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Lung cancer, radiation OR radiotherapy

Mohammad Askandar Iqbal, Shweta Arora, Gopinath Prakasam, George A Calin, Mansoor Ali Syed
Lung cancer is the cardinal cause of cancer-related deaths with restricted recourse of therapy throughout the world. Clinical success of therapies is not very promising due to - late diagnosis, limited therapeutic tools, relapse and the development of drug resistance. Recently, small ∼20-24 nucleotides molecules called microRNAs (miRNAs) have come into the limelight as they play outstanding role in the process of tumorigenesis by regulating cell cycle, metastasis, angiogenesis, metabolism and apoptosis. miRNAs essentially regulate gene expression via post-transcriptional regulation of mRNA...
August 10, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Masaki Nakamura, Masakatsu Onozawa, Atsushi Motegi, Hidehiro Hojo, Sadamoto Zenda, Naoki Nakamura, Hibiki Udagawa, Keisuke Kirita, Shingo Matsumoto, Shigeki Umemura, Kiyotaka Yoh, Seiji Niho, Koichi Goto, Tetsuo Akimoto
This study sought to evaluate the impact of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) on the pattern of brain recurrence after radical treatment in patients with limited-disease small-cell lung cancer (LD-SCLC). Patients treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy between January 2006 and December 2014 at a single institution were retrospectively examined. Radiotherapy was performed using accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy (twice daily, 45 Gy in 30 fractions) or conventional fractionated radiotherapy (once daily, 50 Gy in 25 fractions)...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Landon S Wootton, Matthew J Nyflot, W Art Chaovalitwongse, Eric Ford
PURPOSE: To improve the detection of errors in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with a novel method that uses quantitative image features from radiomics to analyze gamma distributions generated during patient specific quality assurance (QA). METHODS AND MATERIALS: One hundred eighty-six IMRT beams from 23 patient treatments were delivered to a phantom and measured with electronic portal imaging device dosimetry. The treatments spanned a range of anatomic sites; half were head and neck treatments, and the other half were drawn from treatments for lung and rectal cancers, sarcoma, and glioblastoma...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Olivia J Kelada, Roy H Decker, Sameer K Nath, Kimberly L Johung, Ming-Qiang Zheng, Yiyun Huang, Jean-Dominique Gallezot, Chi Liu, Richard E Carson, Uwe Oelfke, David J Carlson
PURPOSE: Tumor hypoxia correlates with treatment failure in patients undergoing conventional radiation therapy. However, no published studies have investigated tumor hypoxia in patients undergoing stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). We aimed to noninvasively quantify the tumor hypoxic volume (HV) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors to elucidate the potential role of tumor vascular response and reoxygenation at high single doses. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Six SBRT-eligible patients with NSCLC tumors >1 cm were prospectively enrolled in an institutional review board-approved study...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
John A Kalapurakal, Mahesh Gopalakrishnan, Matthew Mille, Irene Helenowski, Susan Peterson, Cynthia Rigsby, Fran Laurie, Jae Won Jung, Thomas J Fitzgerald, Choonsik Lee
PURPOSE: This pilot study was done to determine the feasibility and accuracy of University of Florida/National Cancer Institute (UF/NCI) phantoms and Monte Carlo (MC) retrospective dosimetry and had two aims: (1) to determine the anatomic accuracy of UF/NCI phantoms by comparing 3D organ doses in National Wilms Tumor Study (NWTS) patient-matched UF/NCI phantoms to organ doses in corresponding patient-matched CT scans and (2) to compare infield and out-of-field organ dosimetry using two dosimetry methods-standard radiation therapy (RT) treatment planning systems (TPS) and MC dosimetry in these two anatomic models...
August 12, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Thu-Cuc Nguyen, Aaron M Jaffe, David Gray, John Cain, Thomas Brown
Colovesical fistula is an atypical communication between the colon and the bladder. The most common causes of colovesical fistula are diverticulitis, inflammatory bowel disease, lymphoma and complication from radiation therapy. Patients with colovesical fistula present with recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI), dysuria, frequency, abdominal pain, pneumaturia, faecaluria, and hematuria. We present a case of a patient with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma presented with abdominal pain, dysuria, and faecaluria who was found to have a colovesical fistula...
June 8, 2018: Curēus
Yoshiki Negi, Kozo Kuribayashi, Hiroshi Doi, Norihiko Funaguchi, Yuichi Koda, Eriko Fujimoto, Koji Mikami, Toshiyuki Minami, Takashi Yokoi, Takashi Kijima
Pleurectomy/decortication (P/D) is the surgical treatment of choice for early malignant mesothelioma, but it remains unclear whether radiotherapy along with P/D should be used as multimodal treatment for this disease. We herein present the case of a 76-year-old man with a history of asbestos exposure who was diagnosed with left-sided malignant pleural mesothelioma in February 2010. The patient underwent chemotherapy with a combination of cisplatin and pemetrexed and achieved stable disease, after which time he was kept under observation...
August 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Lina Ya'qoub, Shelby Larson, Matthew Deedy, Ibrahim M Saeed
The heart is a destination for metastases of various types of primary tumors, with lung, breast, melanoma, and mesothelioma being the most common types. Recurrent isolated cardiac metastasis presenting as a cavitary mass is rare. We present a case of recurrent isolated cavitary metastatic mass to the right atrium in a patient with the history of breast cancer who presented with new-onset atrial fibrillation. The patient successfully received radiation therapy with the resolution of the mass confirmed on repeat echocardiography...
August 12, 2018: Echocardiography
Taranga Jyoti Baruah, R N Sharan, Lakhan Kma
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a major form of cancer and is resistant to chemo- and radio-therapy. Vicenin-2 (VCN-2) is a flavonoid obtained from Ocimum sanctum L. and it has been reported to have radioprotective and anti-cancer properties. This study was conducted to check for the radiosensitizing potential of VCN-2 in the NSCLC cell line, NCI-H23. NCI-H23 cells were exposed to VCN-2 singularly, and to X-rays with and without prior VCN-2 treatment. Cytotoxicity assay, cell proliferation assay, caspase-3 activity assay, DNA fragmentation assay and Western blotting for Rad50, MMP-2 and p21 were performed to investigate the radiosensitizing properties of VCN-2...
August 11, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Erin Reid, Gita Suneja, Richard F Ambinder, Kevin Ard, Robert Baiocchi, Stefan K Barta, Evie Carchman, Adam Cohen, Neel Gupta, Kimberly L Johung, Ann Klopp, Ann S LaCasce, Chi Lin, Oxana V Makarova-Rusher, Amitkumar Mehta, Manoj P Menon, David Morgan, Nitya Nathwani, Ariela Noy, Frank Palella, Lee Ratner, Stacey Rizza, Michelle A Rudek, Jeff Taylor, Benjamin Tomlinson, Chia-Ching J Wang, Mary A Dwyer, Deborah A Freedman-Cass
People living with HIV (PLWH) are diagnosed with cancer at an increased rate over the general population and generally have a higher mortality due to delayed diagnoses, advanced cancer stage, comorbidities, immunosuppression, and cancer treatment disparities. Lack of guidelines and provider education has led to substandard cancer care being offered to PLWH. To fill that gap, the NCCN Guidelines for Cancer in PLWH were developed; they provide treatment recommendations for PLWH who develop non-small cell lung cancer, anal cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, and cervical cancer...
August 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
J Cuilleron, P Mas, L Kiakouama, L Gaillot-Durand, P Seve, G Devouassoux
Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is a rare disease, defined by the production of anti-factor VIII antibodies causing disordered hemostasis. It is idiopathic in 50% of cases, but sometimes associated with solid tumors. We report a case where AHA led to the diagnosis of lung cancer. CASE REPORT: An 82-year-old man with spontaneous hematomas on his trunk and extremities, and isolated prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time was admitted to the emergency room. A severely reduced factor VIII level and a high factor VIII inhibitor title confirmed the diagnosis of AHA...
August 8, 2018: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
J Kobiela, P Spychalski, G Marvaso, D Ciardo, V Dell'Acqua, F Kraja, A Błażyńska-Spychalska, A J Łachiński, A Surgo, R Glynne-Jones, B A Jereczek-Fossa
BACKGROUND: SBRT is a novel modality in treatment for oligometastatic colorectal cancer. We aimed to perform a systematic review of results of SBRT in maintaining LC (local control) for CRC liver and lung oligometastases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The review was performed according to PRISMA and PICO guidelines. Database search using keywords: stereotactic, colon, colorectal, cancer, sbrt, sabr returned 457 results. 15 were included in the study. Only cohorts with CRC histology and reported LC were included...
September 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Stamati Morias, Loredana Gabriela Marcu, Michala Short, Eileen Giles, Eva Bezak
Stereotactic ablative radiation therapy for lung cancer is an advanced technique where tumours are ablated with hypofractionated radiation doses, with a high degree of accuracy. The aim of this paper is to review the available literature and to discuss the SABR-induced toxicities for lung malignancies as a function of radiation delivery technique. A Medline search was conducted to identify the appropriate literature to fulfil the aim of this review and data from all applicable papers were collated and analysed...
September 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
M Janaki Ramaiah, S Vaishnave
BMI-1 (B-lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1) is a key protein partner in polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) that helps in maintaining the integrity of the complex. It is also a key player in ubiquitination of histone H2A which affects gene expression pattern involved in various cellular processes such as cell proliferation, growth, DNA repair, apoptosis and senescence. In many cancers, Overexpression of BMI1correlates with advanced stages of disease, aggressive clinicopathological behavior, poor prognosis resistance to radiation and chemotherapy...
August 7, 2018: Gene
Nissar Ahmed, Shaakir Hasan, Lana Schumacher, Athanasios Colonias, Rodney E Wegner
BACKGROUND: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has emerged as a highly effective technique to treat medically inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Doses must be chosen carefully when treating central lesions because of the potential for significant toxicity. This study reviews the outcomes of a cohort of patients with central lung tumors treated with SBRT. METHODS: We identified 18 patients (12 women, 6 men) with central lesions that were treated with SBRT at our institution...
August 10, 2018: Thoracic Cancer
Barbara Christine Weckler, Natalie Baldes, Joachim Schirren
BACKGROUND:  Prognosis in limited disease small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) after concurrent chemoradiotherapy is poor. While some studies show better survival after multimodality treatment including surgery, other trials failed to prove a surgery-related survival benefit. Therefore, this study investigated survival in stage IA-IIIB SCLC following surgery combined with chemotherapy and/or thoracic radiotherapy. METHODS:  We retrospectively reviewed all stage IA-IIIB SCLC patients without supraclavicular lymph node involvement at a single institution between January 1999 and August 2016 after multimodality treatment with curative intent...
August 9, 2018: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
Rashmi Koul, Shrinivas Rathod, Arbind Dubey, Bashir Bashir, Amitava Chowdhury
BACKGROUND: We compared the performance of 7th and 8th edition of the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) / American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM staging for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in non-metastatic (stage I-III) North American cohort undergoing primary radiation treatment. METHODS: Newly diagnosed NSCLC between (Jan 2011 - Dec 2014) were screened through a Canadian Provincial Cancer Registry. Clinico-radiologically and pathologically confirmed non-metastatic NSCLC undergoing primary radiation treatment were included...
September 2018: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Kohei Hashimoto, Niccolò Daddi, Meredith Giuliani, Andrew Hope, Lisa W Le, Kasia Czarnecka, Marcelo Cypel, Andrew Pierre, Marc de Perrot, Gail Darling, Thomas K Waddell, Shaf Keshavjee, Kazuhiro Yasufuku
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic value of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) candidates and compare with computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET). METHODS: Inclusion criteria for this single institutional retrospective study were 1) biopsy-proven or suspicious NSCLC with diameter <6 cm; 2) no distant metastasis; 3) EBUS-TBNA staging between April 2008 and November 2014; 4) SBRT eligible...
September 2018: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Cheryl L Craigs, Robert M West, Adam Hurlow, Michael I Bennett, Lucy E Ziegler
BACKGROUND: The UK National Health Service is striving to improve access to palliative care for patients with advanced cancer however limited information exists on the level of palliative care support currently provided in the UK. We aimed to establish the duration and intensity of palliative care received by patients with advanced cancer and identify which cancer patients are missing out. METHODS: Retrospective cancer registry, primary care and secondary care data were obtained and linked for 2474 patients who died of cancer between 2010 and 2012 within a large metropolitan UK city...
2018: PloS One
Jizhao Wang, Yuchen Sun, Jingkun Qu, Huang Zuo, Xixi Zhao, Lin Liu, Jinteng Feng, Jiansheng Wang, Guangjian Zhang
AIM: We aimed to investigate risk factors and current treatment effects in male breast cancer patients. METHODS: Kaplan-Meier plot, log-rank test, COX model, nomograms and propensity score matching were used. RESULTS: Among stage I-III patients, surgery was associated with better prognosis. In subgroup analysis, performing surgery and no radiation or chemotherapy led to worse prognosis in research group. Among stage IV patients, chemotherapy correlated with better prognosis and radiation led to better breast cancer-specific survival...
August 8, 2018: Future Oncology
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