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Zidovudine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30550097/-the-experience-in-the-application-of-nikavir-in-the-schemes-of-perinatal-chemoprophylactics-of-hiv-infection-evaluation-of-the-immunological-and-virusological-effectiveness
#1
E S Ivanova, N N Vorobeva, V S Shelud'ko
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this work was to study the immunological and virological efficacy of the domestic antiretroviral drug nicavir (at the optimal dose, as proven by previous clinical studies) with lamivudine, in comparison with other drugs of the group of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in combination with kaletra in perinatal HIV chemoprophylaxis regimens. METHODS: 658 pregnant women aged 16-39 years and children born to them were examined. The first group (281 people) and the third group (66 people) received the nicavir (manufactured by AZT PHARMA KB LLC) with lamivudine in combination with calyx; the second (281 people) and the fourth (30 people) of the comparison group, stag and zidovudine, respectively, with lamivudine in combination with calyx...
2018: Voprosy Virusologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30546260/adverse-drug-reaction-onsets-in-uganda-s-vigibase-%C3%A2-delayed-international-visibility-data-quality-and-illustrative-signal-detection-analyses
#2
Ronald Kiguba, Helen B Ndagije, Victoria Nambasa, Sheila M Bird
Introduction: Developing countries can improve their pharmacovigilance systems by analysing their own medication safety data. Objective: The aims of this study were to characterize Uganda's reported adverse drug reaction (ADR) onsets in 2012-2015 that were registered on VigiBase® by 31 December 2017, to document delays in international visibility and the influence of covariates on this delay from ADR onsets in 2013 + 2014, to examine data quality, and to illustrate analytical approaches for safety data, particularly for patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
2018: Pharmaceutical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30545272/toxicity-and-genotoxicity-induced-by-abacavir-antiretroviral-medication-alone-or-in-combination-with-zidovudine-and-or-lamivudine-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#3
L Chen-Chen, C de Jesus Silva Carvalho, A V de Moraes Filho, J H Véras, C G Cardoso, Eflc Bailão, M A Spanó, K S Cunha
Abacavir (ABC), zidovudine (AZT), and lamivudine (3TC) are nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) widely used as combination-based antiretroviral therapy against human immunodeficiency virus. Despite effective viral suppression using NRTI combinations, genotoxic potential of NRTIs can be increased when administered in combination. This study investigated the toxic and genotoxic potential of ABC when administered alone or in combination with AZT and/or 3TC using the somatic mutation and recombination test in Drosophila melanogaster...
December 14, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30541877/drug-and-chemical-glucosidation-by-control-supersomestm-and-membranes-from-spodoptera-frugiperda-sf-9-cells-implications-for-the-apparent-glucuronidation-of-xenobiotics-by-udp-glucuronosyltransferase-1a5
#4
Nuy Chau, Leyla Kaya, Benjamin C Lewis, Peter I Mackenzie, John O Miners
Accumulating evidence indicates that several human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzymes catalyze both glucuronidation and glucosidation reactions. Baculovirus-infected insect cells (Trichoplusia ni and Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9)) are used widely for the expression of recombinant human UGT enzymes. Following the observation that control Supersomes (c-SUP) express a native enzyme capable of glucosidating morphine, we characterized the glucosidation of a series of aglycones with either a hydroxyl (aliphatic or phenolic), carboxylic acid or amine functional group by c-SUP and membranes from uninfected Sf9 cells...
December 12, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517632/pre-treatment-drug-resistance-and-hiv-1-subtypes-in-infants-from-argentina-with-and-without-exposure-to-antiretroviral-drugs-for-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission
#5
Paula C Aulicino, Ines Zapiola, Silvia Kademian, María M Valle, Silvina Fernandez Giuliano, Rosana Toro, Gabriela Barbas, Ana M Cañizal, Paula Mayon, Marcelo D Golemba, Marcela Ortiz de Zarate, Marisa S Corazza, Analía Cudola, Débora Mecikovsky, Rosa Bologna, Andrea Mangano, Luisa Sen
Objectives: To assess the prevalence and patterns of pre-treatment HIV drug resistance (PDR) and HIV-1 subtype in infants from Argentina with exposure to different antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). Patients and methods: HIV-1 genotyping was performed in 115 infants (median age = 2.3 months) born between 2007 and 2014 to screen for drug resistance mutations (DRMs) before starting first-line ART. HIV-1 subtype was characterized by phylogenetic and recombination analysis...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30505059/zidovudine-induced-lactic-acidosis-with-acute-pancreatitis-and-myopathy-lethal-and-rare-complications
#6
Subodh Kumar Mahto, Pulin Kumar Gupta, Rajesh Satyapal Taneja, Akanksha Singh
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is nowadays universally available to patients with HIV/AIDS. This has led to increased longevity in people living with HIV/AIDS. However, these patients frequently face chronic and rarely acute life-threatening complications of HAART. Herein, we report the case of a patient who was on HAART and developed zidovudine-induced lactic acidosis, acute pancreatitis, and myopathy. Although these acute complications are rare, a high index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis and to reduce significant morbidity and mortality...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30483684/atom-economical-selenation-of-electron-rich-arenes-and-phosphonates-with-molecular-oxygen-at-room-temperature
#7
Samir Kumar Bhunia, Pritha Das, Ranjan Jana
Organoselenium and selenophosphorus compounds are ubiquitously found in biologically active compounds, agrochemicals, functionalized materials etc. Although selenium is a micronutrient and an essential trace element, its contamination/consumption in higher concentrations is extremely dangerous. However, most of the previous selenation reactions generate toxic selenium waste as a by-product. Thus development of green synthetic protocols of these compounds is in high demand. We report herein a mild base-catalyzed cross-dehydrogenative coupling (CDC) between electron-rich arenes and phenylselenol to afford 3-selenylindole or selenylated phenols under air at room temperature...
November 28, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30476115/importance-of-routine-viral-load-monitoring-higher-levels-of-resistance-at-art-failure-in-uganda-and-lesotho-compared-with-switzerland
#8
Nadine Bachmann, Amrei von Braun, Niklaus D Labhardt, Claus Kadelka, Huldrych F Günthard, Christine Sekaggya-Wiltshire, Barbara Castelnuovo, Andrew Kambugu, Thabo I Lejone, Jürg Böni, Sabine Yerly, Matthieu Perreau, Thomas Klimkait, Roger D Kouyos, Jan Fehr
Objectives: Emerging resistance to antiretroviral drugs may jeopardize the achievements of improved access to ART. We compared the prevalence of different resistance mutations in HIV-infected adults with virological failure in a cohort with regular routine viral load (VL) monitoring (Switzerland) and cohorts with limited access to VL testing (Uganda and Lesotho). Methods: We considered individuals who had genotypic resistance testing (GRT) upon virological failure (≥1000 copies/mL) and were on ART consisting of at least one NNRTI and two NRTIs...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30474906/hepatic-and-renal-toxicity-and-associated-factors-among-hiv-infected-children-on-antiretroviral-therapy-a-prospective-cohort-study
#9
B T Tadesse, B A Foster, A Kabeta, F Ayalew, G H/Meskel, D Jerene, E Makonnen, E Aklillu
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of renal function and liver enzyme abnormalities among HIV-infected children, changes in prevalence with time on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), and the factors associated with these abnormalities. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted among HIV-infected children < 18 years old (n = 705) who were on first-line cART. Liver enzymes, renal function, haematology, immunology and virological response were assessed at enrolment and followed bi-annually for 18 months...
November 26, 2018: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30451017/a-characterization-and-disproportionality-analysis-of-medication-error-related-adverse-events-reported-to-the-faers-database
#10
Carla Carnovale, Faizan Mazhar, Marco Pozzi, Marta Gentili, Emilio Clementi, Sonia Radice
OBJECTIVES: To characterize adverse reactions associated with medication errors (ME) reported in US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (US-FAERS), and to identify the potential signals of disproportionate reporting (SDR) for different drugs. METHODS: ME associated Individual Case Study Report (ICSRs) were identified. ICSRs were categorized by patient age groups, affected stages of medication process and Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system...
November 19, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30398119/design-synthesis-and-in-vitro-evaluation-of-novel-anti-hiv-3-pyrazol-3-yl-pyridin-2-one-analogs
#11
Sanjay Kumar, Shiv Gupta, Shraddha Gaikwad, Leila Fotooh Abadi, Late Kamlesh Kumar Bhutani, Smita Kulkarni, Inder Pal Singh
BACKGROUND: Natural products have shown potent anti-HIV activity, but some of these also possess toxicity. The pharmacophoric fragments of these natural products have scope of combination with other pharmacophoric fragment and derivatization to reduce toxicity and increase the potency. Combination of natural product fragments from different classes of anti-HIV compounds may lead to a new class of potent anti-HIV agents. OBJECTIVE: Design, in silico prediction of drug-likeness, ADMET properties and synthesis of pyrazol-pyridones...
November 6, 2018: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30381544/mitochondrial-dna-content-of-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-in-art-untreated-stavudine-zidovudine-treated-hiv-1-infected-patients
#12
Dhakshinamoorthy Subashini, Thongadi Ramesh Dinesha, Rao B Srirama, Jayaseelan Boobalan, Selvamuthu Poongulali, Devaraj A Chitra, Sarvode N Mothi, Sunil Suhas Solomon, Shanmugam Saravanan, Suniti Solomon, Pachamuthu Balakrishnan
Background & objectives: Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are known to cause mitochondrial toxicity. This study was done to estimate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected, NRTI treated and antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients and evaluate the utility of mtDNA content as a biomarker of mitochondrial toxicity. Methods: mtDNA content in PBMCs of 57 HIV-infected ART untreated and 30 ART treated with stavudine (d4T) or zidovudine (AZT) containing regimen were compared against 24 low-risk healthy controls (LoRHC)...
August 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30373793/zidovudine-mediated-autophagy-inhibition-enhances-mitochondrial-toxicity-in-muscle-cells
#13
H Lin, M V Stankov, J Hegermann, R Budida, D Panayotova-Dimitrova, R E Schmidt, G M N Behrens
Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) such as zidovudine (AZT) are constituents of HIV-1 therapy and prevention of mother to child transmission. Prolonged thymidine analogues exposure has been associated with mitochondrial toxicities to heart, liver, and skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that the thymidine analogue AZT might interfere with autophagy in myocytes, a lysosomal degradation pathway implicated in regulation of mitochondrial recycling, cell survival and the pathogenesis of myodegenerative diseases...
October 29, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30369877/comparison-of-zidovudine-and-tenofovir-based-regimens-with-regard-to-health-related-quality-of-life-and-prevalence-of-symptoms-in-hiv-patients-in-a-kenyan-referral-hospital
#14
Jilian O Etenyi, Faith A Okalebo, Margaret Oluka, Kipruto A Sinei, George O Osanjo, Amanj Kurdi, Johanna C Meyer, Brian Godman, Sylvia Opanga
Aim: Zidovudine and tenofovir form the backbone of antiretroviral therapy in Kenya. However, their side-effects may affect the quality of life (QoL) of patients. The aim was to compare the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of adult patients on tenofovir versus zidovudine based regimens in a referral hospital in Kenya to provide future guidance. Methods: A comparative cross sectional study among 501 adult out-patients on either tenofovir or zidovudine was undertaken in Kenyatta National Hospital between 2015 and 2016...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30347696/inhibition-of-ugt2b7-enzyme-activity-in-human-and-rat-liver-microsomes-by-herbal-constituents
#15
Nurul Huda Abdullah, Sabariah Ismail
The co-use of conventional drug and herbal medicines may lead to herb-drug interaction via modulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) by herbal constituents. UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) catalyzing glucuronidation are the major metabolic enzymes of Phase II DMEs. The in vitro inhibitory effect of several herbal constituents on one of the most important UGT isoforms, UGT2B7, in human liver microsomes (HLM) and rat liver microsomes (RLM) was investigated. Zidovudine (ZDV) was used as the probe substrate to determine UGT2B7 activity...
October 19, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324768/patterns-of-adverse-drug-reaction-signals-in-nafdac-pharmacovigilance-activities-from-january-to-june-2015-safety-of-drug-use-in-nigeria
#16
Olufunsho Awodele, Rebecca Aliu, Ibrahim Ali, Yetunde Oni, Christianah Mojisola Adeyeye
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are expected to be associated with an economic drain on the healthcare systems. The study was carried out to determine the occurrence of ADRs reported to NAFDAC Pharmacovigilance from January to June 2015, to illustrate the pattern of organ system affected by ADRs, to assess the completeness of ADR report, to determine the relationship between the occurrence of ADRs with suspect drugs and the use of concomitant drugs as well as to generate possible signals from the reported ADRs...
October 2018: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30318370/hiv-exposure-and-formula-feeding-predict-under-2-mortality-in-hiv-uninfected-children-botswana
#17
Gbolahan Ajibola, Jean Leidner, Gloria K Mayondi, Erik van Widenfelt, Tebogo Madidimalo, Chipo Petlo, Sikhulile Moyo, Mompati Mmalane, Paige L Williams, Adam R Cassidy, Roger Shapiro, Betsy Kammerer, Shahin Lockman
OBJECTIVES: To prospectively assess rates and detailed predictors of morbidity and mortality among HIV-exposed uninfected children and HIV-unexposed children in Botswana in a more recent era. STUDY DESIGN: We enrolled HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers and their children in the prospective observational Tshipidi study at 2 sites (1 city and 1 village) in Botswana from May 2010-July 2012. Live-born children and their mothers were followed for 24 months postpartum...
December 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30281618/prevalence-incidence-predictors-treatment-and-control-of-hypertension-among-hiv-positive-adults-on-antiretroviral-treatment-in-public-sector-treatment-programs-in-south-africa
#18
Alana T Brennan, Lise Jamieson, Nigel J Crowther, Matthew P Fox, Jaya A George, Kaitlyn M Berry, Andrew Stokes, Mhairi Maskew, Ian Sanne, Lawrence Long, Naseem Cassim, Sydney Rosen
BACKGROUND: One of the key risk factors for cardiovascular disease is hypertension. Hypertension, which leads to heart attacks and strokes, already affects one billion people worldwide, making it a global public health issue. Incidence and prevalence of the condition is on the rise in low- and middle-income countries, with the biggest increase in sub-Saharan Africa and South Africa at the forefront. We examined the prevalence, incidence, predictors, treatment, and control of hypertension among HIV-positive patients on ART in a large South African observational cohort...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30274122/novel-core-shell-dextran-hybrid-nanosystem-for-anti-viral-drug-delivery
#19
K S Joshy, Anne George, S Snigdha, Blessy Joseph, Nandakumar Kalarikkal, Laly A Pothen, Sabu Thomas
Zidovudine (AZT) is an antiviral drug extensively used for combating the global pandemic- HIV/AIDS. However, its uses are overshadowed by its short half -life, poor aqueous solubility and inability to cross physiological barriers. This study highlights a nanosystem consisting of dextran and stearic acid for AZT delivery. This hybrid nanoparticle was prepared by double emulsion solvent evaporation method. The morphological analysis of the prepared nanoparticles was carried out by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and structural analysis through FTIR spectroscopy...
December 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30245972/successful-prevention-of-perinatal-hiv-transmission-utilizing-direct-observation-therapy-in-the-setting-of-acquired-immunodeficiency-syndrome-aids-and-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy
#20
Shontreal Cooper, Hyacinth Norris, Joy Lander-Roe, Gregg Alleyne
We report a case of a 22-year-old G1P0010 African-American female with poorly controlled perinatally acquired HIV/AIDS and recent diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). She presented to a tertiary care facility for prenatal care and direct observation therapy after poor medication adherence during pregnancy. After multiple attempts at outpatient ART management, the patient was admitted at 35 weeks' gestation for direct observation therapy for both antiretroviral therapy and anti-seizure medication...
2018: IDCases
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