidic device, consisting of a solid-phase extraction (SPE) unit for metal ion pretreatment, a micropump, a micromixer, and a detachable graphene oxide quantum dot (GOQD) array chip was constructed for selective and sensitive detection of As3+ , Cd2+ , and Pb2+ . The entire process could be sequentially and automatically completed by actuating a pneumatic micropump. Effect of the pH for metal ion capture and pumping scheme for recovery efficiency were investigated on a chip. The ion As3+ , Cd2+ , and Pb2+ whose concentrations ranged from 10-2 µM to 102 µM were successfully recovered with high efficiency over 80%...
November 15, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Teli Xi, Jianglei Di, Ying Li, Siqing Dai, Chaojie Ma, Jianlin Zhao
The premixed ethylene and oxygen flame that is burning in a narrow channel is investigated with digital holographic interferometry (DHI). Combustion in either a narrow tube or channel is quite different. This is caused by the significant effects of the boundary layer. The flame's acceleration rate will be enhanced as the tube diameter decreases. Usually, flame and shock wave propagation, which occurs during the premixed ethylene/oxygen flame combustion in the measurement area, is less than few milliseconds, so that general camera can rarely capture this fast event...
October 29, 2018: Optics Express
Ramūnas Digaitis, Emil Engelund Thybring, Lisbeth Garbrecht Thygesen
Enzymes and mechanics play major roles in lignocellulosic biomass deconstruction in biorefineries by catalysing chemical cleavage or inducing physical breakdown of biomass, respectively. At industrially relevant substrate concentrations mechanical agitation is also a driving force for mass transfer as well as agglomeration of elongated biomass particles. On the contrary to the physically induced particle attrition, which typically facilitates feedstock handling, particle agglomeration tends to hinder mass transfer and in the worst case induces processing difficulties like pipe blockage...
November 23, 2018: Biotechnology Progress
Ebba Du Rietz, Alan R Barker, Giorgia Michelini, Anna-Sophie Rommel, Isabella Vainieri, Philip Asherson, Jonna Kuntsi
BACKGROUND: Emerging research suggests that a single bout of aerobic exercise can improve cognition, brain function and psychological health. Our aim was to examine the effects of high-intensity exercise on cognitive-performance and brain measures of attention, inhibition and performance-monitoring across a test-battery of three cognitive tasks. METHOD: Using a randomised cross-over design, 29 young men completed three successive cognitive tasks (Cued Continuous Performance Task [CPT-OX]; Eriksen Flanker Task; four-choice reaction-time task [Fast Task]) with simultaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) recording before and after a 20-minute high-intensity cycling exercise and resting control session...
November 19, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
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