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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031242/dietary-creatine-supplementation-lowers-hepatic-triacylglycerol-by-increasing-lipoprotein-secretion-in-rats-fed-high-fat-diet
#1
Robin P da Silva, Kelly-Ann Leonard, René L Jacobs
Recent studies have shown that dietary creatine supplementation can prevent lipid accumulation in the liver. Creatine is a small molecule that plays a large role in energy metabolism, but since the enzyme creatine kinase is not present in the liver, the classical role in energy metabolism does not hold in this tissue. Fat accumulation in the liver can lead to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a progressive disease that is prevalent in humans. We have previously reported that creatine can directly influence lipid metabolism in cell culture to promote lipid secretion and oxidation...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031241/citrus-pectin-attenuates-endotoxin-shock-via-suppression-of-toll-like-receptor-signaling-in-peyer-s-patch-myeloid-cells
#2
Keita Ishisono, Tomio Yabe, Kohji Kitaguchi
Pectin, a water-soluble dietary fiber, has been found to improve survival in endotoxin shock. However, the underlying mechanism by which pectin exerts its protective effect against endotoxin shock remains unknown. Apart from its prebiotic effects, it has been suggested that pectin directly affects immune cells to regulate inflammatory responses. In this study, we investigated the direct effect of pectin in murine model of endotoxin shock. Citrus pectin solution was administered to male C57BL/6 mice for 10 days...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031185/diet-quality-and-depression-risk-a-systematic-review-and-dose-response-meta-analysis-of-prospective-studies
#3
REVIEW
Marc Molendijk, Patricio Molero, Felipe Ortuño Sánchez-Pedreño, Willem Van der Does, Miguel Angel Martínez-González
BACKGROUND: It has been claimed that the quality of a diet is associated with the incidence of depressive disorders. We sought to investigate the evidence for this claim. METHODS: Systematic searches were performed up to March 6th, 2017 in order to identify prospective cohort studies that reported on exposure to dietary patterns or food groups and the incidence of depression/depressive symptoms. Data from 24 independent cohorts (totalling 1,959,217 person-years) were pooled in random-effects meta-analyses...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031094/risk-assessment-of-dietary-lead-exposure-among-first-nations-people-living-on-reserve-in-ontario-canada-using-a-total-diet-study-and-a-probabilistic-approach
#4
Amanda K Juric, Malek Batal, Will David, Donald Sharp, Harold Schwartz, Amy Ing, Karen Fediuk, Andrew Black, Constantine Tikhonov, Hing Man Chan, Laurie Chan
Indigenous peoples have elevated risk of lead (Pb) exposure as hunted traditional food can be contaminated with lead-containing ammunition. Recent scientific consensus states that there is no threshold level for Pb exposure. The objective of this study was to estimate dietary exposure to Pb among First Nations living on-reserve in the province of Ontario, Canada. A total diet study was constructed based on a 24-h recall and Pb concentrations for traditional foods from the First Nations Food, Nutrition, and Environment Study (FNFNES) and Pb concentrations in market foods from Health Canada...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031034/-potential-of-using-vitamin-d-as-an-adjuvant-treatment-of-malignant-melanoma
#5
B Bolerázska, E Ďurovcová, M Mareková
The incidence of malignant melanoma worldwide continues to grow despite the enormous advances in topical and systemic therapy. This increase is recorded regularly even in countries where, as a result of public health campaigns, dermatological examination and subsequent treatment have become more frequent. However, there have been reports of a stable or even decreasing mortality rate that seem to contradict the objective increase in its incidence. The well-known risk factors for malignant melanoma include sunburns and occasional sunbathing, whereas regular sunbathing is associated with a lower incidence...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029291/nutrition-influences-caffeine-mediated-sleep-loss-in-drosophila
#6
Erin S Keebaugh, Jin Hong Park, Chenchen Su, Ryuichi Yamada, William W Ja
Study objectives: Plant-derived caffeine is regarded as a defensive compound produced to prevent herbivory. Caffeine is generally repellent to insects and often used to study the neurological basis for aversive responses in the model insect, Drosophila melanogaster. Caffeine is also studied for its stimulatory properties where sleep or drowsiness is suppressed across a range of species. Since limiting access to food also inhibits fly sleep-an effect known as starvation-induced sleep suppression-we tested whether aversion to caffeinated food results in reduced nutrient intake and assessed how this might influence fly studies on the stimulatory effects of caffeine...
October 3, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029220/effect-of-host-traits-and-land-use-changes-on-the-gut-microbiota-of-the-namibian-black-backed-jackal-canis-mesomelas
#7
Sebastian Menke, Matthias Meier, John K E Mfune, Joerg Melzheimer, Bettina Wachter, Simone Sommer
Host traits and environmental factors drive the natural variation in gut microbiota and disruption in homeostasis can cause infections and chronic diseases. African wildlife is increasingly facing human-induced agricultural habitats, which also amplifies the contact probability with livestock with unknown consequences for wildlife gut microbiotas and the risk of transmission of potentially pathogenic bacteria. We applied high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and microsatellite genotyping to investigate the impact of host traits and habitat use on the gut microbiotas of black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas)...
September 25, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029202/a-metabolomic-signature-of-acute-caloric-restriction
#8
Tinh-Hai Collet, Takuhiro Sonoyama, Elana Henning, Julia M Keogh, Brian Ingram, Sarah Kelway, Lining Guo, I Sadaf Farooqi
Context: The experimental paradigm of acute caloric restriction followed by refeeding can be used to study the homeostatic mechanisms that regulate energy homeostasis, which are relevant to understanding the adaptive response to weight loss. Objective: Metabolomics, the measurement of hundreds of small molecule metabolites, their precursors, derivatives, and degradation products, has emerged as a useful tool for the study of physiology and disease and was used here to study the metabolic response to acute caloric restriction...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029078/prebiotic-potential-of-pectin-and-pectic-oligosaccharides-to-promote-anti-inflammatory-commensal-bacteria-in-the-human-colon
#9
Wing Sun Faith Chung, Marjolein Meijerink, Birgitte Zeuner, Jesper Holck, Petra Louis, Anne Meyer, Jerry M Wells, Harry J Flint, Sylvia H Duncan
Dietary plant cell wall carbohydrates are important in modulating the composition and metabolism of the complex gut microbiota, which can impact on health. Pectin is a major component of plant cell walls. Based on studies in model systems and available bacterial isolates and genomes, the capacity to utilize pectins for growth is widespread among colonic Bacteroidetes but relatively uncommon among Firmicutes. One Firmicutes species promoted by pectin is Eubacterium eligens. E. eligens DSM3376 utilizes apple pectin and encodes a broad repertoire of pectinolytic enzymes, including a highly abundant pectate lyase of around 200 kDa that is expressed constitutively...
October 3, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028650/fast-digestive-proteins-and-sarcopenia-of-aging
#10
Yves Boirie, Christelle Guillet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The speed of dietary protein digestion influences postprandial amino acid availability which is crucial for improving altered anabolic response of skeletal muscle one feature of sarcopenia during aging. RECENT FINDINGS: By analogy with carbohydrate and in reference to their absorption rate, dietary proteins can be classified as 'fast' or 'slow' proteins depending on matrix food structure and technological processes, which can influence amino acids availability and their subsequent metabolic actions...
October 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028359/complex-interaction-between-circadian-rhythm-and-diet-on-bile-acid-homeostasis-in-male-rats
#11
Hannah M Eggink, Johanneke E Oosterman, Paul de Goede, Emmely M de Vries, Ewout Foppen, Martijn Koehorst, Albert K Groen, Anita Boelen, Johannes A Romijn, Susanne E la Fleur, Maarten R Soeters, Andries Kalsbeek
Desynchronization between the master clock in the brain, which is entrained by (day) light, and peripheral organ clocks, which are mainly entrained by food intake, may have negative effects on energy metabolism. Bile acid metabolism follows a clear day/night rhythm. We investigated whether in rats on a normal chow diet the daily rhythm of plasma bile acids and hepatic expression of bile acid metabolic genes is controlled by the light/dark cycle or the feeding/fasting rhythm. In addition, we investigated the effects of high caloric diets and time-restricted feeding on daily rhythms of plasma bile acids and hepatic genes involved in bile acid synthesis...
October 13, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028272/dietary-carbohydrates-components-of-energy-balance-and-associated-health-outcomes
#12
Harry A Smith, Javier T Gonzalez, Dylan Thompson, James A Betts
The role of dietary carbohydrates in the development of obesity and associated metabolic dysfunction has recently been questioned. Within the last decade, the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition carried out a comprehensive evaluation of the role of dietary carbohydrates in human health. The current review aims to complement and extend this report by providing specific consideration of the effects of the component parts of energy balance, their interactions, and their culmination on energy storage and health...
October 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028268/relationship-between-the-mediterranean-dietary-pattern-and-musculoskeletal-health-in-children-adolescents-and-adults-systematic-review-and-evidence-map
#13
Jean V Craig, Diane K Bunn, Richard P Hayhoe, Will O Appleyard, Elizabeth A Lenaghan, Ailsa A Welch
An understanding of the modifiable effects of diet on bone and skeletal muscle mass and strength over the life course will help inform strategies to reduce age-related fracture risk. The Mediterranean diet is rich in nutrients that may be important for optimal musculoskeletal health. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the relationship between a Mediterranean diet and musculoskeletal outcomes (fracture, bone density, osteoporosis, sarcopenia) in any age group. Ten electronic databases were searched...
October 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028241/-du-bist-was-du-isst-challenges-in-european-nutrition-policy
#14
Alessandra Lafranconi, Christopher A Birt
Food cultures have developed in communities as according to the produce of local farms in the vicinity. The industrial revolution resulted in large cities and towns becoming reliant on farm produce from the neighbouring countryside; this stimulated development of farming, which itself became industrialized. However, although local diets in Europe differed markedly, the 'healthiness' of all diets was unquestioned until recently. Early in the 20th century, academic departments studying nutrition were established, but it is only since the 1980s that much interest in the 'healthiness' of our food began to be of concern outwith academia...
October 1, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028075/safety-of-oral-alpha-lipoic-acid-treatment-in-pregnant-women-a-retrospective-observational-study
#15
E Parente, G Colannino, O Picconi, G Monastra
OBJECTIVE: Alpha-lipoic acid is a natural molecule, which directly or by means of its reduced form, dihydrolipoic acid, exerts antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities, very helpful also in preventing miscarriage and preterm delivery. Used as dietary supplement alpha-lipoic acid was demonstrated to be safe for living organisms even when administered at high doses. However, no study was made so far to verify the safety of its continuous administration on a substantial number of pregnant women...
September 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028072/vitamin-d-in-human-reproduction-the-more-the-better-an-evidence-based-critical-appraisal
#16
A S Laganà, S G Vitale, H Ban Frangež, E Vrtačnik-Bokal, R D'Anna
OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D is a fat-soluble secosteroid hormone that regulates calcium, magnesium, and phosphate homeostasis and plays a pivotal role as antiproliferative and immunomodulatory mediator. Considering the different sources of synthesis and dietary intake as well as the pleiotropic actions in extremely diverse (micro)environments of the body, the supplementation of this Vitamin should be carefully evaluated taking into account the several pathways that it regulates. In the current brief review, we aimed to summarize the available evidence about the topic, in order to suggest the best evidence-based supplementation strategy for human reproduction, avoiding the unuseful (and sometimes hazardous) empiric supplementation...
September 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027987/chromosomal-evolution-in-chiroptera
#17
REVIEW
Cibele G Sotero-Caio, Robert J Baker, Marianne Volleth
Chiroptera is the second largest order among mammals, with over 1300 species in 21 extant families. The group is extremely diverse in several aspects of its natural history, including dietary strategies, ecology, behavior and morphology. Bat genomes show ample chromosome diversity (from 2n = 14 to 62). As with other mammalian orders, Chiroptera is characterized by clades with low, moderate and extreme chromosomal change. In this article, we will discuss trends of karyotypic evolution within distinct bat lineages (especially Phyllostomidae, Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae), focusing on two perspectives: evolution of genome architecture, modes of chromosomal evolution, and the use of chromosome data to resolve taxonomic problems...
October 13, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027975/dietary-supplement-use-during-preconception-the-australian-longitudinal-study-on-women-s-health
#18
Elle McKenna, Alexis Hure, Anthony Perkins, Ellie Gresham
Worldwide, dietary supplement use among reproductive aged women is becoming increasingly common. The aim of this study was to investigate dietary supplement use among Australian women during preconception. Self-reported data were collected prospectively for the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). The sample included 485 women aged 31-36 years, with supplement data, classified as preconception when completing Survey 5 of the ALSWH in 2009. Frequency and contingency tables were calculated and Pearson's chi-square test for associations between demographic variables and supplementation status was performed...
October 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027960/a-new-approach-to-assess-lifetime-dietary-patterns-finds-lower-consumption-of-animal-foods-with-aging-in-a-longitudinal-analysis-of-a-health-oriented-adventist-population
#19
Marcia C T Martins, Karen Jaceldo-Siegl, Michael Orlich, Jing Fan, Andrew Mashchak, Gary E Fraser
Life-course diet patterns may impact risk of disease, but little is known about dietary trends with aging. In a retrospective longitudinal analysis we estimated lifetime intake of animal products and adherence to vegetarian dietary patterns among 51,082 Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) subjects using data from a reliable life-course dietary (meats, dairy, eggs) questionnaire. Results showed a marked tendency to consume fewer animal products (in total) in older years and to reduce consumption of meat, poultry and fish, but not eggs or dairy...
October 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027957/peroxisomal-2-hydroxyacyl-coa-lyase-is-involved-in-endogenous-biosynthesis-of-heptadecanoic-acid
#20
Benjamin Jenkins, Evelyn de Schryver, Paul P Van Veldhoven, Albert Koulman
Circulating heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) is reported to be a pathology risk/prognosis biomarker and a dietary biomarker. This pathology relationship has been shown to be reliably predictive even when independent of dietary contributions, suggesting that the endogenous biosynthesis of C17:0 is related to the pathological aetiology. Little is known about C17:0 biosynthesis, which tissues contribute to the circulating levels, and how C17:0 is related to pathology. Hacl1+/- mice were mated to obtain Hacl1-/- and Hacl1+/+ control mice...
October 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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