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Rehab S Abdelrahman, Noha Abdel-Rahman
Drug-induced liver toxicity is the most frequent cause of acute liver failure worldwide. Hepatotoxicity caused by acetaminophen (ACT) overdose is mediated by its metabolic product promoting oxidative stress and activation of inflammatory mediators. Nuclear factor erythroid-related factor-2 (Nrf-2) induces the release of cytoprotective enzymes in response to electrophilic or oxidative stress and is considered a promising therapeutic target. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is a potent activator of (Nrf-2), its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of DMF have been highlighted recently...
December 11, 2018: Life Sciences
Torsten Bohn
Carotenoids are C-30, C-40 or C-50 terpenoids produced by a number of bacteria, fungi, and plants. In addition to acting as vitamin A precursors such as β-carotene, their dietary intake and blood plasma/serum and tissue levels have been associated in several epidemiological studies to the reduced incidence of chronic diseases, including the reduction of type 2 diabetes and other cardiometabolic diseases, as well as some types of cancer. Lutein and zeaxanthin also appear to play a role in the amelioration of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the main cause of blindness in the elderly, and may be regarded as conditionally essential nutrients for the elderly...
December 14, 2018: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
Giacomo Pepe, Eduardo Sommella, Donato Cianciarulo, Carmine Ostacolo, Michele Manfra, Veronica Di Sarno, Simona Musella, Mariateresa Russo, Antonella Messore, Barbara Parrino, Alessia Bertamino, Giuseppina Autore, Stefania Marzocco, Pietro Campiglia
Citrus fruits are often employed as ingredients for functional drinks. Among Citrus , the variety, "Lempso", a typical hybrid of the Calabria region (Southern Italy), has been reported to possess superior antioxidant activity when compared to other common Citrus varieties. For these reasons, the aim of this study is to investigate in vitro the nutraceutical value of the Tarocco clone, "Lempso", highlighting its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential. A post-column 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging assay for the screening of antioxidant compounds in these complex matrices was developed...
December 11, 2018: Nutrients
Reem T Attia, Yousra Abdel-Mottaleb, Dalaal M Abdallah, Hanan S El-Abhar, Nabila N El-Maraghy
AIM: Obesity is a continually growing pandemic leading to many diseases that affect the overall quality of life. The widely marketed Garcinia cambogia (GC) and Raspberry ketone (RK) were used in this study. Despite their known dietetic effect, however, the metabolomic/signaling pathways involved in this effect are not fully elucidated. Hence, our study comprehends the possible trajectories of their combination against obesity and insulin resistance in addition to exploring their combination merit...
December 6, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Jinyan Ye, Minqiang Guan, Yao Lu, Dan Zhang, Chengye Li, Caicun Zhou
The main goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of arbutin (AR) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury. A lung injury rat model was established by intravenous LPS administration. We found that levels of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in both serum and lung tissue were significant increased after LPS challenge. In addition, pathological conditions were examined in rat lungs, and it was demonstrated that AR-pretreatment reduced LPS-induced malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and increased LPS-induced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity...
December 5, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Chitra Basu, Runa Sur
Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) mediated oxidative stress leading to hepatocyte apoptosis plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of several chronic liver diseases. This study demonstrates that S-allyl cysteine (SAC) renders cytoprotective effects on H2 O2 induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Cell viability assay showed that SAC protected HepG2 cells from H2 O2 induced cytotoxicity. Further, SAC treatment dose dependently inhibited H2 O2 induced apoptosis via decreasing the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, restoring mitochondrial membrane potential (∆Ψm ), inhibiting mitochondrial cytochrome c release, and inhibiting proteolytic cleavage of caspase-3...
2018: BioMed Research International
Young Yoon, Yoon-Mi Lee, Sooji Song, Yu Young Lee, Kyung-Jin Yeum
Black soybeans are functional foods containing a variety of bioactives such as isoflavones, carotenoids, tocopherols, phenolic acid as well as anthocyanins. Here, we examined whether Cheongja#3 black soybean extract has a protective effect on oxidative stress-induced cell death in human keratinocytes HaCaT. First, we identified fat-soluble bioactives in three varieties of soybean extracts (Saedanbaek, Daechan, and Cheongja#3). In particular, black soybean Cheongja#3 had high amounts of lutein than other varieties...
November 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Thomas A Haglund, Namakkal S Rajasekaran, Benjamin Smood, Guruprasad A Giridharan, Charles W Hoopes, William L Holman, David C Mauchley, Sumanth D Prabhu, Salpy V Pamboukian, Jose A Tallaj, Indranee N Rajapreyar, James K Kirklin, Palaniappan Sethu
BACKGROUND: Continuous-flow ventricular assist devices (CF-VADs) produce non-physiologic flow with diminished pulsatility, which is a major risk factor for development of adverse events, including gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Introduction of artificial pulsatility by modulating CF-VAD flow has been suggested as a potential solution. However, the levels of pulsatility and frequency of CF-VAD modulation necessary to prevent adverse events are currently unknown and need to be evaluated...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Bailiang Li, Smith Etareri Evivie, Jingjing Lu, Yuehua Jiao, Chengfeng Wang, Ziye Li, Fei Liu, Guicheng Huo
Aging is commonly associated with chronic oxidative stress and mild inflammation that can cause a variety of degenerative diseases. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) provide several health benefits to the host including antioxidant activity and immune system regulation. However, there is a lack of information regarding the antioxidant mechanisms of probiotics in vivo. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the possible mechanisms for the preventive effect of LAB on aging. First, 25 LAB strains were screened for finding potential probiotics with high antioxidant capacity using in vitro methods...
November 29, 2018: Food & Function
Yingfeng Lu, Rui Li, Junyi Zhu, Yanqing Wu, Duohui Li, Lupeng Dong, Yiyang Li, Xin Wen, Fangzheng Yu, Hongyu Zhang, Xiao Ni, Shenghu Du, Xiaokun Li, Jian Xiao, Jian Wang
Seeking for effective drugs which are beneficial to facilitating axonal regrowth and elongation after peripheral nerve injury (PNI) has gained extensive attention. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic factor that regulates blood glucose and lipid homeostasis. However, there is little concern for the potential protective effect of FGF21 on nerve regeneration after PNI and revealing related molecular mechanisms. Here, we firstly found that exogenous FGF21 administration remarkably promoted functional and morphologic recovery in a rat model of sciatic crush injury, manifesting as persistently improved motor and sensory function, enhanced axonal remyelination and regrowth and accelerated Schwann cells (SCs) proliferation...
November 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Yongji Li, Zaihua Zhu, Ting Zhang, Yan Zhou
Inflammation responses and oxidative stress are closely involved in the pathogenesis of arthritis. Ligustrazine (Lig), a natural four methyl which is isolated from Chinese herb ligusticum chuanxiong hort, has been proved significantly anti-inflammation and anti-oxidative stress effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of Lig on inflammation and oxidative stress in Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA)-induced arthritis in rats. The treatment of Lig significantly decreased the hind-paw volume change and alleviated the histopathological changes in sections of rat paws induced by arthritis...
November 17, 2018: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Zhuoran Wu, Haibo Yang, Gautam Archana, Moumita Rakshit, Kee Woei Ng, Chor Yong Tay
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (Nano-ZnO) is currently one of the most extensively used inorganic particles in a wide range of skin care and consumable products. Therefore, examining the biological effects of Nano-ZnO, especially in the non-cytotoxic levels, thus holds important contemporary practical implications. Herein, our study demonstrates that long-term conditioning of human keratinocytes (HaCaTs) to non-cytoxic dose of Nano-ZnO (∼100 nm) can induce an adaptive response, leading to an enhancement of the cells tolerance against cytotoxic level of Nano-ZnO...
November 15, 2018: Nanotoxicology
Priyansha Choubey, Mohit Kwatra, Surya Narayan Pandey, Dinesh Kumar, Durgesh Kumar Dwivedi, Prabha Rajput, Abhishek Mishra, Mangala Lahkar, Ashok Jangra
BACKGROUND: Fisetin, a plant active polyphenol, is well known for its antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. The present study was designed to explore the detailed molecular mechanism underlying its neuroprotective effects. METHODS: The young male mice were either administered a single dose of lipopolysaccharide (0.83 mg/kg) or subjected to restraint stress (6 h per day for 28 days) to induce behavioral deficits in different groups. Fisetin (15 mg/kg) was orally administered for the last 14 days of the study...
November 14, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Dong Zhao, Ming-Yao Gu, Jiu Liang Xu, Li Jun Zhang, Shi Yong Ryu, Hyun Ok Yang
Ginger, one of worldwide consumed dietary spice, in fact, it is not only famous as food supplements, and also believed to exert a variety of remarkable pharmacological activity as herbal remedies. In this study, a ginger constituent, 12-dehydrogingerdione (DHGD) was proven that has comparable anti-inflammatory activity with positive control 6-shogaol in inhibiting LPS-induce dinterleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, prostaglandin (PG) E2 , nitric oxide (NO), inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, without interfering with COX-1 in cultured microglial cells...
October 26, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Jin-Ching Lee, Chun-Kuang Lin, Chin-Kai Tseng, Yeh-Long Chen, Cherng-Chyi Tzeng, Chih-Hua Tseng
Synthesis and anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) effects of certain 3-amino-2-hydroxy-propoxy isoflavone derivatives, 6a ⁻ i , were described. The known 3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-7-(oxiran-2-ylmethoxy)-4 H -chromen-4-one ( 5 ) was reacted with substituted amines to give the desired isoflavone derivatives, 6a ⁻ i . Among them, 7-{3-[(3,4-dimethoxy-phenethyl)amino]-2-hydroxypropoxy}-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4 H -chromen-4-one ( 6b ) was the most active, exhibiting approximately 2-fold higher anti-HCV effects than standard antiviral drug ribavirin (EC50 of 6...
November 2, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Simon Gutbier, Anna-Sophie Spreng, Johannes Delp, Stefan Schildknecht, Christiaan Karreman, Ilinca Suciu, Thomas Brunner, Marcus Groettrup, Marcel Leist
The development of drugs directly interfering with neurodegeneration has proven to be astonishingly difficult. Alternative therapeutic approaches could result from a better understanding of the supportive function of glial cells for stressed neurons. Therefore, here, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the endogenous neuro-defensive activity of astrocytes. A well-established model of postmitotic human dopaminergic neurons (LUHMES cells) was used in the absence ('LUHMES' mono-culture) or presence ('co-culture') of astrocytes...
December 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Jingjing Tian, Jia Hu, Guangxing Liu, Huancai Yin, Mingli Chen, Peng Miao, Pengli Bai, Jian Yin
Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, including P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multi-resistance associated proteins (Mrps), have been considered important participants in the self-protection of zebrafish embryos against environmental pollutants, but their possible involvement in the efflux and detoxification of quantum dots (QDs), as well as their regulation mechanism are currently unclear. In this work, gene expression alterations of ABC transporters, nuclear receptors, and oxidative stress signaling in zebrafish embryos after the treatment of mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)CdTe QDs and MPA-CdSCdTe QDs were investigated...
January 2019: Environmental Pollution
Durgesh Kumar Dwivedi, Dinesh Kumar, Mohit Kwatra, Surya Narayan Pandey, Priyansha Choubey, Mangala Lahkar, Ashok Jangra
Modern sedentary lifestyle with altered dietary habits imposes the risk of human health towards several metabolic disorders such as obesity. The metabolic insults negatively affect the mental health status and quality life of affected individuals. Melatonin is a potent antioxidant with anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of melatonin on the cognitive and neurochemical deficits induced by the high-fat diet (HFD) and alcohol (ALC) alone or in combination (HFD + ALC) in rats...
December 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Li-Chun Zhang, Yu Wang, Wei Liu, Xue-Min Zhang, Miao Fan, Min Zhao
AIMS: To study the protective effects and mechanisms of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) and overexpression of antioxidant gene SOD2 on lung injury by establishing a rat model of paraquat (PQ)-induced lung injury. MAIN METHODS: The hUCMSCs cell line overexpressed SOD2 was established. After intraperitoneal injection of PQ solution (24 mg/kg) 3 h later, the different groups of hUCMSCs cell lines were injected through the tail veins of rats...
December 1, 2018: Life Sciences
Azahara Rodríguez-Luna, Javier Ávila-Román, María Luisa González-Rodríguez, María José Cózar, Antonio M Rabasco, Virginia Motilva, Elena Talero
Microalgae represent a source of bio-active compounds such as carotenoids with potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. We aimed to investigate the effects of fucoxanthin (FX) in both in vitro and in vivo skin models. Firstly, its anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in LPS-stimulated THP-1 macrophages and TNF-α-stimulated HaCaT keratinocytes, and its antioxidant activity in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells. Next, in vitro and ex vivo permeation studies were developed to determine the most suitable formulation for in vivo FX topical application...
October 10, 2018: Marine Drugs
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