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confocal and microscopy

Tong Cao, Jing Pan, Xiulian Li, Yanli He, Yifei Jiang, Yajing Chang, Qi Zhang, Ying Lan, Hua Wang, Wenjie Jiao, Zibin Tian, Lijuan Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The up-regulation of hepatocyte growth factor/receptor, HGF/Met, signal transduction is observed in most of human cancers. Specific heparan sulfate structures enhance the HGF/Met signaling at both cell and animal-based model systems. Biochemical studies indicate that heparan sulfate interacts with HGF and a natural occurring splicing variant NK1 of HGF with similar affinity. However, it is currently unknown if cell surface heparan sulfate binds to Met at physiological conditions and if specific cell surface heparan sulfate structures are required for effective HGF/Met or NK1/Met signaling...
August 14, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Zhen Zhang, Zhaosheng Hou, Congde Qiao, Cong Zhu, Kejun Zhou, Xinhai Xu, Tianduo Li, Jing Xu
Understanding the assembly mechanisms of supramolecular architectures in nature is essential for the design and synthesis of novel biomaterials. In the work, self-assembly of gelatin-mono epoxy terminated polydimethylsiloxane polymer (PGG) controlled by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between gelatin and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was investigated in suit. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were conducted to reveal the structure evolution of PGG at a molecular level with the increment of SDS concentration, including micro-sized sphere, core-shell and multi-layer structure...
August 7, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Yohaan Fernandes, Mindy Rampersad, Johann K Eberhart
The term Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) describes all the deleterious consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure. Impaired social behavior is a common symptom of FASD. The zebrafish has emerged as a powerful model organism with which to examine the effects of embryonic alcohol exposure on social behavior due to an innate strong behavior, called shoaling. The relative transparency of the embryo also makes zebrafish powerful for cellular analyses, such as characterizing neural circuitry. However, as zebrafish develop, pigmentation begins to obscure the brain and other tissues...
August 11, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Philipp Tschandl, Cliff Rosendahl, Harald Kittler
Training of neural networks for automated diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions is hampered by the small size and lack of diversity of available datasets of dermatoscopic images. We tackle this problem by releasing the HAM10000 ("Human Against Machine with 10000 training images") dataset. We collected dermatoscopic images from different populations acquired and stored by different modalities. Given this diversity we had to apply different acquisition and cleaning methods and developed semi-automatic workflows utilizing specifically trained neural networks...
August 14, 2018: Scientific Data
K Y Kyaw, M Otsuki, M S Segarra, N Hiraishi, J Tagami
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of calcium-phosphate-based desensitizers, Teethmate AP paste (TMAP) and Teethmate Desensitizer (TMD) (Kuraray Noritake Dental, Tokyo, Japan), on the prevention of staining on acid-eroded enamel. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Forty polished enamel samples (4×4×1 mm) from bovine incisors were randomly divided into five groups (n=8). After immersion in 50 mL of 0.5% citric acid (pH 2.5) for 15 minutes to form acid-eroded surfaces, the surfaces were subjected to different treatments with TMAP, TMD, and NaF (0...
August 14, 2018: Operative Dentistry
Zhengkai Wei, Yanan Wang, Xu Zhang, Xiaocen Wang, Pengtao Gong, Jianhua Li, Anja Taubert, Carlos Hermosilla, Xichen Zhang, Zhengtao Yang
Macrophages are multipurpose phagocytes and are considered to be irreplaceable during the early host innate immune response against microbial and parasitic pathogens. However, no report has investigated the novel anti-parasitic mechanism of macrophage-derived extracellular traps (ETs) against the abortive apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum (N. caninum) in cattle. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to visualize and characterize N. caninum tachyzoite-induced macrophage-triggered ETs in exposed bovine macrophages...
July 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Cristina Alonso, V Carrer, C Barba, L Coderch
Confocal Raman microscopy is a novel optical method for studies of pro-drug and drug delivery. This method is a promising technique that enables non-destructive measurement of the permeation profile through skin layers. Peaks of compounds are usually normalised to skin peaks (amino-acid and amide I) for semi-quantitative evaluation. The present study seeks to optimise a methodology for complete quantitative measurement of the amount of an active compound at different depths. Caffeine was used as a tracer to evaluate compound's skin penetration using confocal Raman microscopy...
August 13, 2018: Archives of Dermatological Research
Pengbo Cui, Songyi Lin, Ziqi Jin, Beiwei Zhu, Liang Song, Na Sun
In this study, a novel calcium-binding heptapeptide (NDEELNK) that is released during the trypsin hydrolysis of sea cucumber ovum was identified by peptidomics. The calcium binding mode, in vitro digestion profile and calcium absorption of the NDEELNK-calcium complex were investigated. The NDEELNK peptide could spontaneously bind calcium with a 1 : 1 stoichiometry, and the calcium-binding site might involve the carboxyl oxygen and amino nitrogen atoms of two glutamic acid and one aspartic acid residues in the NDEELNK peptide...
August 14, 2018: Food & Function
Arunkumar Karunanidhi, Ehsanollah Ghaznavi-Rad, Rukman Awang Hamat, Mallikarjuna Rao Pichika, Leslie Than Thian Lung, Fazlin Mohd Fauzi, Sridevi Chigurupati, Alex van Belkum, Vasanthakumari Neela
The present study assessed the in vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm potential of hexane (ASHE) and dichloromethane (ASDE) extracts of Allium stipitatum (Persian shallot) against planktonic cells and biofilm structures of clinically significant antibiotic resistant pathogens, with a special emphasis on methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and emerging pathogens, Acinetobacter baumannii and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia . Antibacterial activities were determined through disk diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), time-kill kinetics, and electron microscopy...
2018: BioMed Research International
Shaowei Fu, Fang Cheng, Tegoeh Tjahjowidodo, Yu Zhou, David Butler
The characterization of surface topographic features on a component is typically quantified using two-dimensional roughness descriptors which are captured by off-line desktop instruments. Ideally any measurement system should be integrated into the manufacturing process to provide in-situ measurement and real-time feedback. A non-contact in-situ surface topography measuring system is proposed in this paper. The proposed system utilizes a laser confocal sensor in both lateral and vertical scanning modes to measure the height of the target features...
August 13, 2018: Sensors
Silvia Hilt, Robin Altman, Tamás Kálai, Izumi Maezawa, Qizhi Gong, Sebastian Wachsmann-Hogiu, Lee-Way Jin, John C Voss
There is growing recognition regarding the role of intracellular amyloid beta (Aβ) in the Alzheimer's disease process, which has been linked with aberrant signaling and the disruption of protein degradation mechanisms. Most notably, intraneuronal Aβ likely underlies the oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction that have been identified as key elements of disease progression. In this study, we employed fluorescence imaging to explore the ability of a bifunctional small molecule to reduce aggregates of intracellular Aβ and attenuate oxidative stress...
August 12, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Satoshi Iwasaki, Yuji Ikegaya
In vivo calcium imaging is a powerful tool used to record neuronal activity from living animals. For this purpose, two-photon excitation laser-scanning microscopy is commonly used because of the optical accessibility of deep tissues. In this study, we report that one-photon confocal scanning laser microscopy, when optimally tuned, is also applicable for in vivo calcium imaging from the superficial layer of the neocortex. By combining a Nipkow-disk confocal unit with a fluorescence stereo zoom microscope and a high numerical aperture objective, we succeeded in recording the fluorescence signal of individual cells at a depth of up to 160 μm in brain tissues, which corresponds to layer II of the mouse neocortex...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
Rosa Porcel, Antonio Bustamante, Roc Ros, Ramón Serrano, José Miguel Mulet
Beta vulgaris (sugar beet) is one of the most important industrial crops. Screening of a cDNA library for sugar beet genes able to confer cold tolerance upon overexpression in yeast identified a novel aquaporin, which we named BvCOLD1. The amino acid sequence of BvCOLD1 indicated that is an acidic protein (pI 5,18) similar to TIP aquaporins. RNA expression analysis indicated that BvCOLD1 is expressed in all sugar beet organs. Confocal microscopy of a GFP tagged version localized BvCOLD1 in the endoplasmic reticulum in yeast and in plant cells...
August 13, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Pan Pan Yue, Gen Que Fu, Ya Jie Hu, Jing Bian, Ming-Fei Li, Zheng-Jun Shi, Feng Peng
To study the differences in chemical composition analysis and spatial distribution of young Neosinocalamus affinis bamboo, we used the method of standard of National Renewable Energy Laboratory and confocal Raman microscopy, respectively. It was found that the acid-soluble lignin and acid-insoluble lignin content showed an inverse relationship with the increasing bamboo age. Raman analysis revealed that Raman signal intensity of lignin both in the secondary cell wall (S) and the compound middle lamella (CML) regions showed a similar increase trend with a growth of bamboo...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Lorenzo Calisti, Matilde Cardoso Trabuco, Alberto Boffi, Claudia Testi, Linda Celeste Montemiglio, Amédée des Georges, Irene Benni, Andrea Ilari, Bartłomiej Taciak, Maciej Białasek, Tomasz Rygiel, Magdalena Król, Paola Baiocco, Alessandra Bonamore
Ferritin H-homopolymers have been extensively used as nanocarriers for diverse applications in the targeted delivery of drugs and imaging agents, due to their unique ability to bind the transferrin receptor (CD71), highly overexpressed in most tumor cells. In order to incorporate novel fluorescence imaging properties, we have fused a lanthanide binding tag (LBT) to the C-terminal end of mouse H-chain ferritin, HFt. The HFt-LBT possesses one high affinity Terbium binding site per each of the 24 subunits provided by six coordinating aminoacid side chains and a tryptophan residue in its close proximity and is thus endowed with strong FRET sensitization properties...
2018: PloS One
Beatrice Ramm, Philipp Glock, Petra Schwille
Many aspects of the fundamental spatiotemporal organization of cells are governed by reaction-diffusion type systems. In vitro reconstitution of such systems allows for detailed studies of their underlying mechanisms which would not be feasible in vivo. Here, we provide a protocol for the in vitro reconstitution of the MinCDE system of Escherichia coli, which positions the cell division septum in the cell middle. The assay is designed to supply only the components necessary for self-organization, namely a membrane, the two proteins MinD and MinE and energy in the form of ATP...
July 28, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Yuliang Yang, Guo Lihua, Zhenzhen Tian, Xicheng Liu, Yuteng Gong, Hongmei Zheng, Xingxing Ge, Zhe Liu
A family of novel imine-N-heterocyclic carbene ruthenium(II) complexes of the general formula [(η6-p-cymene)Ru(C^N)Cl]PF6- (where C^N is imine-N-heterocyclic carbene chelating ligand with varying substituents) have been prepared and characterized. In this imine-N-heterocyclic carbene chelating ligand framework, there are three potential sites that can be modified, which distinguishes this class of ligand and provides a body of flexibilities and opportunities to tune the cytotoxicity of these ruthenium(II) complexes...
August 12, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Alexander W Fischer, Kirstin Albers, Lucia M Krott, Britta Hoffzimmer, Markus Heine, Hartwig Schmale, Ludger Scheja, Philip L S M Gordts, Joerg Heeren
OBJECTIVE: Insulin resistance is associated with impaired receptor dependent hepatic uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL), promoting hypertriglyceridemia and atherosclerosis. Next to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) and syndecan-1, the LDLR-related protein 1 (LRP1) stimulated by insulin action contributes to the rapid clearance of TRL in the postprandial state. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that the adaptor protein phosphotyrosine interacting domain-containing protein 1 (PID1) regulates LRP1 function, thereby controlling hepatic endocytosis of postprandial lipoproteins...
July 30, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Filip Vasilev, Nunzia Limatola, Dae-Ryoung Park, Uh-Hyun Kim, Luigia Santella, Jong Tai Chun
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Eggs of all animal species display intense cytoplasmic Ca2+ increases at fertilization. Previously, we reported that unfertilized eggs of Astropecten aranciacus exposed to an actin drug latrunculin A (LAT-A) exhibit similar Ca2+ waves and cortical flashes after 5-10 min time lag. Here, we have explored the molecular mechanisms underlying this unique phenomenon. METHODS: Starfish eggs were pretreated with various agents such as other actin drugs or inhibitors of phospholipase C (PLC), and the changes of the intracellular Ca2+ levels were monitored by use of Calcium Green in the presence or absence of LAT-A...
August 10, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Yawei Du, Longbing Ling, Muhammad Ismail, Wei He, Qing Xia, Wenya Zhou, Chen Yao, Xinsong Li
Camptothecin (CPT) is an important topoisomerase I enzyme (Topo I) targeting anti-cancer drug, but its oral administration is limited by poor bioavailability and severe side effects. In this study, a redox sensitive CPT prodrug loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) system for oral delivery was developed. First of all, CPT-palmitic acid conjugate via a cleavable disulfide bond linker (CPT-SS-PA) was synthesized and encapsulated into SLN. The drug release of SLN was evaluated in neutral environment, simulated gastrointestinal fluid and reductive DTT solution...
August 9, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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