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ceramide skin

Charlotte M Beddoes, Gert S Gooris, Joke A Bouwstra
The lipid matrix of the stratum corneum - the outermost skin layer - consists primarily of ceramides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids (FFAs). These lipids form a trilayer long periodicity phase (LPP) that is unique to this barrier. Knowledge about the LPP is essential to understand the barrier function. Previous studies of LPP lipid models have identified the position of the major lipid classes and, suggested that a large fraction of FFAs and the ceramide acyl chain are present in the central region. However, the precise arrangement, such as lipid subclass mixing (isolated or mixed) and ceramide conformation (extended or hairpin) remains unknown...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
David L Vollmer, Virginia A West, Edwin D Lephart
The history of cosmetics goes back to early Egyptian times for hygiene and health benefits while the history of topical applications that provide a medicinal treatment to combat dermal aging is relatively new. For example, the term cosmeceutical was first coined by Albert Kligman in 1984 to describe topical products that afford both cosmetic and therapeutic benefits. However, beauty comes from the inside. Therefore, for some time scientists have considered how nutrition reflects healthy skin and the aging process...
October 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Michaela Sochorová, Pavla Audrlická, Martina Červená, Andrej Kováčik, Monika Kopečná, Lukáš Opálka, Petra Pullmannová, Kateřina Vávrová
Cholesterol (Chol) is one of the major skin barrier lipids. The physiological level of Chol in the stratum corneum (SC) appears to exceed its miscibility with other barrier lipids, as some Chol is phase separated. Chol synthesis is essential for epidermal homeostasis, yet the role of these Chol domains in SC permeability is unknown. We investigated the impact of Chol depletion on the permeability properties and microstructure of model membranes and human SC. X-ray powder diffraction of membranes constructed from isolated human skin ceramides or synthetic ceramides confirmed that only approximately half of the normal Chol amount can be incorporated in either long or short periodicity lamellar phases...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Shogo Takeda, Hiroshi Shimoda, Toru Takarada, Genji Imokawa
The activation of peroxisomeproliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α can stimulate the expression of ceramide-related enzymes, and a major component of strawberry seed extract (SSE) tiliroside enhances the expression of PPARα. We determined whether SSE and tiliroside may stimulate ceramide synthesis in the stratum corneum (SC) of the human epidermal equivalents (HEEs) culture model. Treatment with SSE at 1.0 and 3.0 μg/mL elicited a significant increase in the total ceramide content in the SC, which was accompanied by a significant increase in almost all ceramide species except for ceramide [EOS] and [AP]...
2018: PloS One
Thomas Schmitt, Reinhard H H Neubert
This review is summarizing an important part of the state of the art in stratum corneum research. A complete overview on discoveries about the general biophysical and physicochemical properties of the known ceramide species' is provided. The ceramides are one of the three major components of the lipid matrix and mainly govern its properties and structure. They are shown to exhibit very little redundancy, despite the minor differences in their chemical structure. The results are discussed, compared to each other as well as the current base of knowledge...
October 3, 2018: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Tetsuya Hirabayashi, Makoto Murakami, Akio Kihara
The human genome encodes nine enzymes belonging to the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing lipase (PNPLA)/Ca2+ -independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2 ) family. Although most PNPLA/iPLA2 enzymes are widely distributed and act on phospholipids or neutral lipids as (phospho)lipases to play homeostatic roles in lipid metabolism, the function of PNPLA1 remained a mystery until a few years ago. However, the recent finding that mutations in the human PNPLA1 gene are linked to autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI), as well as evidence obtained from biochemical and gene knockout studies, has shed light on the function of this enzyme in skin-specific sphingolipid metabolism rather than glycerophospholipid metabolism...
October 2, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular and cell biology of lipids
Raoul Vyumvuhore, Rime Michael-Jubeli, Laurie Verzeaux, David Boudier, Maud Le Guillou, Sylvie Bordes, Danielle Libong, Ali Tfayli, Michel Manfait, Brigitte Closs
OBJECTIVE: Although xerosis is a common skin disorder among the population, there is no in vivo global study focusing on xerotic skin. Hence, the objective of this study was to characterize xerotic skin from the surface to the molecular scale with in vivo and non-invasive approaches. METHODS: For this purpose, 15 healthy volunteers with normal skin and 19 healthy volunteers with xerotic skin were selected by a dermatologist thanks to a visual scorage. Firstly, the skin surface was characterized with biometric measurements...
October 4, 2018: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
Eva Harazim, Vladimir Vrkoslav, Milos Budesinsky, Petr Harazim, Martin Svoboda, Richard Plavka, Zuzana Bosakova, Josef Cvacka
Vernix caseosa, the waxy substance that coats the skin of newborn babies, has an extremely complex lipid composition. We have explored these lipids and identified non-hydroxylated 1- O -acylceramides (1- O -ENS) as a new class of lipids in vernix caseosa. These ceramides mostly contain saturated C11 to C38 ester-linked (1- O ) acyls, saturated C12 to C39 amide-linked acyls, and C16 to C24 sphingoid bases. Since their fatty acyl chains are frequently branched, numerous molecular species were separable and detectable by HPLC/MS: we found more than 2,300 molecular species, 972 of which were structurally characterized...
September 25, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Philip W Wertz
The primary purpose of the epidermis of terrestrial vertebrates is to produce the stratum corneum, which serves as the interface between the organism and the environment. As such, the stratum corneum provides a permeability barrier which both limits water loss through the skin and provides a relatively tough permeability barrier. This provides for a degree of resistance to mechanical trauma and prevents or limits penetration of potentially harmful substances from the environment. The stratum corneum consists of an array of keratinized cells embedded in a lipid matrix...
2018: Journal of Lipids
Surendra Kumar, Dharmendra Kumar Yadav, Eun-Ha Choi, Mi-Hyun Kim
Non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation of the skin-lipid bilayer causes perturbations that affect the biomembrane structure, function, and permeability of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, we employed molecular dynamics simulations to study the effect of lipid peroxidation on the bilayer structural properties and permeability of various ROS. The oxidized skin-lipid bilayer was composed of ceramide, cholesterol, free fatty acid, and 5α-hydroperoxycholesterol (5α-CH). The simulation showed that, upon oxidation, the oxidized group (-OOH) of 5α-CH migrates towards the aqueous phase and the backbone of 5α-CH tilts, which causes the membrane to expand laterally...
September 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anna Fujiwara, Masashi Morifuji, Masami Kitade, Keiko Kawahata, Tomoyuki Fukasawa, Taketo Yamaji, Hiroyuki Itoh, Makoto Kawashima
The stratum corneum (SC) consists of corneocytes surrounded by a neutral lipid-enriched intercellular matrix. Ceramides represent approximately 50% of intercellular lipids, and play important roles in retaining epidermal water. The SC also contains covalently bound ceramides, which are thought to play a crucial role in the formation of lamellar structures, and are involved in maintaining skin barrier function. A previous report showed that levels of free ceramides in human SC changed with the seasons and age, although whether the content of different species of covalently bound ceramides also underwent such temporal changes was unclear...
November 2018: Archives of Dermatological Research
Huisuk Yang, Suyong Kim, Mingyu Jang, Hyeonjun Kim, Seunghee Lee, Youseong Kim, Younghyon Andrew Eom, Geonwoo Kang, Liching Chiang, Ji Hwoon Baek, Ja Hyun Ryu, Ye Eun Lee, Jaesuk Koh, Hyungil Jung
BACKGROUND: Dissolving microneedles (DMNs) have been used for skin restoration and wrinkle improvement. Although lipophilic compounds, for example, natural oils or ceramides, enrich the skin barrier, their delivery via DMNs is challenging because of DMN fabrication difficulties. OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we combined a topical formulation and a DMN patch to perform two-phase delivery comprising a lipophilic formulation and hydrophilic compound-loaded DMNs to improve skin barrier status and the efficacy of drug delivery...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Kyong-Oh Shin, Sung Jay Choe, Yoshikazu Uchida, Inyong Kim, Yoonhwa Jeong, Kyungho Park
The cutaneous wound healing process is tightly regulated by a range of cellular responses, including migration. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a signaling lipid produced in keratinocytes (KC) and it is known to stimulate skin wound repair through increased KC migration. Of the multifunctional triterpene ginsenosides, Rb1 enhances cutaneous wound healing process by increasing KC migration, but cellular mechanisms responsible for the Rb1-mediated increase in KC migration are largely unknown. Therefore, we hypothesized that, and assessed whether, Rb1 could stimulate KC migration through S1P-dependent mechanisms...
August 27, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
Johannes Wohlrab, Alexandra Gebert, Reinhard H H Neubert
The pH value is identified as an essential determinant for the lipid synthesis in the stratum corneum (SC). The activity of the enzymes that catalyse the transformation of lipid precursors into ceramides, free fatty acids or cholesterol highly depends on pH value. Additionally, there are substantial indications for pH conditions to have a direct effect on the molecular structure of the membranes and their properties. Knowledge about the sigmoidal pH gradient within the corneal layer also provides understanding of the pathological processes in a dysfunctional barrier...
2018: Current Problems in Dermatology
Katsura Mori, Tsuyoshi Seki, Kazuhiro Kaizu, Yutaka Takagi, Masahiro Miyaki, Chiaki Ishizaki, Ichiro Katayama
BACKGROUND: Skin moisturizing is advocated to take care of the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). However, many patients stop using moisturizers in the summer because of excessive sweating and high humidity. OBJECTIVES: To examine the efficacy of a moisturizing gel containing a pseudo-ceramide and a eucalyptus extract, which enhances epidermal ceramide synthesis of patients with mild AD in the summer. METHODS: We performed a single-blinded 4-week clinical trial of body care on 44 Japanese subjects who had mild AD...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Matteo Ludovici, Nina Kozul, Stefano Materazzi, Roberta Risoluti, Mauro Picardo, Emanuela Camera
The skin surface lipids (SSL) result from the blending of sebaceous and epidermal lipids, which derive from the sebaceous gland (SG) secretion and the permeability barrier of the stratum corneum (SC), respectively. In humans, the composition of the SSL is distinctive of the anatomical distribution of the SG. Thus, the abundance of sebum biomarkers is consistent with the density of the SG. Limited evidence on the influence that the SG exerts on the SC lipidome is available. We explored the differential amounts of sebaceous and epidermal lipids in areas at different SG density with lipidomics approaches...
July 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
Djahida Bedja, Wenwen Yan, Viren Lad, Domenica Iocco, Nickash Sivakumar, Veera Venkata Ratnam Bandaru, Subroto Chatterjee
Sphingolipids have been accorded numerous biological functions however, the effects of feeding a western diet (diet rich in cholesterol and fat) on skin phenotypes, and color is not known. Here, we observed that chronic high-fat and high-cholesterol diet intake in a mouse model of atherosclerosis (ApoE-/-) decreases the level of ceramides and glucosylceramide. At the expense of increased levels of lactosylceramide due to an increase in the expression of lactosylceramide synthase (GalT-V). This is accompanied with neutrophil infiltration into dermis, and enrichment of tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6) protein...
July 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ken Cheng, Marta Bou, Bente Ruyter, Jana Pickova, Emad Ehtesham, Liang Du, Claudia Venegas, Ali A Moazzami
Membrane lipids, including sphingolipids and glycerol-phospholipids, are essential in maintaining the skin's barrier function in mammals, but their composition in fish skin and their response to diets have not been evaluated. This study investigated the impacts of reducing dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on membrane lipids in the skin of Atlantic salmon through a 26 week feeding regime supplying different levels (0-2.0% of dry mass) of EPA/DHA. Ceramide, glucosylceramide, sphingomyelin, sphingosine, and sphinganine in salmon skin were analyzed for the first time...
August 22, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Núria Dalmau, Nathalie Andrieu-Abadie, Romà Tauler, Carmen Bedia
BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is known to be one of the most important environmental hazards acting on the skin. The most part of UV radiation is absorbed in the epidermis, where keratinocytes are the most abundant and exposed cell type. Lipids have an important role in skin biology, not only for their important contribution to the maintenance of the permeability barrier but also for the production and storage of energy, membrane organization and cell signalling functions. However, the effects on the lipid composition of keratinocytes under UV radiation are little explored...
October 2018: Journal of Dermatological Science
Theodore Zaki, Keith Choate
The ichthyoses are a heterogeneous group of skin diseases characterized by localized or generalized scaling or both. Other common manifestations include palmoplantar keratoderma, erythroderma, recurrent infections, and hypohidrosis. Abnormal barrier function is a cardinal feature of the ichthyoses, which results in compensatory hyperproliferation and transepidermal water loss. Barrier function is maintained primarily by the stratum corneum, which is composed of cornified cells surrounded by a corneocyte lipid envelope and intercellular lipid layers...
2018: F1000Research
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