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Alla Zaytseva, Dalibor Kurepa, Seungjun Ahn, Barry Weinberger
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Proper placement of endotracheal tube (ETT) in the midtrachea is essential. Initial depth of placement of oral ETT from the lips is commonly estimated based on weight ("7-8-9 rule"), gestational age, or nasal-tragus distance. However, these measurements can be altered by superficial factors and the mobility of the lips relative to the airway, so the upper alveolar ridge (gum) may provide a superior landmark. Also, confirmation of ETT tip position by point of care ultrasound (POC-US) is noninvasive and may enable localization of the ETT tip in real time...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Ali Afzali, Farshid Babapour Mofrad, Majid Pouladian
Detailed knowledge of anatomical lung variation is very important in medical image processing. Normal variations of lung consistent with the maintenance of pulmonary health and abnormal lung variations can be as a result of a pulmonary disease. Inter-patient lung variations can be due to the several factors such as sex, age, height, weight and type of disease. This study tries to show the inter-patient lung variations by using one of the shape-based descriptions techniques which is called Fourier descriptors...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
Max Rohde, Anne L Nielsen, Manan Pareek, Jørgen Johansen, Jens A Sørensen, Anabel Diaz, Mie K Nielsen, Janus Mølgaard Christiansen, Jon T Asmussen, Nina Nguyen, Oke Gerke, Anders Thomassen, Abass Alavi, Poul Flemming Høilund-Carlsen, Christian Godballe
Purpose: To examine whether staging with 18 F-FDG-PET/CT (PET/CT) provides better prediction of survival in patients with recurrent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) than chest X-ray + head and neck magnetic resonance imaging (CXR/MRI) or chest computed tomography + head and neck MRI (CCT/MRI). Methods: A prospective cohort study based on paired data. Consecutive patients with histologically verified HNSCC recurrence were enrolled from September 2013 to March 2016. All patients underwent CXR/MRI, CCT/MRI, and PET/CT on the same day and prior to biopsy...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Iuri Corsini, Niccolò Parri, Elena Gozzini, Caterina Coviello, Valentina Leonardi, Chiara Poggi, Martina Giacalone, Tommaso Bianconi, Lorenzo Tofani, Francesco Raimondi, Carlo Dani
BACKGROUND: Respiratory distress (RD) is the most common neonatal illness. Lung ultrasound (LUS) is a technique previously tested in neonatal studies on RD, but literature regarding its routine clinical applicability is still lacking. OBJECTIVE: To assess the concordance between LUS performed by neonatologists with different training levels and chest X-ray (CXR) for the diagnosis of RD in newborns during the first 24 h of life. METHODS: We enrolled newborns with RD during the first 24 h of life...
October 10, 2018: Neonatology
Stephanie Ruest, Ghid Kanaan, Jessica L Moore, Amy P Goldberg
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of incidental rib fractures identified by chest radiograph (CXR) obtained for indications unrelated to accidental trauma or nonaccidental trauma (NAT), and describe the histories associated with cases of incidental rib fractures and their proposed etiologies. It is hypothesized that incidental rib fractures are rare and alternative explanations for rib fractures occasionally used in a medico-legal context such as minor accidental trauma, undiagnosed medical conditions, and transient metabolic bone disturbances are unlikely to be the etiology of incidental rib fractures...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Masashi Takahashi, Norihisa Nitta, Takumi Kishimoto, Yoshinori Ohtsuka, Sumihisa Honda, Kazuto Ashizawa
OBJECTIVE: Arc-welders' pneumoconiosis (AWP) is a less fibrogenic pneumoconiosis with radiographic shadows that can improve after isolation from dusty environments. Therefore, early diagnosis is important. However, the exact role of chest radiograph and computed tomography (CT) for diagnosing AWP is not fully understood. This study was performed to assess the CT appearance of AWP using semi-quantitative methods and to compare the findings with those of silicosis. The profusion of pulmonary abnormality on chest radiograph were also compared with the semi-quantitative CT score...
October 2018: European Journal of Radiology
Min Jae Cha, Myung Jin Chung, Kyunga Kim, Kyung Soo Lee, Tae Jung Kim, Tae Sung Kim
The aim of this study is to determine the earliest cutoff of radiographic score as a potential prognostic indicator of fatal outcomes in patients with acute Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) pneumonia. The institutional review board approved this retrospective study. Serial chest radiographies (CXRs) were obtained from viral exposure until death or discharge in 35 patients with laboratory confirmed MERS-CoV infection. Radiographic scores were calculated by multiplying a four-point scale of involved lung area and three-point scale of abnormal opacification, in each of the six lung zones...
October 2018: European Journal of Radiology
Ramandeep Singh, Mannudeep K Kalra, Chayanin Nitiwarangkul, John A Patti, Fatemeh Homayounieh, Atul Padole, Pooja Rao, Preetham Putha, Victorine V Muse, Amita Sharma, Subba R Digumarthy
BACKGROUND: Deep learning (DL) based solutions have been proposed for interpretation of several imaging modalities including radiography, CT, and MR. For chest radiographs, DL algorithms have found success in the evaluation of abnormalities such as lung nodules, pulmonary tuberculosis, cystic fibrosis, pneumoconiosis, and location of peripherally inserted central catheters. Chest radiography represents the most commonly performed radiological test for a multitude of non-emergent and emergent clinical indications...
2018: PloS One
Mei-Mei Kuan
BACKGROUND: This cross-sectional study was retrospectively performed to assess the trend of tuberculosis (TB) among Taiwan's immigrant workers from highly TB-endemic countries under an intervention of conducting a 4-round follow-up (at 0-3 days and 6, 18, and 30 months post-migration) screening program with initial chest X-ray (CXR) following an overseas, pre-entry normal CXR. METHODS: The immigrant workers with TB disease enrolled in the Taiwan TB registry database in 2011-2014 were analyzed and linked to an immigrant worker physical exam database to stratify TB case categories of actively screened or not for comparison...
October 3, 2018: BMC Public Health
Jieun Kang, Dae Hyun Jeong, Bin Yoo, Chang-Keun Lee, Yong-Gil Kim, Seokchan Hong, Tae Sun Shim, Kyung-Wook Jo
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the usefulness of routine chest radiograph (CXR) examinations for patients with inflammatory arthritis treated with a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor in terms of (i) the role of CXR in baseline latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) screening and (ii) detecting asymptomatic active tuberculosis after TNF inhibitor initiation. METHODS: From January 2011 to June 2017, 469 patients with inflammatory arthritis were enrolled in the study at a tertiary referral center in South Korea...
October 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Chelsea R Majerus, Trevor L Tredway, Nicole K Yun, James M Gerard
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have not evaluated the utility of obtaining chest radiographs (CXR) in patients with acute asthma exacerbation reporting chest pain. The aims of this study were to evaluate the symptom of chest pain as a predictor for clinicians obtaining a CXR in these patients and to evaluate chest pain as a predictor of a positive CXR finding. METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of patients, ages 2 to 18 years, presenting for acute asthma exacerbation to the emergency department from August 1, 2014, to March 31, 2016...
September 25, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Elias Taylor Gunnell, Dora K Franceschi, Christina R Inscoe, Allison Hartman, Jennifer L Goralski, Agathe Ceppe, Brian Handly, Cassandra Sams, Lynn Ansley Fordham, Jianping Lu, Otto Zhou, Yueh Z Lee
OBJECTIVE: The imaging evaluation of cystic fibrosis currently relies on chest radiography or computed tomography. Recently, digital chest tomosynthesis has been proposed as an alternative. We have developed a stationary digital chest tomosynthesis (s-DCT) system based on a carbon nanotube (CNT) linear x-ray source array. This system enables tomographic imaging without movement of the x-ray tube and allows for physiological gating. The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of clinical CF imaging with the s-DCT system...
September 25, 2018: European Radiology
Sadeq Al-Murshedi, Peter Hogg, Luis Lanca, Andrew England
To develop a novel method for comparing radiation dose and image quality (IQ) to evaluate adult chest X-ray (CXR) imaging among several hospitals. 
 Methods: CDRAD 2.0 phantom was used to acquire images in eight hospitals (17 digital X-ray units) using local adult CXR protocols. IQ was represented by image quality figure inverse (IQFinv), measured using CDRAD analyser software. Signal to noise ratio (SNR), contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and conspicuity index (CI) were calculated as additional measures of IQ...
September 25, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
Lei Wu, Qiaoru Hou, Yingying Lu, Jie Bai, Liping Sun, Yue Huang, Mazhong Zhang, Jijian Zheng
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary overflow (PO) is one of the most common complications in congenital heart disease (CHD) children with an incidence of 48-60% approximately. This study explored the feasibility of using lung ultrasound (LUS) to assess pulmonary overcirculation in CHD children and compare the diagnostic performance of LUS and chest radiography (CXR) for the detection of pulmonary overcirculation. METHOD: The upper anterior area, lower anterior area, upper lateral area, and lower posterior area, in each hemithorax were scanned in 59 children in the supine position...
September 24, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
T Morasert, W Worapas, R Kaewmahit, W Uphala
SETTING: A prison in Suratthani Province, South Thailand. OBJECTIVES: To measure the prevalence of and identify the risk factors associated with tuberculosis (TB) disease among prison inmates. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional surveillance study. All prison inmates were screened for TB using a national TB screening questionnaire and chest X-ray (CXR) in July-December 2015. We collected sputum smear and Xpert® MTB/RIF results from prison inmates with a questionnaire score of 3 points or CXR suggestive of TB...
October 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
D M Pelissari, D C Kuhleis, P Bartholomay, D Barreira, C L P Oliveira, R S de Jesus, L A Possa, C A Jarczewski, L T Nemeth, N D de Araujo, P B L Alves, R de Souza, D Arakaki, D B Dal Molin, P Werlang, M Brouwer
SETTING: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a challenge in Brazil, particularly among prison inmates. OBJECTIVE: To assess TB prevalence by active case finding in a public prison in southern Brazil. DESIGN: Prison inmates were screened for TB using the presence of cough and chest X-ray (CXR) from October 2014 to August 2016. Presence of cough, irrespective of duration, and abnormal CXRs were further investigated using laboratory tests. RESULTS: Of 10 326 inmates screened, 196 had confirmed TB (1898/100 000 inmates screened)...
October 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
William M Brigode, Michael Masteller, Rishi Chaudhuri, Ryan Sullivan, Amir Vafa
This study was performed to assess our institution's experience with stab injuries to the posterior mediastinal box. We examine the value of performing CT of the chest and esophagram in conjunction with a chest X-ray (CXR) over performing CXR(s) alone in evaluating this group of patients. We performed a retrospective study covering a 10-year period consisting of patients with stab wounds to the posterior mediastinal box. Age, gender, and injury severity score as demographic data points were collected. CXR, CT, and esophagram results; identified injuries; and subsequent interventions were analyzed...
August 1, 2018: American Surgeon
Meganathan P, Shally Awasthi
OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of complicated parapneumonic effusion (CPE)/empyema in patients of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) by using clinical and simple laboratory variables like hemoglobin (Hb), serum C-reactive protein (CRP), serum albumin (SA) levels and total leukocyte counts (TLC). METHODS: This prospective case-control study was conducted after institutional ethical approval. Subjects between ages of 2-59 mo with World Health Organization (WHO) defined CAP with written, informed parental consent were included...
September 4, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Andy L Nian, Russell J Orr, Sangeeta K Schroeder
OBJECTIVES: Asthma pathways have been shown to improve resource use and decrease length of stay (LOS). A tertiary care hospital implemented an asthma pathway in May 2015 to standardize inpatient care. We predicted that the pathway would increase the use of albuterol metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) and steroids; decrease use of albuterol nebulizer, antibiotics, chest radiograph (CXR), and respiratory viral panel (RVP); and decrease LOS. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study selected patients between the ages of 2 and 18 years who were admitted for asthma as a primary diagnosis between May 2014 and May 2016 (1 year preimplementation to 1 year postimplementation)...
July 2018: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
Wilson Oliveira Ezequiel Neto, Giovana Rodrigues Pereira, Márcia Silva Barbosa, Natan José Dutra Dias, Denise Rossato Silva
PURPOSE: Tuberculosis (TB) treatment is often carried out empirically, based on clinical and radiological findings. Chest X-ray (CXR) has good sensitivity but poor specificity in TB diagnosis. Xpert MTB/RIF (Mycobacterium tuberculosis/Rifampicin) is increasingly used in many countries as the initial diagnostic test for TB. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of radiological findings with the Xpert MTB/RIF test in patients with suspected pulmonary TB. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in an outpatient TB clinic...
September 3, 2018: Lung
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