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Olufunsho Awodele, Rebecca Aliu, Ibrahim Ali, Yetunde Oni, Christianah Mojisola Adeyeye
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are expected to be associated with an economic drain on the healthcare systems. The study was carried out to determine the occurrence of ADRs reported to NAFDAC Pharmacovigilance from January to June 2015, to illustrate the pattern of organ system affected by ADRs, to assess the completeness of ADR report, to determine the relationship between the occurrence of ADRs with suspect drugs and the use of concomitant drugs as well as to generate possible signals from the reported ADRs...
October 2018: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
Gbolahan Ajibola, Jean Leidner, Gloria K Mayondi, Erik van Widenfelt, Tebogo Madidimalo, Chipo Petlo, Sikhulile Moyo, Mompati Mmalane, Paige L Williams, Adam R Cassidy, Roger Shapiro, Betsy Kammerer, Shahin Lockman
OBJECTIVES: To prospectively assess rates and detailed predictors of morbidity and mortality among HIV-exposed uninfected children and HIV-unexposed children in Botswana in a more recent era. STUDY DESIGN: We enrolled HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers and their children in the prospective observational Tshipidi study at 2 sites (1 city and 1 village) in Botswana from May 2010-July 2012. Live-born children and their mothers were followed for 24 months postpartum...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Alana T Brennan, Lise Jamieson, Nigel J Crowther, Matthew P Fox, Jaya A George, Kaitlyn M Berry, Andrew Stokes, Mhairi Maskew, Ian Sanne, Lawrence Long, Naseem Cassim, Sydney Rosen
BACKGROUND: One of the key risk factors for cardiovascular disease is hypertension. Hypertension, which leads to heart attacks and strokes, already affects one billion people worldwide, making it a global public health issue. Incidence and prevalence of the condition is on the rise in low- and middle-income countries, with the biggest increase in sub-Saharan Africa and South Africa at the forefront. We examined the prevalence, incidence, predictors, treatment, and control of hypertension among HIV-positive patients on ART in a large South African observational cohort...
2018: PloS One
K S Joshy, Anne George, S Snigdha, Blessy Joseph, Nandakumar Kalarikkal, Laly A Pothen, Sabu Thomas
Zidovudine (AZT) is an antiviral drug extensively used for combating the global pandemic- HIV/AIDS. However, its uses are overshadowed by its short half -life, poor aqueous solubility and inability to cross physiological barriers. This study highlights a nanosystem consisting of dextran and stearic acid for AZT delivery. This hybrid nanoparticle was prepared by double emulsion solvent evaporation method. The morphological analysis of the prepared nanoparticles was carried out by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and structural analysis through FTIR spectroscopy...
December 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Shontreal Cooper, Hyacinth Norris, Joy Lander-Roe, Gregg Alleyne
We report a case of a 22-year-old G1P0010 African-American female with poorly controlled perinatally acquired HIV/AIDS and recent diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). She presented to a tertiary care facility for prenatal care and direct observation therapy after poor medication adherence during pregnancy. After multiple attempts at outpatient ART management, the patient was admitted at 35 weeks' gestation for direct observation therapy for both antiretroviral therapy and anti-seizure medication...
2018: IDCases
Sunsanee Chatpornvorarux, Alan Maleesatharn, Supattra Rungmaitree, Orasri Wittawatmongkol, Wanatpreeya Phongsamart, Keswadee Lapphra, Nantaka Kongstan, Benjawan Khumcha, Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit
BACKGROUND: Recent studies report delayed anti-HIV antibody clearance (seroreversion) among HIV-exposed uninfected infants that may affect diagnostic practices. We evaluated the age-specific seroreversion rates in Thailand. METHODS: The medical records of HIV-exposed uninfected infants born in January 2000-December 2014 were reviewed. Anti-HIV seroreversion rates at 12, 18 and 24 months were analyzed in three periods according to the Thai National Guidelines of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV; zidovudine with or without single dose nevirapine to all women (2000-2006), adding lamivudine plus nevirapine to zidovudine in women with CD4 count <200 cells/mm (2007-2009), zidovudine plus lamivudine plus boosted lopinavir to all women (2010-2014)...
September 19, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Fuu-Jen Tsai, Mao-Wang Ho, Chih-Ho Lai, Chen-Hsing Chou, Ju-Pi Li, Chi-Fung Cheng, Yang-Chang Wu, Xiang Liu, Hsinyi Tsang, Ting-Hsu Lin, Chiu-Chu Liao, Shao-Mei Huang, Jung-Chun Lin, Chih-Chien Lin, Ching-Liang Hsieh, Wen-Miin Liang, Ying-Ju Lin
Antiretroviral (ART) drugs has previously been associated with lipodystrophic syndrome, metabolic consequences, and neuropsychiatric complications. ART drugs include three main classes of protease inhibitors (PIs), nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Our previous work demonstrated that a high risk of hyperlipidemia was observed in HIV-1-infected patients who received ART drugs in Taiwan. Patients receiving ART drugs containing either Abacavir/Lamivudine (Aba/Lam; NRTI/NRTI), Lamivudine/Zidovudine (Lam/Zido; NRTI/NRTI), or Lopinavir/Ritonavir (Lop/Rit; PI) have the highest risk of hyperlipidemia...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Allyne Cristina Grando, Nilza Nascimento Guimarães, Ana Paula de Souza, Mauricio Lehmann, Kênya Silva Cunha, Rafael Rodrigues Dihl
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens are based on the use of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), which are the main drugs used by patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The use of NRTIs combinations has afforded clear clinical benefits to patients undergoing HAART. However, the combination of two NRTIs may increase the risk of genomic instability in comparison with the drugs administered individually. We analyzed the ability of zidovudine (AZT) and lamivudine (3TC), and the combination AZT +3TC to induce complex genomic alterations using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells...
September 12, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
André Luis Menezes Carvalho, José Alexsandro Silva, Ana Amélia Moreira Lira, Ellen Denise Prado Almeida, Rogéria de Souza Nunes, Victor Hugo Vitorino Sarmento, Leiz Maria Costa Veras, José Roberto de Almeida Leite, Leila Bastos Leal, Davi Pereira de Santana
This study aimed to examine the influence of the combination of chemical enhancers and a microemulsion on the transdermal permeation of zidovudine (AZT). Ethanol, 1,8-cineole, and geraniol were incorporated in a microemulsion. The droplet size, zeta potential, rheology, and SAXS analysis were performed. The permeation enhancer effect was evaluated using pig ear skin. Snake skin (Boa constrictor) treated with the formulations was also used as a stratum corneum model and studied by attenuated total reflectance-infrared spectroscopy...
September 5, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
Mukta N Chowta, Priyanka Kamath, John T Ramapuram, K Ashok Shenoy, Sanjay Hadigal
Background and Objectives: The objective was to study the adverse drug reaction (ADR) profile in HIV patients receiving first-line antiretroviral therapy. Methods: This was a prospective, observational study that included 171 HIV patients with a follow-up at six months. Demographic details, medical history, details of HIV infection including most recent CD4 count, details of antiretroviral therapy, and other concomitant medication were recorded. Adverse drug reactions were elicited by reviewing patient records and also by interviewing the patient/attendants directly...
2018: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Richard E Haaland, Kephas Otieno, Amy Martin, Abraham Katana, Chuong Dinh, Laurence Slutsker, Clara Menendez, Raquel Gonzalez, John Williamson, Walid Heneine, Meghna Desai
Clinical trials demonstrated intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with mefloquine (MQ) reduced malaria rates among pregnant women, yet an unexpected higher risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV among HIV-positive women receiving MQ has also been observed. To determine if interactions between antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) and MQ could contribute to the increased MTCT observed in women receiving MQ, we performed a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of ARV plasma concentrations in peripheral blood (maternal plasma) and cord blood (cord plasma) collected at delivery from 186 mothers participating in a randomized clinical trial of MQ (n = 102) compared with placebo (n = 84) in Kenya...
October 17, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Wen-Qi Ma, Xue-Jiao Sun, Ying Wang, Yi Zhu, Xi-Qiong Han, Nai-Feng Liu
Mitochondrial abnormalities have long been observed in the development of vascular calcification. Metformin, a member of the biguanide class of antidiabetic drugs, has recently received attention owing to new findings regarding its protective role in cardiovascular disease. Since the precise control of mitochondrial quantity and quality is critical for the survival and function of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis may be a potential protective factor for VSMCs against osteoblast-like phenotypic transition...
August 29, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Willem D F Venter, June Fabian, Charles Feldman
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF, commonly termed 'tenofovir') is the antiretroviral most commonly implicated in antiretroviral-induced nephrotoxicity. As patients on successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) age, their risk for developing renal disease may increase in part because of ART itself, but more importantly, because of HIV-associated and non-HIV-associated comorbidity. Therefore, clinicians need an approach to managing renal disease in people on TDF. TDF as a cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) or chronic kidney disease (CKD) is uncommon, and clinicians should actively exclude other causes (Box 1)...
2018: Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine
Sathish Rajamani, Kyle Kuszpit, Jennifer M Scarff, Linnea Lundh, Maisha Khan, Jennifer Brown, Robert Stafford, Lisa H Cazares, Rekha G Panchal, Thomas Bocan
Critical bacterial pathogens of public health and biodefense concerns were engineered to constitutively express Escherichia coli enzyme thymidine kinase (TK) that allows for noninvasive nuclear imaging via phosphorylation and entrapment of radiolabeled nucleoside analog 1-(2'deoxy-2'-fluoro-β-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodouracil (FIAU). Expression of functional TK was established using a nucleoside analog Zidovudine that impeded the growth of tk-engineered bacteria. Significantly, no observable growth differences were detected for FIAU...
August 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sri Masyeni, Erly Sintya, Dewi Megawati, Ni Made Hegard Sukmawati, Dewa Ga Budiyasa, Sri Agung Aryastuti, Siti Qamariyah Khairunisa, Igkn Arijana, N Nasronudin
Background: Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are the cornerstone of highly active antiretroviral therapy combination regimens for HIV infection. Unfortunately, NRTIs have been noticeably associated with many adverse effects related to mitochondrial toxicity leading to mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA) depletion. However, similar mitochondrial dysfunction has recently been found even in antiretroviral therapy-naïve patients, suggesting HIV itself could contribute to this abnormality...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Paige L Williams, Katharine Correia, Brad Karalius, Russell B Van Dyke, James D Wilkinson, William T Shearer, Steven D Colan, Steven E Lipshultz
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate potential adverse associations of individual antiretroviral medications used in combination antiretroviral therapy regimens on cardiac structure and function in youth with perinatally-acquired HIV infection (PHIV). DESIGN: PHIV youth (N = 325) enrolled in a prospective multisite cohort study had a single echocardiogram at age 7-16 years to evaluate cardiac function and structure. METHODS: We applied several statistical approaches to evaluate associations between use of 18 individual antiretroviral medications with Z-scores for 11 measures of left ventricular function and structure...
October 23, 2018: AIDS
Rakhi Gawali, Jay Trivedi, Sujit Bhansali, Raghunath Bhosale, Dhiman Sarkar, Debashis Mitra
1,3-oxazine nucleus and thiazolyl group features prominently in many biologically important natural products as well as bioactive molecules. A series of novel 2-thiazolyl substituted-2,3-dihydro-1H-naphtho [1,2-e][1,3]oxazine derivatives were designed and synthesized based on their structure-activity relationships (SARs) from 2-naphthol, substituted thiazolyl amines and formalin through ring closure by one-pot three component reaction. These derivatives were first evaluated for their inhibitory effect on HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase (RT) enzyme activity...
September 5, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Constance Delaugerre, Christophe Rodriguez, Catherine Capitant, Marie-Laure Nere, Mélanie Mercier-Darty, Diane Carette, Gilles Pialoux, Laurent Cotte, Isabelle Charreau, Jean-Michel Molina
BACKGROUND: The IPERGAY ANRS trial showed that on-demand preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC) was highly effective in preventing HIV infection among highly exposed MSM. Here, we analyzed drug resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) among all participants who acquired HIV infection during this trial. METHODS: Resistance was analyzed on frozen plasma at the time of HIV diagnosis among participants enrolled in the double-blind and open-label phases of the ANRS IPERGAY trial...
October 23, 2018: AIDS
Jayeeta Sarkar, Debraj Saha, Bhaswati Bandyopadhyay, Bibhuti Saha, Runu Chakravarty, Subhasish Kamal Guha
Background: Combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), lamivudine (3TC) and efavirenz (EFV) is preferred in the treatment of HIV/hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection. We postulated that a HBV active nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor/nucleotide RT inhibitor backbone of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) +3TC would be as effective as TDF +3TC for the Indian population. Objective: ADV + 3TC could be an alternative option for these HIV/HBV coinfected individuals, preserving the dually active TDF + 3TC as second-line nucleoside backbone following failure of the first-line ART...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Cecile Cames, Lea Pascal, Aissatou Ba, Hélène Mbodj, Baly Ouattara, Ndeye-Fatou Diallo, Philippe Msellati, Ngagne Mbaye, Haby Sy Signate, Stephane Blanche, Aminata Diack
BACKGROUND: The long-term benefits of antiretroviral treatment (ART) are associated with metabolic complications, especially lipodystrophy, which has been well described among HIV-infected adults and children on ART in developed settings. Specifically, stavudine, and to a lesser extent zidovudine and protease inhibitors (PI), have been consistently implicated in the development of lipodystrophy. In 2006, following advice from the WHO, Senegal began phasing out stavudine from first-line ART...
August 6, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
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