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Franck Tessier
Nitrogen (and also oxygen) determination has become an important parameter to characterize (oxy)nitride materials for many properties and applications. Analyzing such anions with accuracy is still a challenge for some materials. However, to date, a large panel of methodologies is available to answer this issue with relevant results, even for thin films. Carrier gas hot extraction techniques and electron probe microanalysis with wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (EPMA-WDS) look attractive to analyze bulk materials and thin films, respectively...
August 1, 2018: Materials
Yanan Fang, Sam J Page, Gregory J Rees, Maxim Avdeev, John V Hanna, Tim J White
Vanadate ellestadites Ca10 (SiO4 ) x (VO4 )6-2 x (SO4 ) x Cl2 , serving as prototype crystalline matrices for the fixation of pentavalent toxic metals (V, Cr, As), were synthesized and characterized by powder X-ray and neutron diffraction (PXRD and PND), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SS-NMR). The ellestadites 0.19 < x < 3 adopt the P63 / m structure, while the vanadate endmember Ca10 (VO4 )6 Cl2 is triclinic with space group P1̅...
August 6, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Tzu-Ruei Yang, Ying-Hsuan Chen, Jasmina Wiemann, Beate Spiering, P Martin Sander
The cuticle layer consisting mainly of lipids and hydroxyapatite (HAp) atop the mineralized avian eggshell is a protective structure that prevents the egg from dehydration and microbial invasions. Previous ornithological studies have revealed that the cuticle layer is also involved in modulating the reflectance of eggshells in addition to pigments (protoporphyrin and biliverdin). Thus, the cuticle layer represents a crucial trait that delivers ecological signals. While present in most modern birds, direct evidence for cuticle preservation in stem birds and non-avian dinosaurs is yet missing...
2018: PeerJ
Parinya Chindudsadeegul, Matinee Jamkratoke
Regarding gemstone identification, the effect of heat treatment under reduction condition to optical and luminescence properties of natural green apatite (Ca5 (PO4 )3 OH, F, Cl) from Madagascar has been investigated. Although electron microprobe analysis (EPMA) shows a luminescence defect of rare earth element such as Ce (0.47%), Pr (0.22%) and Nd (0.15%), however original sample does not show luminescence properties. With consecutive heating process, the color alteration from green to colorless of samples, and also the enhancement of luminescence properties of Ce3+ in natural apatite was observed...
June 18, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
S Hagihara, J Aoyama, D Limbong, K Tsukamoto
A total of 261 individuals of the four tropical eel species, Anguilla celebesensis, Anguilla marmorata, Anguilla bicolor pacifica and Anguilla interioris, were collected from 12 locations around Sulawesi Island, Indonesia, to gain knowledge about the riverine distribution of tropical eels. Anguilla marmorata was predominant in the lower reaches of Poso River (94·4% of total eel catch in the sampling area), Poso Lake (93·3%), three small inlet rivers of Tomini Bay (100%) and Laa River (92·3%). Anguilla celebesensis occurred frequently in the inlet rivers of Poso Lake (63·5%)...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Arash Panahifar, L Dean Chapman, Lynn Weber, Nazanin Samadi, David M L Cooper
Bone acts as a reservoir for many trace elements. Understanding the extent and pattern of elemental accumulation in the skeleton is important from diagnostic, therapeutic, and toxicological perspectives. Some elements are simply adsorbed to bone surfaces by electric force and are buried under bone mineral, while others can replace calcium atoms in the hydroxyapatite structure. In this article, we investigated the extent and pattern of skeletal uptake of barium and strontium in two different age groups, growing, and skeletally mature, in healthy rats...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
Abhay Kumar, Stephen Joseph, Ludmila Tsechansky, Karen Privat, Inga J Schreiter, Christoph Schüth, Ellen R Graber
Adding biochar to Zn-contaminated soil can immobilize excess Zn and promote plant biomass growth. This was seen previously over the course of a 180-day planted pot trial involving two types of biochar (cattle manure, CM, and grain husk, GH) in a Zn-contaminated soil. Both biochars alleviated Zn-induced phytotoxicity to Ficus by immobilizing Zn and reducing its uptake by the plant, but to different extents. The aim of the current study was to delve into the in-soil mechanisms involved in biochar-mediated Zn immobilization...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
S Hagihara, J Aoyama, D Limbong, K Tsukamoto
A total of 261 individuals of the four tropical eel species, Anguilla celebesensis, Anguilla marmorata, Anguilla bicolor pacifica and Anguilla interioris, were collected from 12 locations around Sulawesi Island, Indonesia, to gain knowledge about the riverine distribution of tropical eels. Anguilla marmorata was predominant in the lower reaches of Poso River (94·4% of total eel catch in the sampling area), Poso Lake (93·3%), three small inlet rivers of Tomini Bay (100%) and Laa River (92·3%). Anguilla celebesensis occurred frequently in the inlet rivers of Poso Lake (63·5%)...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Sheng Zhang, Yuting He, Teng Zhang, Guirong Wang, Xu Du
The atmospheric corrosion of epoxy prime coated aluminum alloy 7075-T6 exposed for 7, 12 and 20 years was investigated. The remaining thicknesses of epoxy prime coatings for macroscopically intact coating areas followed a normal distribution and decreased linearly. EIS results demonstrated that the corrosion resistance of the coating decreased with exposure time. After 20 years of exposure, the epoxy coating had lost its protection as cracks existed within the coating and exfoliation corrosion had occurred on the substrate...
June 7, 2018: Materials
Taizou Hirano, Tadahisa Numakura, Hiroshi Moriyama, Ryoko Saito, Yutaka Shishikura, Jun Shiihara, Hisatoshi Sugiura, Masakazu Ichinose
BACKGROUND: Occupational lung diseases, such as pneumoconiosis, are one of the health problems of dental workers that have been receiving increasing interest. Pulmonary amyloidosis is a heterogenous group of diseases, and can be classified into primary (idiopathic) and secondary (associated with various inflammatory diseases, hereditary, or neoplastic). To date, the development of pulmonary amyloidosis in dental workers has not been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: A 58-year-old Japanese female presented with chest discomfort and low-grade fever that has persisted for 2 months...
May 22, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Feng Li, Xiaosong Jiang, Zhenyi Shao, Degui Zhu, Minhao Zhu
Biomaterial composites made of titanium and hydroxyapatite (HA) powder are among the most important biomedicalmaterials due to their good mechanical properties and biocompatibility. In this work, graphene-reinforced titanium matrix/nano-hydroxyapatite nanocomposites were prepared by vacuum hot-pressing sintering. The microstructure and mechanical properties of graphene-reinforced titanium matrix/nano-hydroxyapatite nanocomposites with different graphene content were systematically investigated. Microstructures of the nanocomposites were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), back scattered electron imaging (BSE), scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA), and transmission electron microscope (TEM)...
April 16, 2018: Materials
Chih-Wei Huang, Jong-Ning Aoh
In the present work, we proposed a novel friction stir processing (FSP) to produce a locally reinforced aluminum matrix composite (AMC) by stirring copper-coated SiC particulate reinforcement into Al6061 alloy matrix. Electroless-plating process was applied to deposit the copper surface coating on the SiC particulate reinforcement for the purpose of improving the interfacial adhesion between SiC particles and Al matrix. The core-shell SiC structure provides a layer for the atomic diffusion between aluminum and copper to enhance the cohesion between reinforcing particles and matrix on one hand, the dispersion of fine copper in the Al matrix during FSP provides further dispersive strengthening and solid solution strengthening, on the other hand...
April 13, 2018: Materials
Nilanjal Misra, Virendra Kumar, Swarnima Rawat, Narender Kumar Goel, Shubhangi A Shelkar, Jagannath, Rakesh Kumar Singhal, Lalit Varshney
Catalytic reduction of Cr(VI) to less toxic Cr(III) form using metal nanoparticles is one of the novel approaches adopted to deal with Cr toxicity. In this work, we report the fabrication of a facile, reusable, and robust Pd nanoparticles-immobilized catalytic reactor (Pd-NICaR) system using green, environment-friendly gamma radiolytic, and plasma polymerization processes. A room temperature, RF-powered plasma polymerization process was employed to functionalize a polyethylene-polypropylene (PE-PP) non-woven matrix with epoxy group containing monomer 2,3-epoxypropyl methacrylate (EPMA)...
June 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yuuki Sakaue, Shoji Takenaka, Tatsuya Ohsumi, Hisanori Domon, Yutaka Terao, Yuichiro Noiri
BACKGROUND: Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) has been proven to be effective in preventing and controlling biofilm formation. At the same time, an increase in calculus formation is known as one of considerable side effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether mineral deposition preceding a calculus formation would occur at an early stage after the use of CHG using an in vitro saliva-related biofilm model. METHODS: Biofilms were developed on the MBEC™ device in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth containing 0...
March 27, 2018: BMC Oral Health
Tadeusz Dziok, Andrzej Strugała, Adam Włodek
During the cokemaking process, a significant amount of mercury occurring in a coal blend is released to the atmosphere. One of the ways of reducing this emission is to reduce mercury content in a coal blend. This could be obtained through the coal washing process. The optimization of this process requires the knowledge of mercury occurrence in coal, especially in its inorganic constituents. A qualitative analysis of mercury occurrence in the inorganic constituents of Polish coking coals was performed using an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA)...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Toshihiro Suzuki, Shuhei Sakata, Yoshiki Makino, Hideyuki Obayashi, Seiya Ohara, Kentaro Hattori, Takafumi Hirata
We report on the development of a software program named iQuant2 which creates visual images from two-dimensional signal intensity data obtained by a laser ablation-ICP-mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) technique. Time-resolved signal intensity profiles can be converted to position resolved signal intensity data based on the rastering rate (μm s-1 ) of the laser ablation. Background signal intensities obtained without laser ablation (gas blank) are used as the background, and all of the blank-subtracted intensity data can be used for the imaging analysis...
2018: Mass Spectrometry
Muhammed A P Manzoor, M Mujeeburahiman, Punchappady-Devasya Rekha
Urinary stones are complex mineralogical formations in the urinary system often impairing the kidney function. Several studies have attempted to understand the mechanisms of stone formation and growth; however, it remains to be fully explored. Here, we present a detailed investigation on the morphological and mineralogical characterizations of urinary stones. Structural properties of different types of urinary stones were done by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) analyses...
March 5, 2018: Urolithiasis
Ben Buse, Stuart Kearns
Quantification of first series transition metal Lα X-rays is hampered by absorption and in some cases transition probabilities (fluorescence yields) varying with chemical bonding. Compound mass absorption coefficients for Fe Lα were measured in the olivine solid solution series [Forsterite (Mg2SiO4) to Fayalite (Fe2SiO4)] and the mass absorption coefficients for Fe Lα absorbed by Fe were calculated. The mass absorption coefficients vary systematically between Fo83 and Fo0. Using the measured mass absorption coefficients for both standard and unknown and by correcting for a systematic discrepancy, consistent with varying partial fluorescence yields, a good agreement between calculated k-ratios and measured k-ratios is achieved...
February 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Cheng-Hsun Hsu, Chung-Kwei Lin, Wei-Che Huang, Dai-Wei Lai
This study utilized cathodic arc deposition technology to coat Ti-Al-N hard films on AISI 4340 alloy steel. Composition, morphology, and structure of the coatings were analyzed using EPMA, FESEM, XRD, and TEM. Both wear tests and polarization tests were conducted to determine the abrasion and corrosion properties of the steel before and after coating. The results showed that a specific (Ti, Al)N nanostructured multilayer was synthesized smoothly. The multilayer consisted of 10 nm-TiN and 15 nm-TiAlN interaction layers...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
F Failamani, R Podloucky, J Bursik, G Rogl, H Michor, H Müller, E Bauer, G Giester, P Rogl
The crystal structures of two novel borides in the Ni-Zn-B system, τ5 -Ni3 Zn2 B and τ6 -Ni2 ZnB, were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRSC) in combination with selected area electron diffraction in a transmission electron microscope (SAED-TEM) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Both compounds crystallize in unique structure types (space group C2/m, a = 1.68942(8) nm, b = 0.26332(1) nm, c = 0.61904(3) nm, β = 111.164(2)°, RF = 0.0219 for Ni3 Zn2 B, and space group C2/m, a = 0.95296(7) nm, b = 0...
March 6, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
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