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Disability in sport

Daniel R Howard, Michael B Banffy, Neal S ElAttrache
BACKGROUND: Hamstring tendons are commonly harvested as autograft for ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction. There is no consensus in the literature whether the hamstring tendon should be harvested from the ipsilateral (drive) leg or contralateral (landing) leg of baseball pitchers undergoing ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction. Hamstring injuries commonly occur in baseball players, but there are no reports on their incidence specifically among Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers, nor are there reports on whether they occur more commonly in the drive leg or the landing leg...
December 13, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Robyn F Madden, Jane Shearer, David Legg, Jill A Parnell
Wheelchair rugby is a rapidly growing Paralympic sport; however, research remains predominantly in the realms of physiology and biomechanics. Currently, there is little investigation into nutrition and dietary supplement use among wheelchair rugby athletes (WRA). The aim of this study was to assess the types of dietary supplements (DS) used, the prevalence of usage, and the reasons for use among WRA. The secondary aim was to report utilized and preferred sources of nutritional information among this population...
December 11, 2018: Nutrients
Chris Wincup, Yiannis Ioannou
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a rare autoimmune disease of unknown etiology that represents a leading cause of acquired thromboembolism and recurrent miscarriage. It is characterized by the persistent elevated presence of pathogenic antiphospholipid auto-antibodies directed against cardiolipin, ß2-glycoprotein-I, and/or a positive lupus anticoagulant test. As with many autoimmune disorders, the pathogenesis of APS is believed to be the result of a complex interaction between environmental triggers and genetic predisposition...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Margot Putukian, Kaitlin Riegler, Stephanie Amalfe, Jared Bruce, Ruben Echemendia
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between preinjury risk factors (RFs) and subsequent occurrence of concussion and examine whether preinjury RFs or postinjury assessments predict clinical recovery in collegiate athletes. METHODS: Risk factors (sex, sport, and self-report history of concussion, migraine, attention-deficit disorder, learning disability, depression, and anxiety) and Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT), depression/anxiety screenings, and neuropsychological testing were obtained before the season...
December 6, 2018: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Samuel Lins, Cynthia F Melo, Sara G Alves, Rúben L Silva
This study aimed to identify the social representations of sports for Brazilian athletes with disabilities and to understand the extent to which sports can contribute to their empowerment. A total of 153 Brazilian athletes of various sports and with different types of disabilities took part in the study (122 men and 31 women; M = 31.91 years, SD = 9.46). The research was performed by an online survey by means of the free word association technique. All analyses were carried out using the Iramuteq computer program...
December 12, 2018: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly: APAQ
Stijn Weterings, Alyt Oppewal, Florien M M van Eeden, Thessa I M Hilgenkamp
BACKGROUND: Resistance training has beneficial effects on fitness levels, cardiovascular disease risk, risk of sarcopenia and on performing activities of daily living. The focus of this study is to design a total body resistance exercise set for adults with intellectual disabilities (RESID) with minimal equipment required and to test its feasibility. METHOD: The RESID was selected in an expert meeting, and its feasibility was determined in a cross-sectional pilot study...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
Joshua D Cramer, Alan Nasypany
Background and Purpose: Shoulder injuries are common amongst overhead athletes. Dysfunctional motor patterns (scapular dyskinesis) may be the cause or result. Improperly treated, they can sideline athletes or reduce quality of life. Current treatment protocols are lengthy and may result in recurrence. Individualization of treatment is key. Functional tests, like the Selective Functional Movement Assessment (SFMA), help discern and properly identify dysfunction, paving the way for interventions like reflexive neuromuscular stabilization (RNS)...
December 2018: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Nailah Coleman, Blaise A Nemeth, Claire M A LeBlanc
Children with chronic medical conditions face many challenges when considering sport participation. Compared with their healthy counterparts, they are often discouraged from physical activity or sports participation because of real or perceived limitations imposed by their condition. Prescribed exercise should be based on the demands of the sport, the effect of the disease on performance, and the potential for exercise-induced acute or chronic worsening of the illness or disability. This article will focus on several examples of chronic medical conditions and the clinician's role in providing advice about sport participation...
December 2018: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Andreas Menke
Mental disorders account for around one-third of disability worldwide and cause enormous personal and societal burden. Current pharmacotherapies and nonpharmacotherapies do help many patients, but there are still high rates of partial or no response, delayed effect, and unfavorable adverse effects. The current diagnostic taxonomy of mental disorders by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the International Classification of Diseases relies on presenting signs and symptoms, but does not reflect evidence from neurobiological and behavioral systems...
2018: Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine
Maremka Zwinkels, Olaf Verschuren, Janke F de Groot, Frank J G Backx, Harriet Wittink, Anne Visser-Meily, Tim Takken
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIT) on physical fitness and cardiometabolic health in youth with physical disabilities. METHODS: For this quasi-experimental study 70 participants were recruited from schools for special education and divided into runners and users of wheelchairs. HIT was performed for 8 weeks, twice a week, containing 30 seconds all-out exercises. RESULTS: Exercise adherence was 84...
November 30, 2018: Pediatric Physical Therapy
Luke Hogarth, Carl Payton, Vaughan Nicholson, Jemima Spathis, Sean Tweedy, Mark Connick, Emma Beckman, Peter Van de Vliet, Brendan Burkett
OBJECTIVES: The International Paralympic Committee has mandated that International Sport Federations develop sport-specific classification systems that are evidence-based. This study examined the predictive and convergent validity of instrumented tapping tasks to classify motor coordination impairments in Para swimming. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: Thirty non-disabled participants and twenty-one Para swimmers with brain injury completed several instrumented tapping tasks as an assessment of upper and lower limb motor coordination...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
John B Fuller, John C Dunn, Nicholas A Kusnezov, Leon J Nesti, Kelly G Kilcoyne
BACKGROUND: Medial ulnar collateral ligament (MUCL) reconstruction outcomes are well described in competitive throwers but not in nonthrowers. This investigation elucidated epidemiologic variables, functional outcomes, and prognostic factors after MUCL reconstruction in young active patients. METHODS: United States military service members undergoing MUCL reconstruction were isolated using the Management Analysis and Reporting Tool (M2) database from 2009 to 2016...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Nicolas Boudreau, Nathaly Gaudreault, Jean-Sébastien Roy, Sonia Bédard, Frédéric Balg
STUDY DESIGN: Single-blind, randomized controlled trial. BACKGROUND: Treatments for rotator cuff (RC) tendinopathy include RC muscle strengthening to promote better muscle recruitment in order to minimize subacromial narrowing during active movement. Glenohumeral adductors recruitment has also been shown to prevent such narrowing in asymptomatic individuals; therefore, adding glenohumeral adductor coactivation during RC strengthening could enhance the efficacy of RC strengthening...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
Jonathan A Godin, Burak Altintas, Marilee P Horan, Zaamin B Hussain, Jonas Pogorzelski, Erik M Fritz, Peter J Millett
BACKGROUND: The arthroscopic "bony Bankart bridge" (BBB) repair technique was recently shown to successfully restore shoulder stability at short-term follow-up, but longer-term outcomes have not yet been described. PURPOSE: To report the outcomes at minimum 5-year follow-up after BBB repair for anterior shoulder instability with a bony Bankart lesion. STUDY DESIGN: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS: Patients were included if they sustained a bony Bankart lesion, were treated with a BBB technique, and were at least 5 years postoperative...
November 28, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
T R Berry, R E Rhodes, E M Ori, K McFadden, G Faulkner, A E Latimer-Cheung, N O'Reilly, J C Spence, M S Tremblay, L M Vanderloo
BACKGROUND: Mass reach physical activity campaigns are designed to deliver physical-activity related messages to a large population across different media including print, television, radio, and websites. Few evaluations have examined the short-term effects of a mass reach campaign on participants who were engaged with the campaign. The current research examined the short-term effects of the ParticipACTION 150 Play List, a mass reach physical activity campaign, on participants who registered with the campaign website...
November 27, 2018: BMC Public Health
Joshua S Everhart, Moneer M Abouljoud, David C Flanigan
We sought to determine the relationship between 1) full-thickness cartilage defects and tibiofemoral subchondral surface ratio (SSR) and 2) disability and quality of life in patients with mild radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) (Kellgren-Lawrence grade 2) or without radiographic OA (Kellgren-Lawrence grades 0 or 1)? A total of 642 participants from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) with baseline knee MRIs and a Kellgren-Lawrence grade 2 or less on both bilateral screening radiographs were included. The independent relationship was assessed between 1) full thickness cartilage defect presence and tibiofemoral SSR and 2) Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) quality of life (QOL), KOOS function in sports and recreation (KOOS-sport/rec), and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) disability score after adjustment for relevant confounders with multivariate regression modeling...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Kenneth K Lee, Michael J Uihlein
Sports are ingrained in our society and are part of being a human. Through the Armed Forces, military personnel and veterans are trained and adapt to the learned behavior of perseverance, comradery, and teamwork, putting them in an ideal situation for using adaptive sports as a rehabilitation modality. Integrating sports into this unique population of disabled individuals helps to produce productive members of society. This article outlines the challenges and benefits of adaptive sports for veterans.
February 2019: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
Wei Wei, Morgane Evin, Nicolas Bailly, Maxime Llari, Jean-Dominique Laporte, Pierre-Jean Arnoux
Spinal injury (SPI) often causes death and disability in snow-sport accidents. SPIs often result from spinal compression and flexion, but the injury risks due to over flexion have not been studied. Back protectors are used to prevent SPIs but the testing standards do not evaluate the flexion-extension resistance. To investigate SPI risks and to better define back-protector specifications, this study quantified the flexion-extension range of motions (ROMs) of the thoracic-lumbar spine during typical snowboarding backward falls...
November 23, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Peter Gföller, Elisabeth Abermann, Armin Runer, Christian Hoser, Mario Pflüglmayer, Guido Wierer, Christian Fink
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was the evaluation of long-term clinical and radiological outcomes of non-operative treatment of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency. The hypothesis was that conservative treatment would be associated with a deterioration of subjective and objective measures of joint health and disability over time. METHODS: From an initial sample of 41 patients conservatively treated for ACL rupture, 10 received secondary ACL reconstruction, 1 was excluded due to contralateral ACL injury, and 1 patient required total knee replacement and a high tibial osteotomy...
November 22, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Tamina Levy, Kate Laver, Maggie Killington, Natasha Lannin, Maria Crotty
OBJECTIVE: To review methods for measuring adherence to exercise or physical activity practice recommendations in the stroke population and evaluate measurement properties of identified tools. DATA SOURCES: Two systematic searches were conducted in eight databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews, Sports Discus, PEDro, PubMed and EMBASE). Phase 1 was conducted to identify measures. Phase 2 was conducted to identify studies investigating properties of these measures...
November 21, 2018: Clinical Rehabilitation
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