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Lung cancer, radiation OR radiotherapy

M Rodríguez-Barranco, E Salamanca-Fernández, M L Fajardo, E Bayo, Y-L Chang-Chan, J Expósito, C García, J Tallón, P Minicozzi, M Sant, D Petrova, M A Luque-Fernandez, M-J Sánchez
PURPOSE: The third most frequently diagnosed cancer in Europe in 2018 was lung cancer; it is also the leading cause of cancer death in Europe. We studied patient and tumor characteristics, and patterns of healthcare provision explaining regional variability in lung cancer survival in southern Spain. METHODS: A population-based cohort study included all 1196 incident first invasive primary lung cancer (C33-C34 according to ICD-10) cases diagnosed between 2010 and 2011 with follow-up until April 2015...
October 19, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
Jason Hinton, Alberto Cerra-Franco, Kevin Shiue, Lindsey Shea, Vasantha Aaron, Geoffrey Billows, Ahmad Al-Hader, Tim Lautenschlaeger
BACKGROUND: The incidence of superior vena cava syndrome within the United States is roughly 15,000 cases per year. Superior vena cava syndrome is a potentially life-threatening medical condition; however, superior vena cava syndrome is not fatal in the majority of cases. Superior vena cava syndrome encompasses a collection of signs and symptoms resulting from obstruction of the superior vena cava, including swelling of the upper body of the head, neck, arms, and/or breast. It is also associated with cyanosis, plethora, and distended subcutaneous vessels...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Chao Bian, Wen-Jun Qin, Cui-Ying Zhang, Guan-Lian Zou, Yong-Zhao Zhu, Juan Chen, Ren Zhao, Yan-Yang Wang, Hong Zhe
Radiation-induced lung fibrosis (RILF) is a complication of radiotherapy in thoracic cancer patients. Thalidomide (THD) has a therapeutic effect on fibrotic and inflammatory disorders. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of THD on RILF in mice and better understand the underlying regulatory mechanisms of the therapeutic effect. We found that THD mitigated the fibrosis caused by irradiation in mice. The action of THD on RILF was related to the elevation of low levels reactive oxygen species (ROS), which inhibited the transforming growth factor‑β (TGF‑β)/Smad3 signaling pathway through activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)...
October 16, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Vishruta A Dumane, Richard Bakst, Sheryl Green
During breast/chest wall and regional nodal irradiation (RNI), standard 3D conformal techniques can fail to meet the dosimetric constraints for the heart and ipsilateral lung. VMAT can improve the dosimetric sparing of the heart and lungs. However the unnecessary increase in dose to the organs in the supraclavicular region as a result of using VMAT can be avoided. In this work we investigate potential dosimetric advantages of combining 3D with VMAT to improve sparing of these organs. Ten breast cancer patients requiring radiation therapy to the breast/chest wall and RNI including the IMNs, and who did not have a viable 3D conformal plan were chosen for the study...
2018: PloS One
Ting Yu, Min Xu, Tao Sun, Qian Shao, YingJie Zhang, XiJun Liu, FengXiang Li, Wei Wang, Jian Bin Li
To investigate the differences in target volumes and dosimetric parameters between the supine and prone positions for external-beam partial breast irradiation (EB-PBI) after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for Chinese breast cancer patients, thirty breast cancer patients who underwent three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) EB-PBI after BCS were enrolled. Supine and prone scan sets were acquired during free breathing for all patients. Target volumes and organs at risk (OARs) including the heart, ipsilateral lung and bilateral breast were contoured by the same radiation oncologist...
October 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Caitlin A Schonewolf, Marina Heskel, Abigail Doucette, Sunil Singhal, Melissa A Frick, Eric P Xanthopoulos, Michael N Corradetti, Joseph S Friedberg, Taine T Pechet, John P Christodouleas, William Levin, Abigail Berman, Keith A Cengel, Vivek Verma, Stephen M Hahn, John C Kucharczuk, Ramesh Rengan, Charles B Simone
BACKGROUND: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is standard for medically inoperable stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and is emerging as a surgical alternative in operable patients. However, limited long-term outcomes data exist, particularly according to operability. We hypothesized long-term local control (LC) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) would not differ by fractionation schedule, tumor size or location, or operability status, but overall survival (OS) would be higher for operable patients...
September 20, 2018: Clinical Lung Cancer
Yanzhe Gao, Jordan Kardos, Yang Yang, Tigist Y Tamir, Elizabeth Mutter-Rottmayer, Bernard Weissman, Michael B Major, William Y Kim, Cyrus Vaziri
The Cancer/Testes (CT) Antigen HORMAD1 is germ cell-restricted and plays developmental roles in generation and processing of meiotic DNA Double Strand Breaks (DSB). Many tumors aberrantly overexpress HORMAD1 yet the potential impact of this CT antigen on cancer biology is unclear. We tested a potential role of HORMAD1 in genome maintenance in lung adenocarcinoma cells. We show that HORMAD1 re-distributes to nuclear foci and co-localizes with the DSB marker γH2AX in response to ionizing radiation (IR) and chemotherapeutic agents...
October 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tamio Okimoto, Yukari Tsubata, Takamasa Hotta, Megumi Hamaguchi, Mika Nakao, Shun-Ichi Hamaguchi, Akinobu Hamada, Takeshi Isobe
The central nervous system is a common site of relapse in patients receiving crizotinib, which is presumed to be associated with the low concentration of crizotinib in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Our patient received surgical treatment for anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive stage IIA lung adenocarcinoma. His cancer recurred with brain metastases and carcinomatous meningitis. We started whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) and subsequently administered crizotinib. The concentration of crizotinib on day 15 in the plasma was 158 ng/mL, and that in the spinal fluid was 4...
October 17, 2018: Internal Medicine
Takeaki Hidaka, Saki Okuzumi, Ako Matsuhashi, Hidenori Takahashi, Kazunori Hata, Seiichiro Shimizu, Yoshinobu Iwasaki
Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is a highly malignant cancer originally found in lung in 1991. In extremely rare occasions, primary LCNEC is found in the mediastinum; approximately 40 of such cases have been reported. Due to the limited number of reported cases, a standardized treatment protocol has yet to be established. We report a case of a 66-year-old woman with primary mediastinal LCNEC who presented with superior vena cava syndrome. Emergent radiotherapy was performed, followed by systemic chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide, which resulted in a dramatic tumor reduction...
October 17, 2018: Internal Medicine
Judi van Diessen, Dirk De Ruysscher, Jan-Jakob Sonke, Eugène Damen, Karolina Sikorska, Bart Reymen, Wouter van Elmpt, Gunnar Westman, Gitte Fredberg Persson, Edith Dieleman, Hedvig Bjorkestrand, Corinne Faivre-Finn, José Belderbos
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The PET-boost randomized phase II trial (NCT01024829) investigated dose-escalation to the entire primary tumour or redistributed to regions of high pre-treatment FDG-uptake in inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. We present a toxicity analysis of the 107 patients randomized in the study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with stage II-III NSCLC were treated with an isotoxic integrated boost of ≥72 Gy in 24 fractions, with/without chemotherapy and strict dose limits...
October 13, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Francesco Deodato, Gabriella Macchia, Savino Cilla, Anna Ianiro, Giuseppina Sallustio, Silvia Cammelli, Milly Buwenge, Gian Carlo Mattiucci, Vincenzo Valentini, Alessio G Morganti
OBJECTIVE: A multi arm phase I clinical trial was performed to define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) delivered by non-coplanar conformal beams or Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy technique in 7 predefined clinical settings. METHODS: The (a) and (b) arms investigated primary and metastatic lung cancer differentiated by site of onset, arm (c) included primary or metastatic lesions outside the thorax, the (d) and (e) arms were for in-field re-irradiation of recurrence, and finally, the (f) and (g) arms were for boost irradiation to the lesions after an adjuvant RT prescribed dose...
October 16, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Joseph A Bovi
The incidence of brain metastases is projected to rise because survival rates of lung cancer, breast cancer, and melanoma continue to improve (1). The brain is being identified as a sanctuary site for harboring metastases despite excellent control of extracranial disease. This is thought to occur because the drug therapies that control extracranial disease have limited central nervous system (CNS) penetration. The development of brain metastases is a devastating diagnosis affecting both quality of life (QOL) and survival...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Farkhad Manapov, Lukas Käsmann, Olarn Roengvoraphoj, Maurice Dantes, Nina-Sophie Schmidt-Hegemann, Claus Belka, Chukwuka Eze
Over 10% of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients have brain metastases (BM) at initial diagnosis; more than 50% will develop BM within 2 years. BM are detected in up to 80% of all patients at autopsy. After primary treatment, prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) has been established as standard of care in SCLC patients responding to initial therapy. Based on level I evidence, PCI significantly decreases the risk of intracranial relapse and shows a modest survival benefit after 3 years. However, the role of PCI in defined patient subgroups such as resected SCLC, elderly and extensive stage patients with access to magnetic resonance imaging surveillance and stereotactic radiotherapy is yet to be fully clarified...
2018: Lung Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Leila Family, Yanli Li, Lie Hong Chen, John H Page, Zandra K Klippel, Chun Chao
Background: Previously identified patient-level risk factors for chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia (FN) indicate several potential underlying pathogenic mechanisms, including bone marrow suppression, impaired neutrophil function, or disturbances of barrier function. This study evaluated whether additional clinical characteristics related to these pathogenic mechanisms were risk factors for FN. Patients and Methods: The study population included patients diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma or breast, lung, colorectal, ovarian, or gastric cancer between 2000 and 2009 at Kaiser Permanente Southern California and treated with myelosuppressive chemotherapy...
October 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
Gregory P Kalemkerian, Billy W Loo, Wallace Akerley, Albert Attia, Michael Bassetti, Yanis Boumber, Roy Decker, M Chris Dobelbower, Afshin Dowlati, Robert J Downey, Charles Florsheim, Apar Kishor P Ganti, John C Grecula, Matthew A Gubens, Christine L Hann, James A Hayman, Rebecca Suk Heist, Marianna Koczywas, Robert E Merritt, Nisha Mohindra, Julian Molina, Cesar A Moran, Daniel Morgensztern, Saraswati Pokharel, David C Portnoy, Deborah Rhodes, Chad Rusthoven, Rafael Santana-Davila, Charles C Williams, Karin G Hoffmann, Miranda Hughes
The NCCN Guidelines for Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) address all aspects of disease management. These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on recent updates to the NCCN Guidelines for SCLC regarding immunotherapy, systemic therapy, and radiation therapy. For the 2018 update, new sections were added on "Signs and Symptoms of SCLC" and "Principles of Pathologic Review."
October 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
Eunah Chung, Jae Myoung Noh, Kyu Chan Lee, Jin Hee Kim, Wonkyu Chung, Yang-Gun Suh, Jung Ae Lee, Ki Ho Seol, Hong Gyun Wu, Yeon Sil Kim, O Kyu Noh, Jae Won Park, Dong Soo Lee, Jihae Lee, Young Suk Kim, Woo-Yoon Park, Min Kyu Kang, Sunmi Jo, Yong Chan Ahn
Purpose: Lung Cancer Subcommittee of Korean Radiation Oncology Group (KROG) has recently launched a prospective clinical trial (KROG 17-06) of hippocampus-sparing whole brain radiotherapy (HS-WBRT) with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) in treating multiple brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer. In order to improve trial quality, dummy run studies among the participating institutions were designed. This work reported the results of two-step dummy run study of the KROG 17-06 protocol...
October 15, 2018: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
Yoshiaki Sato, Hironori Yoshino, Yuka Kazama, Ikuo Kashiwakura
Retinoic acid‑inducible gene‑I‑like receptors (RLRs) serve an important role in antiviral immune responses. Recent studies demonstrated that RLR activation exerts antitumor activity by inducing an anticancer immune response and apoptosis in various cancer cells. The authors' recent study demonstrated that the cytotoxic effects of the RLR agonist Poly(I:C)‑HMW/LyoVec™ [Poly(I:C)‑HMW] in human non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were enhanced by cotreatment with ionizing radiation (IR). Furthermore, cotreatment with Poly(I:C)‑HMW and IR effectively induced cell death, including apoptosis, in a caspase‑dependent manner...
October 8, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Suneel D Kamath, Priya U Kumthekar
While the CNS has long been viewed as an immune-privileged environment, a paradigm shift in neuro-immunology has elevated the role of systemic immunotherapy for the treatment of metastatic disease. Increasing knowledge regarding the presence of a CNS lymphatic system and the physical and biochemical alteration of the blood brain barrier (BBB) by the tumor microenvironment suggests immune cell trafficking in and out of the CNS is possible. Emerging clinical data suggest immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) can stimulate T cells peripherally to in turn have anti-tumor effects in the CNS...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Katsuyuki Karasawa, Sara Hayakawa, Yumiko Machitori, Yukiko Shibata, Hiroaki Ogawa, Kei Ito, Takuya Shimizuguchi, Terufumi Kawamoto, Keiji Nihei
PURPOSE: Although stereotactic body radiation therapy is one of the standard treatments for stage I nonsmall cell lung cancer, in the case of central tumors it carries the risk of severe adverse events for serial organs. Accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy is considered a reasonable alternative to treat central tumors. We have been treating central tumors with accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy using a 75 Gy/25 fr/5 weeks regimen, and we compared the results with those of stereotactic body radiation therapy using 48 Gy/4 fr/1 week...
January 1, 2018: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Neige Journy, Imène Mansouri, Rodrigue S Allodji, Charlotte Demoor-Goldschmidt, Debiche Ghazi, Nadia Haddy, Carole Rubino, Cristina Veres, Wael Salem Zrafi, Sofia Rivera, Ibrahima Diallo, Florent De Vathaire
As modern radiotherapy, including intensity-modulated techniques, is associated with high dose gradients to normal tissues and large low-to-moderate dose volumes, the assessment of second primary cancer (SPC) risks requires quantification of dose-volume effects. We conducted a systematic review of clinical and epidemiological studies investigating the effect of the irradiated volume or dose-volume distribution to the remaining volume at risk (RVR) on SPC incidence. We identified eighteen studies comparing SPC risks according to the irradiated volume (i...
October 10, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
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