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Weimin Bai, Guanglong Xu, Mingyue Tan, Zhijie Yang, Lijun Zeng, Di Wu, Libin Liu, Ligang Zhang
β-type (with bcc structure) titanium alloys have been widely used as artificial implants in the medical field due to their favorable properties. Among them, Ti-Mo alloy attracted numerous interests as metallic biomaterials. Understanding of kinetic characteristics of Ti alloys is critical to understand and manipulate the phase transformation and microstructure evolution during homogenization and precipitation. In this work, diffusion couple technique was employed to investigate the diffusion behaviors in bcc Ti-Mo-Zr alloys...
October 8, 2018: Materials
R Böttcher, H T Langhammer, S Kücker, C Eisenschmidt, S G Ebbinghaus
Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) investigations of BaTiO3   +  0.04 BaO  +  x/2 Fe2 O3 (0.007  ⩽  x  ⩽  0.05) ceramics and BaTi0.98 Fe0.02 O3 single crystals were performed to study the incorporation of Fe ions in the hexagonal 6H-BaTiO3 lattice and their defect properties. The samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction and wavelength-dispersive x-ray electron probe microanalysis. EPR spectra were recorded both in X- and Q-bands at room temperature. Angle-dependent single crystal EPR investigations and simulations of the ceramic powder EPR spectra revealed three different centers, which can be attributed to Fe3+ ions incorporated on crystallographically different Ti sites...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Zhuguo Li, Mariko Nagashima, Ko Ikeda
Long-term immobilization ratios of strontium (Sr2+ ) and cesium (Cs⁺) in paper sludge ash-based geopolymer (PS-GP) were investigated in one year. PS-GP paste specimens were prepared in the conditions of 20 °C and 100% R.H., using two kinds of paper sludge ash (PS-ash). Two kinds of alkaline solution were used in the PS-GP as activator. One was prepared by diluting aqueous Na-disilicate (water glass) with seawater. Another was a mixture of this solution and caustic soda of 10 M concentration. When seawater was mixed into the alkaline solution, unstable fixations of Sr2+ and Cs⁺ were greatly improved, resulting stable and high immobilization ratios at any age up to one year, no matter what kind of PS-ash and alkaline solution were used...
August 24, 2018: Materials
J M Xiang, G B Mi, S J Qu, X Huang, Z Chen, A H Feng, J Shen, D L Chen
The high-temperature structural applications of Ti2 AlNb-based alloys, such as in jet engines and gas turbines, inevitably require oxidation resistance. The objective of this study is to seek fundamental insight into the oxidation behavior of a Ti2 AlNb-based alloy via detailed microstructural characterization of oxide scale and scale/substrate interface after oxidation at 800 °C using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
August 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
S E Challinger, I D Baikie, G Flannigan, S Halls, K Laing, L Daly, N Nic Daeid
Most traditional techniques to recover latent fingermarks from metallic surfaces do not consider the metal surface properties and instead focus on the fingermark chemistry. The scanning Kelvin probe (SKP) technique is a non-contact, non-destructive method, used under ambient conditions, which can be utilised to recover latent prints from metallic surfaces and does not require any enhancement techniques or prevent subsequent forensic analysis. Where a fingermark ridge contacted the metal, the contact potential difference (CPD) contrast between the background surface and the fingermark contact area was 10-50mV...
July 30, 2018: Forensic Science International
Svetlana Shkolyar, Jack D Farmer
Assessing biosignature preservation potential (BPP) in ancient habitable environments on Mars is a top NASA priority. We address this goal through the study of Miocene-Pliocene evaporites of the Verde Formation (central Arizona). We assessed the effects of diagenesis on BPP, integrating outcrop-scale observations with six lab analyses: thin-section petrography, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, total organic carbon (TOC), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and visible to near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectroscopy...
August 20, 2018: Astrobiology
Shenghui Guo, Xiaolei Ye, Liang Wang, Sivasankar Koppala, Li Yang, Tu Hu, Jiyun Gao, Ming Hou, Longtao Hu
Microwave pressureless sintering (MPS) method is successfully applied in the fabrication of Cu based metallic matrix for diamond tools. The main purpose of this work is to obtain better mechanical properties when the metal binder of the diamond tools was prepared by the MPS method. The orthogonal experimental method is adopted to design the sintering process parameters. The optimized experimental conditions are suggested as 880 °C of sintering temperature, 375 MPa of cold pressure, and 35 min of withholding time...
August 16, 2018: Materials
Franck Tessier
Nitrogen (and also oxygen) determination has become an important parameter to characterize (oxy)nitride materials for many properties and applications. Analyzing such anions with accuracy is still a challenge for some materials. However, to date, a large panel of methodologies is available to answer this issue with relevant results, even for thin films. Carrier gas hot extraction techniques and electron probe microanalysis with wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (EPMA-WDS) look attractive to analyze bulk materials and thin films, respectively...
August 1, 2018: Materials
Yanan Fang, Sam J Page, Gregory J Rees, Maxim Avdeev, John V Hanna, Tim J White
Vanadate ellestadites Ca10 (SiO4 ) x (VO4 )6-2 x (SO4 ) x Cl2 , serving as prototype crystalline matrices for the fixation of pentavalent toxic metals (V, Cr, As), were synthesized and characterized by powder X-ray and neutron diffraction (PXRD and PND), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SS-NMR). The ellestadites 0.19 < x < 3 adopt the P63 / m structure, while the vanadate endmember Ca10 (VO4 )6 Cl2 is triclinic with space group P1̅...
August 6, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Tzu-Ruei Yang, Ying-Hsuan Chen, Jasmina Wiemann, Beate Spiering, P Martin Sander
The cuticle layer consisting mainly of lipids and hydroxyapatite (HAp) atop the mineralized avian eggshell is a protective structure that prevents the egg from dehydration and microbial invasions. Previous ornithological studies have revealed that the cuticle layer is also involved in modulating the reflectance of eggshells in addition to pigments (protoporphyrin and biliverdin). Thus, the cuticle layer represents a crucial trait that delivers ecological signals. While present in most modern birds, direct evidence for cuticle preservation in stem birds and non-avian dinosaurs is yet missing...
2018: PeerJ
Parinya Chindudsadeegul, Matinee Jamkratoke
Regarding gemstone identification, the effect of heat treatment under reduction condition to optical and luminescence properties of natural green apatite (Ca5 (PO4 )3 OH, F, Cl) from Madagascar has been investigated. Although electron microprobe analysis (EPMA) shows a luminescence defect of rare earth element such as Ce (0.47%), Pr (0.22%) and Nd (0.15%), however original sample does not show luminescence properties. With consecutive heating process, the color alteration from green to colorless of samples, and also the enhancement of luminescence properties of Ce3+ in natural apatite was observed...
November 5, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Seishi Hagihara, Jun Aoyama, Daniel Limbong, Katsumi Tsukamoto
A total of 261 individuals of the four tropical eel species, Anguilla celebesensis, Anguilla marmorata, Anguilla bicolor pacifica and Anguilla interioris, were collected from 12 locations around Sulawesi Island, Indonesia, to gain knowledge about the riverine distribution of tropical eels. Anguilla marmorata was predominant in the lower reaches of Poso River (94·4% of total eel catch in the sampling area), Poso Lake (93·3%), three small inlet rivers of Tomini Bay (100%) and Laa River (92·3%). Anguilla celebesensis occurred frequently in the inlet rivers of Poso Lake (63·5%)...
July 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Arash Panahifar, L Dean Chapman, Lynn Weber, Nazanin Samadi, David M L Cooper
Bone acts as a reservoir for many trace elements. Understanding the extent and pattern of elemental accumulation in the skeleton is important from diagnostic, therapeutic, and toxicological perspectives. Some elements are simply adsorbed to bone surfaces by electric force and are buried under bone mineral, while others can replace calcium atoms in the hydroxyapatite structure. In this article, we investigated the extent and pattern of skeletal uptake of barium and strontium in two different age groups, growing, and skeletally mature, in healthy rats...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
Abhay Kumar, Stephen Joseph, Ludmila Tsechansky, Karen Privat, Inga J Schreiter, Christoph Schüth, Ellen R Graber
Adding biochar to Zn-contaminated soil can immobilize excess Zn and promote plant biomass growth. This was seen previously over the course of a 180-day planted pot trial involving two types of biochar (cattle manure, CM, and grain husk, GH) in a Zn-contaminated soil. Both biochars alleviated Zn-induced phytotoxicity to Ficus by immobilizing Zn and reducing its uptake by the plant, but to different extents. The aim of the current study was to delve into the in-soil mechanisms involved in biochar-mediated Zn immobilization...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
S Hagihara, J Aoyama, D Limbong, K Tsukamoto
A total of 261 individuals of the four tropical eel species, Anguilla celebesensis, Anguilla marmorata, Anguilla bicolor pacifica and Anguilla interioris, were collected from 12 locations around Sulawesi Island, Indonesia, to gain knowledge about the riverine distribution of tropical eels. Anguilla marmorata was predominant in the lower reaches of Poso River (94·4% of total eel catch in the sampling area), Poso Lake (93·3%), three small inlet rivers of Tomini Bay (100%) and Laa River (92·3%). Anguilla celebesensis occurred frequently in the inlet rivers of Poso Lake (63·5%)...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Sheng Zhang, Yuting He, Teng Zhang, Guirong Wang, Xu Du
The atmospheric corrosion of epoxy prime coated aluminum alloy 7075-T6 exposed for 7, 12 and 20 years was investigated. The remaining thicknesses of epoxy prime coatings for macroscopically intact coating areas followed a normal distribution and decreased linearly. EIS results demonstrated that the corrosion resistance of the coating decreased with exposure time. After 20 years of exposure, the epoxy coating had lost its protection as cracks existed within the coating and exfoliation corrosion had occurred on the substrate...
June 7, 2018: Materials
Taizou Hirano, Tadahisa Numakura, Hiroshi Moriyama, Ryoko Saito, Yutaka Shishikura, Jun Shiihara, Hisatoshi Sugiura, Masakazu Ichinose
BACKGROUND: Occupational lung diseases, such as pneumoconiosis, are one of the health problems of dental workers that have been receiving increasing interest. Pulmonary amyloidosis is a heterogenous group of diseases, and can be classified into primary (idiopathic) and secondary (associated with various inflammatory diseases, hereditary, or neoplastic). To date, the development of pulmonary amyloidosis in dental workers has not been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: A 58-year-old Japanese female presented with chest discomfort and low-grade fever that has persisted for 2 months...
May 22, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Feng Li, Xiaosong Jiang, Zhenyi Shao, Degui Zhu, Minhao Zhu
Biomaterial composites made of titanium and hydroxyapatite (HA) powder are among the most important biomedicalmaterials due to their good mechanical properties and biocompatibility. In this work, graphene-reinforced titanium matrix/nano-hydroxyapatite nanocomposites were prepared by vacuum hot-pressing sintering. The microstructure and mechanical properties of graphene-reinforced titanium matrix/nano-hydroxyapatite nanocomposites with different graphene content were systematically investigated. Microstructures of the nanocomposites were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), back scattered electron imaging (BSE), scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA), and transmission electron microscope (TEM)...
April 16, 2018: Materials
Chih-Wei Huang, Jong-Ning Aoh
In the present work, we proposed a novel friction stir processing (FSP) to produce a locally reinforced aluminum matrix composite (AMC) by stirring copper-coated SiC particulate reinforcement into Al6061 alloy matrix. Electroless-plating process was applied to deposit the copper surface coating on the SiC particulate reinforcement for the purpose of improving the interfacial adhesion between SiC particles and Al matrix. The core-shell SiC structure provides a layer for the atomic diffusion between aluminum and copper to enhance the cohesion between reinforcing particles and matrix on one hand, the dispersion of fine copper in the Al matrix during FSP provides further dispersive strengthening and solid solution strengthening, on the other hand...
April 13, 2018: Materials
Nilanjal Misra, Virendra Kumar, Swarnima Rawat, Narender Kumar Goel, Shubhangi A Shelkar, Jagannath, Rakesh Kumar Singhal, Lalit Varshney
Catalytic reduction of Cr(VI) to less toxic Cr(III) form using metal nanoparticles is one of the novel approaches adopted to deal with Cr toxicity. In this work, we report the fabrication of a facile, reusable, and robust Pd nanoparticles-immobilized catalytic reactor (Pd-NICaR) system using green, environment-friendly gamma radiolytic, and plasma polymerization processes. A room temperature, RF-powered plasma polymerization process was employed to functionalize a polyethylene-polypropylene (PE-PP) non-woven matrix with epoxy group containing monomer 2,3-epoxypropyl methacrylate (EPMA)...
June 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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