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Youichi Yanagawa, Kazuhiko Omori, Ikuto Takeuchi, Kei Jitsuiki, Hiromichi Ohsaka, Kouhei Ishikawa
Commercial or occupational breath-hold (BH) harvest divers along the coast and islands of Japan are collectively called Ama divers. Repetitive BH diving by Ama divers may place them at risk of developing neurological decompression sickness (DCS). We report a 74-year-old Ama diver who demonstrated right hemiparesis during an ascent after free diving at a depth of 5 metres' sea water. This report suggests the usefulness of on-site ultrasound for making a differential diagnosis of DCS from endogenous cerebral ischaemia...
December 24, 2018: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Ana Aguilar-Lozano, Scott Baier, Ryan Grove, Jiang Shu, David Giraud, Amy Leiferman, Kelly E Mercer, Juan Cui, Thomas M Badger, Jiri Adamec, Aline Andres, Janos Zempleni
Background: Humans and mice absorb bovine milk exosomes and their RNA cargos. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine whether milk exosome- and RNA-depleted (ERD) and exosome- and RNA-sufficient (ERS) diets alter the concentrations of purine metabolites in mouse livers, and to determine whether diets depleted of bovine milk alter the plasma concentration and urine excretion of purine metabolites in adults and infants, respectively. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were fed ERD (providing 2% of the microRNA cargos compared with ERS) and ERS diets starting at age 3 wk; livers were collected at age 7 wk...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Marloes van Splunter, Olaf Perdijk, Henriëtte Fick-Brinkhof, Anouk L Feitsma, Esther G Floris-Vollenbroek, Ben Meijer, Sylvia Brugman, Huub F J Savelkoul, Els van Hoffen, R J Joost van Neerven
During aging the immune system is dysregulated. Especially plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and myeloid DCs (mDCs) have reduced Toll like receptor (TLR)-mediated responses resulting in increased susceptibility to infections. Consumption of bovine lactoferrin (bLF) has been shown to reduce infections with viruses. Galacto-oligosacharides (GOS) and vitamin D are associated with reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in serum, and increased TLR7/8 responses, respectively. A double-blind placebo-controlled nutritional intervention study in elderly women was performed, to investigate the potential of bLF, GOS, and vitamin D to restore TLR responsiveness of pDCs and mDCs and to reduce inflammatory markers in serum...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Monika M Stojek, Lauren B McSweeney, Sheila A M Rauch
Prolonged exposure (PE) is an empirically supported efficacious treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this focused review, we briefly review the neurobiological networks in PTSD relevant to PE, discuss the theoretical basis of PE, review the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of PE and identify the enhancements that can be applied to increase treatment response and retention. Based on the reviewed studies, it is clear that PTSD results in disrupted network of interconnected regions, and PE has been shown to increase the connectivity within and between these regions...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Kimiko Nakajima, Sayo Kataoka, Kenji Sato, Mikiro Takaishi, Mayuko Yamamoto, Hideki Nakajima, Shigetoshi Sano
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is an inflammatory disease associated with aberrant crosstalk between the epidermis and immune system. However, the role of Langerhans cells (LCs) in psoriasis remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: To elucidate whether LCs are functionally involved in the development of psoriasis using a mouse model. METHODS: Two lines of transgenic mice were used and crossed. They included K5.Stat3C, the psoriasis-model mouse and langerin DTR knock-in (KI) mouse...
November 23, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Science
Yanhua Liu, Ruo Wang, Jing Jiang, Zhihong Cao, Fei Zhai, Weiguo Sun, Xiaoxing Cheng
The role of primary subsets of DCs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in humans is incompletely understood. In this study, we identified a CD1c DC subset with phenotype of CD1c+ CD11c+ CD19- CD11b+ that was significantly increased in tuberculous pleural effusions and in peripheral blood from patients with TB compared with that from healthy controls (p < 0.0001). Sputum smear/culture-positive patients with tuberculosis had significantly higher frequency of CD1c+ CD11b+ DC subset than sputum smear/culture-negative patients (p < 0...
December 2018: Tuberculosis
Michelle P Ashton, Anne Eugster, Sevina Dietz, Doreen Loebel, Annett Lindner, Denise Kuehn, Anna E Taranko, Babett Heschel, Anita Gavrisan, Anette-Gabriele Ziegler, Martin Aringer, Ezio Bonifacio
OBJECTIVE: To identify single cell transcriptional signatures of dendritic cells (DCs) associated with autoimmunity and determine if those signatures correlate with the clinical heterogeneity of autoimmune disease. METHODS: Blood-derived DCs were single-cell sorted from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and type 1 diabetes and were analyzed using single-cell gene expression assays immediately after isolation or after in vitro stimulation...
December 4, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Yuhui Wu, Junlin Yao, Jiansheng Xie, Zhen Liu, Yubin Zhou, Hongming Pan, Weidong Han
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process that eliminates harmful components through lysosomal degradation. In addition to its role in maintaining cellular homeostasis, autophagy is critical to pathological processes, such as inflammation and cancer. Colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) is a specific type of colorectal cancer that develops from long-standing colitis in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Accumulating evidence indicates that autophagy of microenvironmental cells plays different but vital roles during tumorigenesis and CAC development...
2018: Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy
Yu Yang, Zheng-Kun Tu, Xing-Kai Liu, Ping Zhang
The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), which consists of monocytes, dendritic cells (DCs), and macrophages, plays a vital role in the innate immune defense against pathogens. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is efficient in evading the host immunity, thereby facilitating its development into chronic infection. Chronic HCV infection is the leading cause of end-stage liver diseases, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Acquired immune response was regarded as the key factor to eradicate HCV. However, innate immunity can regulate the acquired immune response...
November 28, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Supparerk Prichayudh, Pattanapong Rassamee, Suvit Sriussadaporn, Rattaplee Pak-Art, Sukanya Sriussadaporn, Kritaya Kritayakirana, Pasurachate Samorn, Natawat Narueponjirakul, Apinan Uthaipaisanwong
INTRODUCTION: Abdominal vascular injuries (AVIs) remain a great challenge since they are associated with significant mortality. Penetrating injury is the most common cause of AVIs; however, some AVI series had more blunt injuries. There is little information regarding differences between penetrating and blunt AVIs. The objective of the present study was to identify the differences between these two mechanisms in civilian AVI patients in terms of patient's characteristics, injury details, and outcomes...
November 26, 2018: Injury
Moisés Armides Franco-Molina, Yareellys Ramos-Zayas, Erika Evangelina Coronado-Cerda, Edgar Mendoza-Gamboa, Pablo Zapata-Benavides, Silvia Elena Santana-Krymskaya, Reyes Tamez-Guerra, Cristina Rodríguez-Padilla
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of autologous DCs loaded with whole tumor cell lysate of CTVT generated under a simplified and rapid procedure in vitro production process, in a vulvar submucosal model of CTVT in dogs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We generated a model of intravulvar CTVT in dogs. A CTVT lysate antigen was prepared according to the method of 1-butanol and after administered with complete Freund's adjuvant via subcutaneous in female healthy dogs and challenge with CTVT cells to corroborate the immunogenicity...
December 3, 2018: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Xiaomeng Hu, Tingting Wu, Xianya Qin, Yan Qi, Qi Qiao, Conglian Yang, Zhiping Zhang
Cancer vaccines have shown great potential for treating different types of cancer. However, the application of vaccination still presents two major challenges. One is efficiency of antigen delivery, and the other is dealing with immune tolerance accompanied with tumor development. Lipid zinc phosphate hybrid nanoparticles (LZnP NPs) with a unique material structure can realize efficient delivery of antigens to dendritic cells (DCs) and also serve as an adjuvant to promote immune responses. Herein, ZnP NPs are introduced to load toll-like receptor 4 agonist (monophosphoryl lipid A) and B16F10 melanoma cell-derived tumor lysate (TLS) for vaccination...
December 3, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Mohammad Mohammadzadeh, Masoud Shirmohammadi, Morteza Ghojazadeh, Leila Nikniaz, Mortaza Raeisi, Seyed Ali Mousavi Aghdas
Background: Dendritic cells (DCs) are used in many malignancies as vaccines to induce immunity against specific cancer antigens. The role of DCs in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is not determined. In this study, the proportion of mCRPC patients with clinically significant response to targeted therapy by DCs pulsed with prostate-specific membrane antigen was evaluated, and the possible adverse effects of this modality were investigated. Methods: Major databases were searched up to Feb 2017, to identify studies in which the antitumor efficacy of DCs pulsed with the extracellular portion of PSMA was studied for the treatment of mCRPC...
December 2018: Prostate International
Patta Phumesin, Mutita Junking, Aussara Panya, Petlada Yongpitakwattana, Sansanee Noisakran, Thawornchai Limjindaporn, Pa-Thai Yenchitsomanus
Skin dendritic cells (DCs) are primary target cells of dengue virus (DENV) infection and they play an important role in its immunopathogenesis. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) represent dermal and bloodstream DCs that serve as human primary cells for ex vivo studies of DENV infection. Improved understanding of the mechanisms that effectuate the inhibition of DENV replication in MDDCs will accelerate the development of antiviral drugs to treat DENV infection. In this study, we investigated whether or not vivo-morpholino oligomer (vivo-MO), which was designed to target the top of the 3' stem-loop (3' SL) at the 3' UTR of the DENV genome, could inhibit DENV infection and replication in MDDCs...
November 29, 2018: Virus Research
Mamduh Khateb, Aviva Azriel, Ben-Zion Levi
Interferon Regulatory Factor 8 (IRF8) is a nuclear transcription factor that plays a key role in the hierarchical differentiation of Hematopoietic Stem Cells toward monocyte/dendritic cell (DC) lineages. Therefore, its expression is mainly limited to bone marrow derived cells. The molecular mechanisms governing this cell-type restricted expression have been described. However, the molecular mechanisms that are responsible for its silencing in non-hematopoietic cells are elusive. Recently, we demonstrated a role for IRF8 3rd intron in restricting its expression in non-hematopoietic cells...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Junhui Zhang, Yuan Liu, Guixiu Shi
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to provide a further theoretical basis for the role of Suberoyllanilide hyroxamic acid (SAHA) affect on Dendritic cells (DCs). METHODS: We first downloaded the GSE74306 microarray data, which was about the effect of SAHA act on DCs, from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Then we analyzed the differential expression genes (DEGs) between SAHA-treated DCs and SAHA-untreated DCs by limma package of R software; The Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery was used to analyze the Gene Ontology and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways for these DEGs...
November 27, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Martijn J Schuijs, Hamida Hammad, Bart N Lambrecht
Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical for the activation of naïve CD4+ T cells and are considered professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), as are macrophages and B cells. Recently, several innate type 2 immune cells, such as basophils, mast cells (MCs), eosinophils, and innate type 2 lymphocytes (ILC2), have also emerged as harboring APC behavior. Through surface expression or transfer of peptide-loaded MHCII, expression of costimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules, as well as the secretion of polarizing cytokines, these innate cells can extensively communicate with effector and regulatory CD4+ T cells...
November 27, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Jin Yong Kim, Bo Mi Kang, Ji Su Lee, Hi-Jung Park, Hae Joo Wi, Ji-Seon Yoon, Curie Ahn, Sue Shin, Kyu Han Kim, Kyeong Cheon Jung, Ohsang Kwon
Dendritic cells (DCs) are key targets for immunity and tolerance induction; they present donor antigens to recipient T cells by donor- and recipient-derived pathways. Donor-derived DCs, which are critical during the acute posttransplantation period, can be depleted in graft tissue by forced migration via UVB irradiation. Here, we investigated the tolerogenic potential of donor-derived DC depletion through in vivo and ex vivo UVB preirradiation (UV) combined with injection of anti-CD154 Ab into recipients in an MHC-mismatched hair follicle (HF) allograft model in humanized mice...
November 30, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
Anne-Laure Flamar, Henri Bonnabau, Sandra Zurawski, Christine Lacabaratz, Monica Montes, Laura Richert, Aurelie Wiedemann, Lindsey Galmin, Deborah Weiss, Anthony Cristillo, Lauren Hudacik, Andres Salazar, Cécile Peltekian, Rodolphe Thiebaut, Gerard Zurawski, Yves Levy
HIV-1 infection can be controlled by anti-retroviral drug therapy, but this is a lifetime treatment and the virus remains latent and rapidly rebounds if therapy is stopped. HIV-1-infected individuals under this drug regimen have increased rates of cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and autoimmunity due to compromised immunity. A therapeutic vaccine boosting cellular immunity against HIV-1 is therefore desirable and, possibly combined with other immune modulating agents, could obviate the need for long-term drug therapies...
2018: PloS One
David A Close, Allen Xinwei Wang, Stanton J Kochanek, Tongying Shun, Julie L Eiseman, Paul A Johnston
Animal and clinical studies demonstrate that cancer drug combinations (DCs) are more effective than single agents. However, it is difficult to predict which DCs will be more efficacious than individual drugs. Systematic DC high-throughput screening (HTS) of 100 approved drugs in the National Cancer Institute's panel of 60 cancer cell lines (NCI-60) produced data to help select DCs for further consideration. We miniaturized growth inhibition assays into 384-well format, increased the fetal bovine serum amount to 10%, lengthened compound exposure to 72 h, and used a homogeneous detection reagent...
November 30, 2018: SLAS Discovery
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