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confocal and microscopy

Olivia Hernández-González, Adolfo Martínez-Palomo, Julio Sotelo, Bibiana Chávez-Munguía, Graciela Ordoñez, Daniel Talamás-Lara, Benjamin Pineda, José de Jesús Flores-Rivera, Martha Espinosa-Cantellano
BACKGROUND: We have reported the presence of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) DNA and viral particles in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients during exacerbation. It is not known whether these viruses are infective. AIM: To determine whether the VZV found in CSF of MS patients in exacerbation phase are infective. METHODS: VZV found in CSF of MS patients was quantified by qPCR. Vero E6 cell cultures were incubated with CSF of five MS cases positive for VZV DNA, containing herpes-like viral particles...
October 17, 2018: Archives of Medical Research
Quan-You Lu, Lei Yang, Jinshan Huang, Luping Zheng, Xin Sun
Mulberry crinkle leaf virus (MCLV) is a novel geminivirus recently identified from the woody plant mulberry (Morus alba L.). Little is known about the functions of the proteins encoded by the MCLV genome. Here, all the MCLV-encoded proteins were examined for the ability to suppress gene silencing by an agroinfiltration assay in combination with northern blot analysis of green fluorescent protein (GFP) mRNA and western blot analysis. Of the six proteins, only one protein, V3, which has been predicted to play a role in viral movement, was found to suppress the gene silencing induced by a sense GFP gene in Nicotiana benthamiana 16c...
October 17, 2018: Virology
En Hyung Chang, Joanne Huang, Zixiang Lin, Angela C Brown
BACKGROUND: Catechins, polyphenols derived from tea leaves, have been shown to have antibacterial properties, through direct killing of bacteria as well as through inhibition of bacterial toxin activity. In particular, certain catechins have been shown to have bactericidal effects on the oral bacterium, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, as well as the ability to inhibit a key virulence factor of this organism, leukotoxin (LtxA). The mechanism of catechin-mediated inhibition of LtxA has not been shown...
October 17, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. General subjects
Zhongyi Xu, Xiaoxue Xing, Chengfeng Zhang, Li Chen, Leihong Flora Xiang
BACKGROUND: Up till now, there is no standardized and satisfactory treatment strategy for Riehl's melanosis. OBJECTIVE: In this pilot study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of a novel combination therapy with oral administration of tranexamic acid (TA) and Glycyrrhizin compound for recalcitrant Riehl's melanosis. METHODS: Ten patients with Riehl's melanosis were recruited in this study. After elimination of potential contraindication, all patients were treated with 500 mg TA together with 150 mg Glycyrrhizin compound per day orally for 3 months, followed by 500 mg TA per day orally alone for another 3 months...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Zhuotao Tan, Chenjie Zhu, Jingwen Fu, Xiaowang Zhang, Ming Li, Wei Zhuang, Hanjie Ying
A novel strategy to regulate cofactor balance in vivo for whole cell biotransformation using synthetic flavin analogue system was reported. High efficiency, easy operation, and good applicability were observed for the present system. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was employed to verify synthetic flavin analogue can directly permeate into Escherichia coli cells without modifying the cell membrane. This work provides a promising intracellular redox regulatory approach to construct more efficient cell factories...
October 20, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Evelien Eenjes, Young Joo Yang-Klingler, Ai Yamamoto
Understanding the fundamental mechanism underlying the accumulation and clearance of misfolded proteins can lead to insights into the synthetic and degradative pathways that maintain the homeostasis of proteins in all cells. Given the interconnection between protein homeostasis and cell health, as well as the complexity of aggregate formation and the degradation pathways with which it is intertwined, the design of the tools that are used to examine protein aggregation and accumulation can have a profound impact on the interpretation of results...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Kathrin M Kniewallner, Bettina M Foidl, Christian Humpel
Platelets are anuclear blood cells and play a major role in hemostasis and thrombosis. Platelets express amyloid-precursor protein (APP), release beta-amyloid (Aβ) and are stimulated (pre-activated) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We hypothesize that such stimulated platelets severely damage brain vessels which subsequently leads to cerebrovascular damage in AD. In order to study this issue we isolated platelets from AD mice (expressing APP with the Swedish-Dutch-Iowa mutations), labeled them with the red fluorescent dye PKH26 and transcardially infused these freshly isolated platelets into the brains of anesthetized healthy C57BL6 wildtype mice...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tania Colasanti, Silvana Fiorito, Cristiano Alessandri, Annalucia Serafino, Federica Andreola, Cristiana Barbati, Francesca Morello, Michela Alfè, Gabriele Di Blasio, Valentina Gargiulo, Marta Vomero, Fabrizio Conti, Guido Valesini
A variety of environmental agents has been found to influence the development of autoimmune diseases; in particular, the studies investigating the potential association of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases with environmental micro and nano-particulate matter are very few and contradictory. In this study, the role of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), one of the most important components of environment particulate matter, emitted from Euro 4 and Euro 5 engines in altering the Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial (NHBE) cell biological activity was evaluated...
October 19, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Xiaofeng Su, Guoqing Lu, Latifur Rehman, Xiaokang Li, Lu Sun, Huiming Guo, Hongmei Cheng
Verticillium dahliae is a soil-borne phytopathogenic fungus that causes a destructive vascular wilt, but details of the molecular mechanism behind its pathogenicity are not very clear. Here, we generated a red fluorescent isolate of V. dahliae by protoplast transformation to explore its pathogenicity mechanism, including colonization, invasion, and extension in Nicotiana benthamiana , using confocal microscopy. The nucleotide sequences of mCherry were optimized for fungal expression and cloned into pCT-HM plasmid, which was inserted into V...
October 18, 2018: Genes
Manuela E Richert, Natalia Garcia Rey, Björn Braunschweig
Proteins at interfaces are important for protein formulations and in soft materials such as foam. Here interfacial stability and physicochemical properties are key elements, which drive macroscopic foam properties through structure-property relations. Native and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) were used to modify air-water interfaces as function of pH. Characterizations were performed with tensiometry and sum-frequency generation (SFG). SFG spectra of O-H stretching vibrations reveal a phase reversal and a pronounced minimum in O-H intensity at pH values of 5...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Natascha G Alves, Andrea N Trujillo, Jerome W Breslin, Sarah Y Yuan
Excessive microvascular permeability is a serious complication following hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (HSR). S1P has been shown to ameliorate microvascular leakage in a model of combined alcohol intoxication and hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (HSR). In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that S1P reduces HSR-induced microvascular leakage by preserving endothelial cell junctional structure and the endothelial glycocalyx through protection of mitochondrial function. We used an established in vivo rat model of conscious HSR and assessed microvascular leakage, endothelial glycocalyx integrity, and mitochondrial function by intravital microscopy...
October 18, 2018: Shock
Aline Cristina Oliveira, Marcos Barrouin Melo, Daisy Motta-Santos, Antonio Ab Peluso, Fernando Souza-Neto, Rafaela F da Silva, Jonathas Fq Almeida, Giovanni Canta, Adelina M Reis, Gleisy Goncalves, Gabriela G Cerri, Danielle Coutinho, Itamar Couto Guedes de Jesus, Silvia Guatimosim, Natalia D Linhares, Natalia Alenina, Michael Bader, Maria José Campagnole-Santos, Robson A Souza Santos
We have recently described a new peptide of the renin angiotensin system, alamandine, a derivative of angiotensin-(1-7). The Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member D (MrgD) was identified as its receptor. Although similar cardioprotective effects of alamandine to those of Ang-(1-7) have been described, the significance of this peptide in heart function is still elusive. We aimed to evaluate the functional role of the alamandine receptor, MrgD, in the heart, using MrgD-deficient mice. MrgD was localized in cardiomyocytes by immunofluorescence using confocal microscopy...
October 19, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Shouping Hu, Qiang Liu, Sufang Zang, Zhuo Zhang, Jingfei Wang, Xuehui Cai, Xijun He
Pseudorabies virus (PRV) can spread along the peripheral nerves near the site of infection in the animals, and gradually migrates into the central nervous system, where it leads to the development of brain lesions. The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of microglia after PRV inoculation. A mouse model inoculated with PRV was established to study the interactions between PRV and microglia, microglial recruitment, and polarization effects. The mice were subcutaneously inoculated with different doses of PRV-Bartha K61 vaccine strain...
October 19, 2018: Viral Immunology
D Zhu, W Liu, Z Zhang, C Zheng, Y Chen, C Li, C Kuang, J Fan, Y Xu, X Liu, A Hussain
In this paper, we propose and demonstrate an improved fluorescence emission difference microscopy (FED) method, exploiting programmable phase modulation for image enhancement. The main novelty of the proposed approach lies in the matched size and intensity of two excitation spots. The proposed method improves the FED performance on image quality via artefact elimination. We demonstrate the feasibility of this method through theoretical studies and experimental tests. The experimental results of nanobeads and cells validate the practical performance of this method, which can enable reliable observations at superresolution in biomedical studies...
November 2018: Journal of Microscopy
Weijian Hang, Benhong He, Jiehui Chen, Liangtao Xia, Bing Wen, Tao Liang, Xu Wang, Qianying Zhang, Yue Wu, Qingjie Chen, Juan Chen
Background: Type II diabetes (T2D)-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is closely linked to the impairment of mitochondrial function. Berberine has been shown to be a promising effect for hypoglycemia in T2D models. High glucose-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro has been reported. The present study investigated the protective effect and the underlying mechanism of berberine on high glucose-induced H9C2 cell line. Methods: High glucose-induced H9C2 cell line was used to mimic the hyperglycemia resulting in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Jia-Qi Fang, Muhammad Imran, Wei-Lin Hu, David M Ojcius, Yang Li, Yu-Mei Ge, Kai-Xuan Li, Xu'ai Lin, Jie Yan
BACKGROUD: Leptospira interrogans is the major causative agent of leptospirosis, a worldwide zoonotic disease. Hemorrhage is a typical pathological feature of leptospirosis. Binding of von Willebrand factor (vWF) to platelet glycoprotein-Ibα (GPIbα) is a crucial step in initiation of platelet aggregation. The products of L. interrogans vwa-I and vwa-II genes contain vWF-A domains, but their ability to induce hemorrhage has not been determined. METHODS: Human (Hu)-platelet- and Hu-GPIbα-binding abilities of the recombinant proteins expressed by L...
October 15, 2018: EBioMedicine
Marco Hatem-Vaquero, Sergio de Frutos, Alicia Luengo, Alba González Abajo, Mercedes Griera, Manuel Rodríguez-Puyol, Diego Rodríguez-Puyol, Laura Calleros
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease present with an accumulation of uraemic toxins, which have been identified as pathogenic agents associated with cardiovascular mortality, which is very high is this patient group. A phenomenon common to the progressive renal dysfunction and associated vascular damage, is the abnormal accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the renal or vascular structures. OBJECTIVE: To determine the contribution of uraemia or the uraemic toxins to the production of cytokinins and ECM in aortas of uraemic animals or human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs)...
October 15, 2018: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
Pauline Marie Chichiricco, Raphael Riva, Jean-Michel Thomassin, Julie Lesoeur, Xavier Struillou, Catherine Le Visage, Christine Jérôme, Pierre Weiss
OBJECTIVE: Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that destroys the tooth-supporting attachment apparatus. Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) is a technique based on a barrier membrane designed to prevent wound space colonization by gingival cells. This study examined a new formulation composed of two polymers that could be photochemically cross-linked in situ into an interpenetrated polymer network (IPN) forming a hydrogel membrane. METHODS: We synthetized and characterized silanized hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (Si-HPMC) for its cell barrier properties and methacrylated carboxymethyl chitosan (MA-CMCS) for its degradable backbone to use in IPN...
October 15, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Alexandre Champroux, Christelle Damon-Soubeyrand, Chantal Goubely, Stephanie Bravard, Joelle Henry-Berger, Rachel Guiton, Fabrice Saez, Joel Drevet, Ayhan Kocer
Recent studies have revealed a well-defined higher order of chromosome architecture, named chromosome territories, in the human sperm nuclei. The purpose of this work was, first, to investigate the topology of a selected number of chromosomes in murine sperm; second, to evaluate whether sperm DNA damage has any consequence on chromosome architecture. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, confocal microscopy, and 3D-reconstruction approaches we demonstrate that chromosome positioning in the mouse sperm nucleus is not random...
October 17, 2018: Genes
Anne-Marie Salisbury, Steven L Percival
OBJECTIVE: To assess the biofilm prevention action of two wound dressings, a concentrated surfactant gel preserved with antimicrobials and a concentrated surfactant gel with 1% silver sulfadiazine. METHODS: The microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus faecalis were used. Several biofilm models were used whereby the surfaces of each model were coated with either the concentrated surfactant gel preserved with antimicrobials or the concentrated surfactant gel with SSD before biofilm growth...
November 2018: Advances in Skin & Wound Care
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