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Chengyuan Lin, Jin Bai, Mulan He, Anderson O L Wong
In this study, structural analysis of grass carp prolactin (PRL) gene was performed and the signaling mechanisms for pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) regulation of PRL promoter activity were investigated. In αT3-1 cells, PRL promoter activity could be induced by oPACAP38 which was blocked by PACAP antagonist but not the VIP antagonist. The stimulatory effect of oPACAP38 was mimicked by activation of AC/cAMP and voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channel (VSCC) signaling, or induction of Ca2+ entry...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nan Zhang, Lei Zhang, Linyin Feng, Lei Yao
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cananga odorata essential oil, known as ylang-ylang essential oil (YYO), was commonly used in the aromatherapy for relaxation and mood adjusting use. In our previous study, YYO played anxiolytic effects on the mice in several behavioral tests that based on the instinctive responses to novel environments. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the effects and mechanisms of YYO reversing the anxiety induced by 5-HT2C receptor agonist 1-(3-chlorophenyl) piperazine (m-CPP)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Kyeongjun Lee, Chowee Park, Yeonsoo Oh, Heesoon Lee, Jungsook Cho
Excitotoxicity and oxidative stress play vital roles in the development of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we investigated the effect of N -((3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[h]chromen-2-yl)methyl)-4-methoxyaniline (BL-M) on excitotoxic neuronal cell damage in primary cultured rat cortical cells, and compared to that of memantine, a non-competitive N -methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist clinically used to treat AD. We found that BL-M inhibited glutamate- or N -methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-induced excitotoxic cell damage...
March 15, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Wen Zhang, Jun-Ke Song, Rong Yan, Li Li, Zhi-Yong Xiao, Wen-Xia Zhou, Zhen-Zhong Wang, Wei Xiao, Guan-Hua Du
Diterpene ginkgolides meglumine injection (DGMI) is a therapeutic extract of Ginkgo biloba L, which has been used for the treatment of cerebral ischemic stroke in China. Ginkgolides A, B and C are the main components of DGMI. This study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of DGMI components against ischemic stroke in vivo and in vitro. Acute cerebral ischemic injury was induced in rats by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) for 1.5 h followed by 24 h reperfusion. The rats were treated with DGMI (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg, iv) at the onset of reperfusion and 12 h after reperfusion...
March 15, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Philippe A Melas, Johanna S Qvist, Matteo Deidda, Chirag Upreti, Ya Bin Wei, Fabrizio Sanna, Walter Fratta, Maria Scherma, Paola Fadda, Denise B Kandel, Eric R Kandel
Reduced eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2 (eIF2)α phosphorylation (p-eIF2α) enhances protein synthesis, memory formation, and addiction-like behaviors. However, p-eIF2α has not been examined with regard to psychoactive cannabinoids and cross-sensitization. Here, we find that a cannabinoid receptor agonist (WIN 55,212-2 mesylate [WIN]) reduced p-eIF2α in vitro by upregulating GADD34 (PPP1R15A), the recruiter of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). The induction of GADD34 was linked to ERK/CREB signaling and to CREB-binding protein (CBP)-mediated histone hyperacetylation at the Gadd34 locus...
March 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Kyunghwa Baek, Danbi Park, Hyo Rin Hwang, Seong-Gon Kim, Heesu Lee, Jeong-Hwa Baek
We investigated whether β-adrenergic antagonists attenuates dietary fat absorption through the regulation of pancreatic lipase (PNLIP) expression in pancreatic acinar cells in the context of high fat diet feeding. Male six-week-old C57BL/6 mice were assigned into an ad libitum fed control diet (CON) and a high fat diet (HIGH). Within each diet group, subgroups of mice were treated with vehicle (VEH) or propranolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist (BB). Over 12 weeks, body weight gain observed in HIGHVEH was mitigated in HIGHBB (+103% vs...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Robert James Shute, Matthew William Heesch, Roksana Barbara Zak, Jodi L Kreiling, Dustin R Slivka
PGC-1α mRNA is increased with both exercise and exposure to cold temperature. However, transcriptional control has yet to be examined during exercise in the cold. Additionally, the need for environmental cold exposure after exercise may not be a practical recovery modality. The purpose of this study was to determine mitochondrial-related gene expression and transcriptional control of PGC-1α following exercise in a cold compared to room temperature environment. Eleven recreationally trained males completed two 1-h cycling bouts in a cold (7 {degree sign}C) or room temperature (20 {degree sign}C) environment followed by 3 h of supine recovery in standard room conditions...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Etta Y L Liu, Miranda L Xu, Yan Jin, Qiyun Wu, Tina T X Dong, Karl W K Tsim
Genistein, 4',5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone, is a major isoflavone in soybean, which is known as phytestrogen having known benefit to brain functions. Being a common phytestrogen, the possible role of genistein in the brain protection needs to be further explored. In cultured PC12 cells, application of genistein significantly induced the expression of neurofilaments (NFs), markers for neuronal differentiation. In parallel, the expression of tetrameric form of proline-rich membrane anchor (PRiMA)-linked acetyl-cholinesterase (G4 AChE), a key enzyme to hydrolyze acetylcholine in cholinergic synapses, was induced in a dose-dependent manner: this induction included the associated protein PRiMA...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Katherine D Duncan, Margaret L Schlichting
How does the hippocampus represent interrelated experiences in memory? We review prominent yet seemingly contradictory theoretical perspectives, which propose that the hippocampus distorts experiential representations to either emphasize their distinctiveness or highlight common elements. These fundamentally different kinds of memory representations may be instantiated in the brain via conjunctive separated codes and adaptively differentiated codes on the one hand, or integrated relational codes on the other...
March 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Chao Huang, Zhe Zhang, Lihan Chen, Hank W Lee, Marina K Ayrapetov, Ting C Zhao, Yimei Hao, Jinsong Gao, Chunzhang Yang, Gautam U Mehta, Zhengping Zhuang, Xiaoren Zhang, Guohong Hu, Y Eugene Chin
Post-translational modifications of mammalian c-Src N-terminal and C-terminal domains regulate distinct functions: myristoylation of G2 controls its cell membrane association and phosphorylation of Y419/Y527 controls its activation or inactivation, respectively. We provide evidence that Src-cell membrane association-dissociation and catalytic activation-inactivation are both regulated by acetylation. In EGF-treated cells, CREB binding protein (CBP) acetylated an N-terminal lysine cluster (K5, K7, and K9) of c-Src to promote dissociation from the cell membrane...
March 12, 2018: Cancer Research
Yanjie Zhang, Qiuyue Guan, Yin Liu, Yuwei Zhang, Yulong Chen, Jinglu Chen, Yulan Liu, Zhiguang Su
Hepatic gluconeogenesis is essential to maintain the blood glucose levels, and its abnormal activation leads to hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. However, the molecular mechanisms in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis remain to be fully defined. In this study, using murine hepatocytes and a liver-specific knockout mouse model, we explored the physiological role of nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) in regulating hepatic glucose metabolism and the underlying mechanism. We found that NF-Y targets the gluconeogenesis pathway in the liver...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Yuanyuan Tang, Joshua Berlind, Nirmala Mavila
BACKGROUND: The WNT-beta-catenin pathway is known to regulate cellular homeostasis during development and tissue regeneration. Activation of WNT signaling increases the stability of cytoplasmic beta-catenin and enhances its nuclear translocation. Nuclear beta-catenin function is regulated by transcriptional co-factors such as CREB binding protein (CBP) and p300. Hyper-activated WNT-beta-catenin signaling is associated with many cancers. However, its role in inducing stemness to liver cancer cells, its autoregulation and how it regulates tumor suppressor pathways are not well understood...
March 12, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Chen Bian, Yan Huang, Haitao Zhu, Yangang Zhao, Jikai Zhao, Jiqiang Zhang
Steroids have been demonstrated to play profound roles in the regulation of hippocampal function by acting on their receptors, which need coactivators for their transcriptional activities. Previous studies have shown that steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) is the predominant coactivator in the hippocampus, but its exact role and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we constructed SRC-1 RNA interference lentiviruses, injected them into the hippocampus of male mice, and then examined the changes in the expression of selected synaptic proteins, CA1 synapse density, postsynaptic density (PSD) thickness, and in vivo long-term potentiation (LTP)...
March 7, 2018: Neuroscience
Pan Pan, Kiyoko Oshima, Yi-Wen Huang, Kimberle A Agle, William R Drobyski, Xiao Chen, Jianying Zhang, Martha M Yearsley, Jianhua Yu, Li-Shu Wang
Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2, also named GPR43), is activated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate, that are produced when gut bacteria ferment dietary fiber. FFAR2 has been suggested to regulate colonic inflammation, which is a major risk factor for the development of colon cancer and is also linked to epigenetic dysregulation in colon carcinogenesis. The current study assessed whether FFAR2, acting as an epigenetic regulator, protects against colon carcinogenesis. To mimic the mild inflammation that promotes human colon cancer, we treated mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) overnight, which avoids excessive inflammation but induces mild inflammation that promotes colon carcinogenesis in the ApcMin/+ and the azoxymethane (AOM)-treated mice...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Yifeng Xia, Cheng Zhan, Mingxiang Feng, Mathias Leblanc, Eugene Ke, Narayana Yeddula, Inder M Verma
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is the most deadly subtype of lung cancer due to its dismal prognosis. We have developed a lentiviral vector-mediated SCLC mouse model and have explored the role of both the NF-κB and CREB families of transcription factors in this model. Surprisingly, induction of NF-κB activity, which promotes tumor progression in many cancer types including non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), is dispensable in SCLC. Instead, suppression of NF-κB activity in SCLC tumors moderately accelerated tumor development...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Shivakumar Subbanna, Nagaraja N Nagre, Madhu Shivakumar, Vikram Joshi, Delphine Psychoyos, Abdullah Kutlar, Nagavedi S Umapathy, Balapal S Basavarajappa
Alcohol exposure can affect brain development, leading to long-lasting behavioral problems, including cognitive impairment, which together is defined as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). However, the fundamental mechanisms through which this occurs are largely unknown. In this study, we report that the exposure of postnatal day 7 (P7) mice to ethanol activates caspase-3 via cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1R) in neonatal mice and causes a reduction in methylated DNA binding protein (MeCP2) levels. The developmental expression of MeCP2 in mice is closely correlated with synaptogenesis and neuronal maturation...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Xiaoying He, Hongyu Guan, Weiwei Liang, Zhimin Huang, Lijuan Xu, Pengyuan Zhang, Fen Xu, Yanbing Li
BACKGROUND: Abdominal obesity is considered a major factor in the development of metabolic disorders. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been reported to have positive effects on improving body metabolism and to reducing insulin resistance. However, it remains less clear whether GLP-1 plays a role in the adipogenesis process of visceral fat. METHODS: Here, we analyzed the in vitro actions and probable mechanisms of Exendin-4, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, on human adipose-derived stromal cells (hADSCs) isolated from omentum...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Gerald Thiel, Oliver G Rössler
The polyphenol resveratrol is found and many plant and fruits and is a constituent of our diet. Resveratrol has been proposed to have chemopreventive and anti-inflammatory activities. On the cellular level, resveratrol activates stimulus-regulated transcription factors. To identify resveratrol-responsive elements within a natural gene promoter, the molecular pathway leading to c-Fos gene expression by resveratrol was dissected. The c-Fos gene encodes a basic region leucine zipper transcription factor and is a prototype of an immediate-early gene that is regulated by a wide range of signaling molecules...
March 4, 2018: Gene
Wen Huang, Shunjie Bai, Xuzheng Zuo, Weiju Tang, Pengfei Chen, Xiuying Chen, Gong Wang, Haoxiang Wang, Peng Xie
Microglial activation-mediated inflammatory damage to oligodendrocytes is a key step in the etiology of ischemic white matter lesions. The adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) and adenosine A2a receptor (A2aR) have been reported to regulate the activation of microglia, however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Thus, the present study used a microglia/oligodendrocyte co‑culture model exposed to low glucose/hypoxia, and treated with agonists/antagonists of A1R and A2aR to investigate the role of A1R and A2aR...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Li Yin, Guangxian Pang, Chao Niu, Maidina Habasi, Jun Dou, Haji Akber Aisa
As an active compound, psoralen is present in various Chinese herbal medicines and has exhibited significant activity in skin disease treatment. Its derivative 8-methoxypsoralan (8-MOP) is the most commonly used drug to induce repigmentation of vitiligo. In our previous screening assays, 4-methyl-6-phenyl-2H-furo[3,2-g]chromen-2-one (MPFC), a psoralen derivative, was identified as more effective tyrosinase and melanin activator than the positive control 8-MOP in consideration of low doses, as well as low toxicity...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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