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Yun Tian, Qing Xu, Liqun Sun, Ying Ye, Guozhong Ji
Reduced short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have been reported in patients with ulcerative colitis, and increased intake of dietary fiber has shown to be clinically beneficial for colitis. Whether SCFAs suppress tumorigenesis in colitis-associated colorectal cancer remains unknown. The chemopreventive effect of SCFAs in colitis-associated colorectal cancer was evaluated in this study. Model of colitis-associated colorectal cancer in male BALB/c mice was induced by azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Hayarelis Moreno, Geoffrey Hall, Milagros Gallo, Isabel de Brugada
In two experiments adult rats (aged at least 6 months at the start of the procedure) received a diet enriched with added choline for a period of 10 weeks; control subjects were maintained on a standard diet during this time. All rats then underwent the spontaneous object recognition (SOR) procedure in which they were exposed to a pair of objects and then tested, after a retention interval, to a display with one object changed. Exploration of the changed object indicates retention and use of information acquired during the exposure phase...
April 22, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Mattias Carlström, Jon O Lundberg, Eddie Weitzberg
Nitric oxide (NO) importantly contributes to cardiovascular homeostasis by regulating blood flow and maintaining endothelial integrity. Conversely, reduced NO bioavailability is a central feature during natural aging and in many cardiovascular disorders, including hypertension. The inorganic anions nitrate and nitrite are endogenously formed after oxidation of NO synthase (NOS)-derived NO and are also present in our daily diet. Knowledge accumulated over the past two decades have demonstrated that these anions can be recycled back to NO and other bioactive nitrogen oxides via serial reductions that involve oral commensal bacteria and various enzymatic systems...
April 25, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Mileni Vanti Beretta, Fernanda R Bernaud, Ciglea Nascimento, Thais Steemburgo, Ticiana C Rodrigues
Objective The present investigation sought to evaluate the potential association between dietary fiber intake and blood pressure (BP) in adult patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Subjects and methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in 111 outpatients with T1D from Porto Alegre, Brazil. Patients were predominantly male (56%) and white (88%), with a mean age of 40 ± 10 years, diabetes duration of 18 ± 9 years, BMI 24.8 ± 3.85 kg/m2, and HbA1c 9.0 ± 2.0%. After clinical and laboratory evaluation, dietary intake was evaluated by 3-day weighed-diet records, whose reliability was confirmed by 24-h urinary nitrogen output...
February 2018: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
P Silva, S Qadir, A Fernandes, L Bahamondes, J F Peipert
Because of weight gain, women often discontinue hormonal contraception, especially depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of studies describing dietary intake or eating behavior in DMPA users to understand whether the use of DMPA is associated with changes in dietary habits and behaviors leading to weight gain. We searched the PubMed, POPLINE, CENTRAL Cochrane, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases for reports published in English between 1980 and 2017 examining dietary intake or eating behavior in healthy women in reproductive age and adolescents using DMPA (150 mg/mL)...
2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Maria Del Carmen Bisi Molina, Taísa Sabrina Silva Pereira, Aline Silva Porto, Raiane Pereira Silva, Nathália Miguel Teixeira Santana, Nágela Valadão Cade, José Geraldo Mill
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of sodium and potassium intake can be carried out using different methods. Biological markers are able to capture intra and inter-individual variability and are used as separate measurements of consumption. The aim of this study was to test the validity of a single measurement of urinary sodium and potassium excretion as representative of habitual intake. DESIGN AND SETTING: Longitudinal study, federal university. METHODS: Food consumption data from a sample of adult university students and public servants (25 to 74 years old) were collected through 24-hour records and 12-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion at five different times over a one-year period...
April 23, 2018: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
Andrea Rocha Filgueiras, Ana Lydia Sawaya
OBJECTIVE: To test a multidisciplinary and motivational intervention for the treatment of Brazilian obese and low-income adolescents (Z score>2 BMI-for-age) that used nutritional counseling without dietary control. METHODS: An intervention protocol was developed including periodical nutritional education workshops, individual nutritional counseling guided by the stages of eating behavior of the Trans Theoretical Model of Behavior Change, physical exercise, psychological counseling, recreational activities, and clinical follow-up for 13 months in a sample of 21 adolescents (11-17 years old)...
April 23, 2018: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
Martin Jensen Søe, Peter Nejsum, Frederik Valeur Seersholm, Brian Lund Fredensborg, Ruben Habraken, Kirstine Haase, Mette Marie Hald, Rikke Simonsen, Flemming Højlund, Louise Blanke, Inga Merkyte, Eske Willerslev, Christian Moliin Outzen Kapel
High-resolution insight into parasitic infections and diet of past populations in Northern Europe and the Middle East (500 BC- 1700 AD) was obtained by pre-concentration of parasite eggs from ancient latrines and deposits followed by shotgun sequencing of DNA. Complementary profiling of parasite, vertebrate and plant DNA proved highly informative in the study of ancient health, human-animal interactions as well as animal and plant dietary components. Most prominent were finding of soil-borne parasites transmitted directly between humans, but also meat-borne parasites that require consumption of raw or undercooked fish and pork...
2018: PloS One
Christian Larbi Ayisi, Jinliang Zhao, Jun-Wei Wu
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of replacing dietary fish oil (FO) with palm oil (PO) in juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (9.34± 0.02g initial weight) with emphasis on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities as well as serum biochemical parameters. Also, lysozyme activity (LYZ), respiratory burst (RB), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and resistance to Streptococcus iniae were investigated. Fish were stocked in 15 rectangular fiber glass tanks (150× 60× 40 cm) at 40 fish per tank with water maintained at 210 litres...
2018: PloS One
Ryoji Yanai, Shang Chen, Sho-Hei Uchi, Tomoaki Nanri, Kip M Connor, Kazuhiro Kimura
Dietary ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) and lutein each protect against age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We here examined the effects of ω-3 LCPUFAs and lutein supplementation in a mouse model of AMD. Mice were assigned to four groups: (1) a control group fed an ω-3 LCPUFA-free diet, (2) a lutein group fed an ω-3 LCPUFA-free diet with oral administration of lutein, (3) an ω-3 group fed an ω-3 LCPUFA-supplemented diet, and (4) an ω-3 + lutein group fed an ω-3 LCPUFA-supplemented diet with oral administration of lutein...
2018: PloS One
G Martines, N Musa, F Aquilino, P Capuano
AIM: In the last years with the increase of bariatric surgery, first of all as a result of new indications, a rise in the incidence of nutrient-related complications has been observed. Currently little is known about the impact of post-bariatric malnutrition and neurological complications. Wernicke's encephalopathy is a severe neurological syndrome which occurs as a result of thiamine deficiency. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome must be considered a serious neurological complication of bariatric surgery with significant morbidity and mortality, with rapidly progressing neurological symptoms, and must be treated immediately...
March 2018: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
Leila Hosseinzadeh, Sajad Farhangian, Marziyeh Hajialyani, Arash Bahari, Mohammad Hosein Farzaei
Allium rotundum L. is a dietary plant with diverse nutritional and herbal applications. According to its widespread application in Iranians' diets, understanding the possible adverse effects and toxic activities could be of major importance. The aim of this study was to establish the acute and subchronic toxicity profile of the hydroalcoholic extract of Allium rotundum on male and female Wistar rats. The acute study indicated no adverse effect or toxic activity after administration of the extract, suggesting that the LD50 value is up to 5,000 mg/kg body weight for the extract...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
Anne Riikonen, David Hadley, Ulla Uusitalo, Nicole Miller, Sibylle Koletzko, Jimin Yang, Carin Andrén Aronsson, Sandra Hummel, Jill M Norris, Suvi M Virtanen
The aim was to describe milk feeding patterns and first weaning foods during the first year of life in a large prospective birth cohort of infants with increased genetic risk for Type 1 diabetes (T1D) recruited in 4 different countries: the United States, Finland, Germany, and Sweden. All enrolled children with dietary information (n = 8,673) were included in the analyses; 1,307 (15%) children who dropped out before the first birthday were excluded from some analyses. Supplementary milk feeding in the first 3 days of life was common in all the four countries, although the type of the supplementary milk differed by country and by maternal T1D...
April 25, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Y-T Hu, C-K Tang, C-P Wu, P-C Wu, E-C Yang, C-C Tai, Y-L Wu
Apis mellifera plays crucial roles in maintaining the balance of global ecosystems and stability of agricultural systems by helping pollination of flowering plants, including many crops. In recent years, this balance has been disrupted greatly by some pesticides, which results in great losses of honeybees worldwide. Previous studies have found that pesticide-caused memory loss might be one of the major reasons for colony loss. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) are chemical compounds that inhibit the activity of histone deacetylases and are known to cause hyperacetylation of histone cores and influence gene expression...
April 25, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
Larissa S Celiberto, Franziska A Graef, Genelle R Healey, Else S Bosman, Kevan Jacobson, Laura M Sly, Bruce A Vallance
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract, thought to at least in part reflect an aberrant immune response to gut bacteria. IBD is increasing in incidence, particularly in populations that have recently immigrated to Western countries. This suggests that environmental factors are involved in its pathogenesis. We hypothesize that the increase in IBD rates might reflect the consumption of an unhealthy Western diet, containing excess calories and lacking in key nutritional factors, such as fiber and vitamin D...
April 25, 2018: Immunology
Sandesh C S Nagamani, Umang Agarwal, Allison Tam, Mahshid Azamian, Ann McMeans, Inka C Didelija, Mahmoud A Mohammad, Juan C Marini
PurposeBenzoate and phenylbutyrate are widely used in the treatment of urea cycle disorders, but detailed studies on pharmacokinetics and comparative efficacy on nitrogen excretion are lacking.MethodsWe conducted a randomized, three-arm, crossover trial in healthy volunteers to study pharmacokinetics and comparative efficacy of phenylbutyrate (NaPB; 7.15 g•m-2 BSA•day-1 ), benzoate (NaBz; 5.5 g•m-2 BSA•day-1 ), and a combination of two medications (MIX arm; 3.575 g NaPB and 2.75 g NaBz•m-2 BSA•day-1 ) on nitrogen excretion...
October 12, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Yanni Papanikolaou, Victor L Fulgoni
Previous data demonstrate grain foods contribute shortfall nutrients to the diet of U.S. adults. The 2015⁻2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans have identified several shortfall nutrients in the U.S. population, including fiber, folate, and iron (women only). Intake of some shortfall nutrients can be even lower in older adults. The present analyses determined the contribution of grain foods for energy and nutrients in older U.S. adults and ranked to all other food sources in the American diet. Analyses of grain food sources were conducted using a 24-hour recall in adults (≥51 years old; n = 4522) using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011⁻2014...
April 25, 2018: Nutrients
Kevin D Cashman
Estimates of dietary requirements for vitamin D or Dietary Reference Values (DRV) are crucial from a public health perspective in providing a framework for prevention of vitamin D deficiency and optimizing vitamin D status of individuals. While these important public health policy instruments were developed with the evidence-base and data available at the time, there are some issues that need to be clarified or considered in future iterations of DRV for vitamin D. This is important as it will allow for more fine-tuned and truer estimates of the dietary requirements for vitamin D and thus provide for more population protection...
April 25, 2018: Nutrients
Małgorzata Lipowska, Mariusz Lipowski, Paweł Jurek, Anna M Jankowska, Paulina Pawlicka
The home food environment is critically important for the development of children’s health-related practices. By managing dietary restrictions, providing nutritional knowledge and demonstrating eating behaviours, parents contribute to children’s food preferences and eating patterns. The present study examined nutritional knowledge, eating habits and appetite traits among 387 Polish five-year-old healthy and overfat boys and girls in the context of parental feeding styles and body-fat status...
April 25, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Dan Yi, Qiuhong Fang, Yongqing Hou, Lei Wang, Haiwang Xu, Tao Wu, Joshua Gong, Guoyao Wu
The present study was to determine the efficacy of dietary supplementation with oleum cinnamomi (OCM) on growth performance and intestinal functions in piglets. Sixteen piglets (24-day-old) were randomly assigned to the control or OCM groups. Piglets in the control group were fed a basal diet, whereas piglets in the OCM group were fed the basal diet supplemented with 50 mg/kg OCM. On day 20 of the trial, blood samples and intestinal tissues were obtained from piglets. Compared with the control group, dietary OCM supplementation increased ( p < 0...
April 25, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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