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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906461/measurement-of-intestinal-and-peripheral-cholesterol-fluxes-by-a-dual-tracer-balance-method
#1
Onne A H O Ronda, Theo H van Dijk, H J Verkade, Albert K Groen
Long-term elevated plasma cholesterol levels put individuals at risk for developing atherosclerosis. Plasma cholesterol levels are determined by the balance between cholesterol input and output fluxes. Here we describe in detail the methodology to determine the different cholesterol fluxes in mice. The percentage of absorbed cholesterol is calculated from a stable isotope-based double-label method. Cholesterol synthesis is calculated from MIDA after (13) C-acetate enrichment. Cholesterol is removed from the body via the feces...
December 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906427/the-role-of-diet-on-gut-microbiota-composition
#2
S Bibbò, G Ianiro, V Giorgio, F Scaldaferri, L Masucci, A Gasbarrini, G Cammarota
Gut microbiota is characterized by an inter-individual variability due to genetic and environmental factors. Among the environmental ones, dietary habits play a key role in the modulation of gut microbiota composition. There are main differences between the intestinal microbiota of subjects fed with prevalent Western diet and that of subjects with a diet rich in fibers. Specific changes in the composition of gut microbiota have been demonstrated among subjects according to a different dietary intake. A particular diet may promote the growth of specific bacterial strains, driving hosts to a consequent alteration of fermentative metabolism, with a direct effect on intestinal pH, which can be responsible for the development of a pathogenic flora...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905981/correlates-of-meal-skipping-in-young-adults-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Felicity J Pendergast, Katherine M Livingstone, Anthony Worsley, Sarah A McNaughton
BACKGROUND: Meal skipping rates may be highest during young adulthood, a period of transition and development. Although these dietary behaviours may increase future risk of chronic disease, limited research has investigated correlates of meal skipping in young adults. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted to identify studies that investigated correlates of meal skipping behaviours in young adults (aged 18-30 years). EBSCO host, MEDLINE Complete, Global Health, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science and Informit platforms were searched for eligible articles...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905933/salt-intakes-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review-and-meta-regression
#4
Oyinlola Oyebode, Samuel Oti, Yen-Fu Chen, Richard J Lilford
BACKGROUND: High sodium intake increases the risk of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. For this reason the World Health Organization recommends a maximum intake of 2 g per day and a 30 % reduction in population sodium intake by 2025. However, in global reviews, data on sodium intake in sub-Saharan Africa have been limited. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted to identify studies reporting sodium intake in sub-Saharan African populations. Meta-regression analyses were used to test the effect of year of data collection and method of data collection (urinary/dietary), as well as any association between sex, urban/rural status or a country's economic development, and population sodium intake...
January 11, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905917/are-distinctive-risk-indicators-associated-with-different-stages-of-caries-in-children-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Maria Grazia Cagetti, Giovanna Congiu, Fabio Cocco, Gianfranco Meloni, Silvana Sale, Guglielmo Campus
BACKGROUND: Actual caries figures emphasize the need to identify the risk indicators involved in the disease's development. The hypothesis that certain risk indicators might affect the dynamic evolution of the caries process was assessed; to clarify this premise, a cross-sectional survey was performed in school children. METHODS: A total of 390 subjects aged 6-8 years old were randomly selected. Caries was assessed, and the subjects were stratified as follows: i) highest caries score; ii) most prevalent caries score; and iii) number of affected teeth...
December 1, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905898/physical-activity-and-sedentary-behavior-can-modulate-the-effect-of-the-pnpla3-variant-on-childhood-nafld-a-case-control-study-in-a-chinese-population
#6
Shuo Wang, Jieyun Song, Xiaorui Shang, Nitesh Chawla, Yide Yang, Xiangrui Meng, Haijun Wang, Jun Ma
BACKGROUND: The patatin like phospholipase containing domain 3 gene (PNPLA3) rs738409 C > G polymorphism, one of the most important gene polymorphisms involved in hepatic steatosis, has been reported to interact with different nutrients and dietary patterns on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), but no studies have focused on its interaction with physical activity or sedentary behavior. Therefore, this study aims at determining whether physical activity or sedentary behavior could modulate the effect of the PNPLA3 variant on childhood NAFLD...
December 1, 2016: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905874/are-sexually-selected-traits-affected-by-a-poor-environment-early-in-life
#7
Regina Vega-Trejo, Michael D Jennions, Megan L Head
BACKGROUND: Challenging conditions experienced early in life, such as a restricted diet, can detrimentally affect key life-history traits. Individuals can reduce these costs by delaying their sexual maturation, albeit at the price of the later onset of breeding, to eventually reach the same adult size as individuals that grow up in a benevolent environment. Delayed maturation can, however, still lead to other detrimental morphological and physiological changes that become apparent later in adulthood (e...
December 1, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905522/circulating-cell-free-dna-telomere-length-and-bilirubin-in-the-vienna-active-ageing-study-exploratory-analysis-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Anela Tosevska, Bernhard Franzke, Marlene Hofmann, Immina Vierheilig, Barbara Schober-Halper, Stefan Oesen, Oliver Neubauer, Barbara Wessner, Karl-Heinz Wagner
Telomere length (TL) in blood cells is widely used in human studies as a molecular marker of ageing. Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) as well as unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) are dynamic blood constituents whose involvement in age-associated diseases is largely unexplored. To our knowledge, there are no published studies integrating all three parameters, especially in individuals of advanced age. Here we present a secondary analysis from the Vienna Active Aging Study (VAAS), a randomized controlled intervention trial in institutionalized elderly individuals (n = 101)...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905479/role-of-gut-microbiota-in-atherosclerosis
#9
REVIEW
Annika Lindskog Jonsson, Fredrik Bäckhed
Infections have been linked to the development of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. Findings from the past decade have identified microbial ecosystems residing in different habitats of the human body that contribute to metabolic and cardiovascular-related disorders. In this Review, we describe three pathways by which microbiota might affect atherogenesis. First, local or distant infections might cause a harmful inflammatory response that aggravates plaque development or triggers plaque rupture. Second, metabolism of cholesterol and lipids by gut microbiota can affect the development of atherosclerotic plaques...
December 1, 2016: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905221/antioxidant-potentiality-of-three-herbal-teas-consumed-in-bandundu-rural-areas-of-congo
#10
Paulin Mutwale Kapepula, Patricia Mbombo Mungitshi, Thierry Franck, Ange Mouithys-Mickalad, Dieudonné Mumba Ngoyi, Pascal Dibungi T Kalenda, Nadege Kabamba Ngombe, Didier Serteyn, Monique Tits, Michel Frédérich, Jean-Jacques Tamfum Muyembe
The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the cellular antioxidant activities of Lantana montevidensis, Lippia multiflora, and Ocimum gratissimum leaves often consumed as herbal teas in a rural area of Bandundu severely affected by konzo, which is related to oxidative damage. Consequently, dietary supplements with proven antioxidant potentialities could be of real interest to promote in this area. Phytochemical screening by TLC and HPLC-DAD of extracts revealed the presence of verbascoside as a major phenolic compound...
December 1, 2016: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905210/erythrocyte-fatty-acid-composition-does-not-influence-levels-of-free-bioavailable-and-total-25-hydroxy-vitamin-d
#11
Martin Carlsson, Ingela Nilsson, Lars Brudin, Siv-Ping Von, Pär Wanby
In vitro, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs) may decrease the binding affinity of vitamin D metabolites for vitamin D-binding protein, which in turn may influence their bioavailability. FAs incorporated as phospholipids in erythrocyte (ery-) cell membranes reflect dietary intake. The purpose of this study was to investigate ery-FA composition in relation to markers for vitamin D. In healthy females (age 22.6 ± 2.0 years) total 25(OH)D was measured by LC-MS/MS (n = 78), free 25(OH)D with ELISA (n = 64 of 78), and bioavailable 25(OH)D was calculated...
December 1, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905107/co-operative-suppression-of-inflammatory-responses-in-human-dendritic-cells-by-plant-proanthocyanidins-and-products-from-the-parasitic-nematode-trichuris-suis
#12
Andrew R Williams, Elsenoor J Klaver, Lisa C Laan, Aina Ramsay, Christos Fryganas, Rolf Difborg, Helene Kringel, Jess D Reed, Irene Mueller-Harvey, Søren Skov, Irma van Die, Stig M Thamsborg
Interactions between dendritic cells (DCs) and environmental, dietary and pathogen antigens play a key role in immune homeostasis and regulation of inflammation. Dietary polyphenols such as proanthocyanidins (PAC) may reduce inflammation, and we therefore hypothesized that PAC may suppress lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced responses in human DCs and subsequent T helper type 1 (Th1) -type responses in naive T cells. Moreover, we proposed that, because DCs are likely to be exposed to multiple stimuli, the activity of PAC may synergise with other bioactive molecules that have anti-inflammatory activity, e...
November 7, 2016: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904991/eat-up%C3%A2-family-centered-feeding-intervention-to-promote-food-acceptance-and-decrease-challenging-behaviors-a-single-case-experimental-design-replicated-across-three-families-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Joanna Cosbey, Deirdre Muldoon
This study evaluated the effectiveness of a family-centered feeding intervention, Easing Anxiety Together with Understanding and Perseverance (EAT-UP™), for promoting food acceptance of children with autism spectrum disorder at home. A concurrent multiple-baseline design was used with systematic replication across three families. Baseline was followed by an 'Intervention-Coaching' phase and then an 'Intervention-Independent' phase. Using direct observation and pre- and post-intervention questionnaires, data on acceptance of less preferred foods and challenging mealtime behaviors were collected...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904803/building-healthy-eating-habits-in-childhood-a-study-of-the-attitudes-knowledge-and-dietary-habits-of-schoolchildren-in-malaysia
#14
Kazi Enamul Hoque, Megat Ahmad Kamaluddin, Ahmad Zabidi Abdul Razak, Afiq Athari Abdul Wahid
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity have increased rapidly in incidence to become a global issue today. Overweight and obesity problems are significantly linked to unhealthy dietary patterns, physical inactivity and misperception of body image. This study aimed to determine whether Malaysian children build healthy eating habits from childhood. METHODS: A survey on eating habits was conducted among primary school students in standards 4 to 6 in the state of Selangor, Malaysia...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904786/a-targeted-metabolomics-assay-to-measure-eight-purines-in-the-diet-of-common-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus
#15
A J Ardente, T J Garrett, R S Wells, M Walsh, C R Smith, J Colee, R C Hill
Bottlenose dolphins managed under human care, human beings and Dalmatian dogs are prone to forming urate uroliths. Limiting dietary purine intake limits urate urolith formation in people and dogs because purines are metabolized to uric acid, which is excreted in urine. Managed dolphins develop ammonium urate nephroliths, whereas free-ranging dolphins do not. Free-ranging dolphins consume live fish, whereas managed dolphins consume different species that have been stored frozen and thawed. Differences in the purine content of fish consumed by dolphins under human care versus in the wild may be responsible for the difference in urolith prevalence...
October 2016: Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904686/fisetin-a-dietary-phytochemical-overcomes-erlotinib-resistance-of-lung-adenocarcinoma-cells-through-inhibition-of-mapk-and-akt-pathways
#16
Liang Zhang, Yi Huang, Wenlei Zhuo, Yi Zhu, Bo Zhu, Zhengtang Chen
Erlotinib (Tarceva) is a selective epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, its efficacy is usually reduced by the occurrence of drug resistance. Our recent study showed that a flavonoid found in many plants, Fisetin, might have a potential to reverse the acquired Cisplatin-resistance of lung adenocarcinoma. In the present study, we aimed to test whether Fisetin could have the ability to reverse Erlotinib-resistance of lung cancer cells...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904629/effect-of-various-kinds-of-beverages-on-stress-oxidative-f2-isoprostane-serum-lipid-and-blood-glucose-of-elite-taekwondo-players
#17
Zahra Maghsoudi, Ashfin Shiranian, Gholamreza Askai, Reza Ghaisvand
BACKGROUND: Athletes' recovery is important in improving their performance. Nutritional strategies can be effective in enhancing recovery rate. Choosing the best food items in appropriate intervals can play effective roles in resynthesis of fuels and recovery of muscle injury. Beverage micro and macronutrient content are helpful in fuel restoration. In this study, we assess the effects of various kinds of beverages on oxidative stress, muscle injury, and metabolic risk factors in taekwondo players...
September 2016: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904604/evaluating-the-role-of-maternal-folic-acid-supplementation-in-modifying-the-effects-of-methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase-c677t-and-a1298c-gene-polymorphisms-in-oral-cleft-children
#18
Asghar Ebadifar, Nazila Ameli, Hamid Reza KhorramKhorshid, Koorosh Kamali, Mehdi Salehi Zeinabadi
BACKGROUND: We studied the role of maternal folic acid supplementation in modifying the effects of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T and A1298C) gene polymorphisms in Iranian children with oral clefts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-seven newborn infants with orofacial cleft and their mothers were selected randomly. Mothers were matched regarding dietary folate intake. The genotyping on venous blood was carried out. Consistency between maternal and child genotypes was analyzed...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904578/low-energy-density-diet-weight-loss-maintenance-and-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-following-a-recent-weight-reduction-program-a-randomized-control-trial
#19
Golgis Karimi, Leila Azadbakht, Fahimeh Haghighatdoost, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effects of a low energy dense diet on weight maintenance and cardiovascular risks following a recent weight reduction. Therefore, we assessed if weight maintenance, lipid profiles, and glycemic control differ between low energy density (LED) diet and usual diet consumers following a recent weight reduction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomized controlled clinical trial study in a parallel design, we recruited 70 patients with the history of weight reduction in the recent 1 year...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904566/the-characteristics-of-pre-diabetic-patients-associated-with-body-composition-and-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-in-the-iranian-population
#20
Zahra Gholi, Motahar Heidari-Beni, Awat Feizi, Bijan Iraj, Gholamreza Askari
BACKGROUND: Different populations have shown various patterns of association between impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and body composition parameters and risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The current study aimed at investigating the differences between persons with prediabetes and healthy people in terms of CVD risk factors including body composition parameters, blood pressure, and lipid profile in a sample of the Iranian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a case-control setting, a sample containing 386 (193 prediabetic subjects and 193 normal subjects) of the first-degree relatives of diabetic patients aged 35-55 years were investigated...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
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