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Joshua Avossa, Emiliano Zampetti, Fabrizio De Cesare, Andrea Bearzotti, Giuseppe Scarascia-Mugnozza, Giuseppe Vitiello, Eyal Zussman, Antonella Macagnano
The potentials to use the working temperature to tune both the sensitivity and the selectivity of a chemical sensor based on a nanostructured and nanocomposite polymer layer have been investigated and described. Thus, in a single step, a peculiar chemical layer was grown up onto IDE (Interdigitated Electrode) microtransducers by electrospinning deposition and using a single-needle strategy. The 3-component nanofibers, obtained from a mixture of polystyrene and polyhydroxibutyrate (insulating thermoplastics) and a known concentration of mesoporous graphitized carbon nanopowder, appeared highly rough on the surface and decorated with jagged islands but homogeneous in shape and diameter, with the nanofillers aggregated into clusters more or less densely packed through the fibers...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Li-Li Li, Mei-Fang Jin, Hong Ni
The role of leptin in the pathogenesis of epilepsy is getting more and more attention in clinical and basic research. Although there are data indicating neuroprotective effects of elevated serum/brain leptin levels following acute seizures, no study to date has dealt with the impact of chronic leptin treatment on long-term brain injury following developmental seizures. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether chronic leptin treatment may have neuroprotective effects on cognitive and hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting following flurothyl-induced recurrent neonatal seizures and whether these effects are mediated by the zinc/CaMKII-associated mitophagy signaling pathway...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Ji-Woo Seok, Jin-Hun Sohn
Accumulating evidence suggests a relationship between problematic hypersexual behavior (PHB) and diminished executive control. Clinical studies have demonstrated that individuals with PHB exhibit high levels of impulsivity; however, relatively little is known regarding the neural mechanisms underlying impaired executive control in PHB. This study investigated the neural correlates of executive control in individuals with PHB and healthy controls using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Lekha M Rao, Shaun A Hussain, Timothy Zaki, Alexander Cho, Teresa Chanlaw, Meena Garg, Raman Sankar
PURPOSE: Seizures are common in term infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) undergoing therapeutic hypothermia. Although phenobarbital (PHB) is generally considered first-line therapy, some centers have embraced third-generation antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) such as levetiracetam (LEV) given the impression of comparable efficacy and superior tolerability. We set out to compare the efficacy of PHB and LEV in a large single-center cohort. METHODS: We retrospectively identified consecutive newborns with HIE who were monitored with continuous video-electroencephalogram (VEEG) for the duration of therapeutic hypothermia...
October 5, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Přemysl Menčík, Radek Přikryl, Ivana Stehnová, Veronika Melčová, Soňa Kontárová, Silvestr Figalla, Pavol Alexy, Ján Bočkaj
This paper explores the influence of selected commercial plasticizers structure, which are based on esters of citric acid, on mechanical and thermal properties of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/Poly(lactic acid)/Plasticizer biodegradable blends. These plasticizers were first tested with respect to their miscibility with Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/Poly(lactic acid) (PHB/PLA) blends using a kneading machine. PHB/PLA/plasticizer blends in the weight ratio (wt %) of 60/25/15 were then prepared by single screw and corotating meshing twin screw extruders in the form of filament for further three-dimensional (3D) printing...
October 3, 2018: Materials
María Dolores Samper, David Bertomeu, Marina Patricia Arrieta, José Miguel Ferri, Juan López-Martínez
Recycling polymers is common due to the need to reduce the environmental impact of these materials. Polypropylene (PP) is one of the polymers called 'commodities polymers' and it is commonly used in a wide variety of short-term applications such as food packaging and agricultural products. That is why a large amount of PP residues that can be recycled are generated every year. However, the current increasing introduction of biodegradable polymers in the food packaging industry can negatively affect the properties of recycled PP if those kinds of plastics are disposed with traditional plastics...
October 2, 2018: Materials
Liliana Czornyj, Paulo Cáceres Guido, Guillermo Bramuglia, Alejandra Rodiño, Iris Feria-Romero, Alberto Lazarowski
BACKGROUND: Low levels of AEDs can be secondary drug-drug interactions or related to irregular intake due to poor treatment adherence. This latter behavior is highly suspected in ambulatory pediatric epileptic patients when controls of AEDs are subtherapeutic. However, it cannot be considered for inpatients during long periods of hospitalization. A few isolated case reports have documented persistent low levels (PLL) of AEDs in hospitalized epileptic children, but no population study has currently been reported...
September 22, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Nguyen Van Hung, Peter De Schryver, Nguyen Viet Dung, Nancy Nevejan, Peter Bossier
Marine invertebrates rely mainly on innate immune mechanisms that include both humoral and cellular responses. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), lysozyme and phenoloxidase activity, are important components of the innate immune defense system in marine invertebrates. They provide an immediate and rapid response to invading microorganisms. The impact of amorphous poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB-A) (1 mg PHB-A L-1 ) on gene expression of the AMPs mytimycin, mytilinB, defensin and the hydrolytic enzyme lysozyme in infected blue mussel larvae was investigated during "in vivo" challenge tests with Vibrio coralliilyticus (105  CFU mL-1 )...
September 25, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Bruno Karolski, Letícia O B Cardoso, Louise H Gracioso, Cláudio A O Nascimento, Elen A Perpetuo
The methylotrophs bacteria can use methane and methanol as carbon sources to produce biopolymers including the polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) a very promised substitute for the environment contaminant oil-derived polypropylene. This kind of bacteria can be very effective to help to decrease PHB price production and promote its use in substitution of several environment contaminant plastics. The search for methylotroph bacteria able to produce PHB is a very arduous job being necessary to grow all isolates and submit all of them to extraction processes and product characterization...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Yang Pan, Wenquan Ruan, Yong Huang, Qianqian Chen, Hengfeng Miao, Tao Wang
The sludge-shifting sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is an enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process for wastewater treatment. In this study, the enrichment of phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) will be attempted by using different high concentration of substrates. In sludge-shifting SBR, activated sludge can be continuously shifted from the bottom of SBR to anaerobic zone/selector, which contains high concentration of substrates, through an orderly reflux between the paralleled SBRs. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) methods were used to monitor microbial diversity in sludge...
September 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Jorge Yanar, Michael M Halassa
The contributions of areas downstream of retinal ganglion cells involved in the processing and regulation of mood remain largely unspecified. In this issue of Cell, Fernandez et al. (2018) identify a thalamic circuit within the perihabenular region (pHb) linking daily changes of light pattern to mood regulation.
September 20, 2018: Cell
Ana Inés Catalán, Ana Karen Malan, Fernando Ferreira, Paul R Gill, Silvia Batista
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are thermoplastic polyesters produced by a wide range of bacteria as carbon and energy reserves. PHA accumulation is typically increased under unbalanced growth conditions and with carbon source in excess. Although polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) could be used for specific applications, it is brittle and not a useful alternative for plastics like polypropylene. Far more useful polypropylene-like PHAs, are copolymers composed of 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxyvalerate, P(3HB-co-3HV). Propionic acid is one of the carbon sources that can be used to generate 3HV...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Alexander S Timin, Albert R Muslimov, Mikhail V Zyuzin, Oleksii O Peltek, Timofey E Karpov, Igor S Sergeev, Anna I Dotsenko, Alexander A Goncharenko, Nikita D Yolshin, Artem Sinelnik, Bärbel Krause, Tilo Baumbach, Maria A Surmeneva, Roman V Chernozem, Gleb B Sukhorukov, Roman A Surmenev
The incorporation of bioactive compounds onto polymer fibrous scaffolds with further control of drug release kinetics is essential to improve the functionality of scaffolds for personalized drug therapy and regenerative medicine. In this study, polymer and hybrid microcapsules were prepared and used as drug carriers, which are further deposited onto polymer microfiber scaffolds [polycaprolactone (PCL), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), and PHB doping with the conductive polyaniline (PANi) of 2 wt % (PHB-PANi)]...
October 3, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Seok Woo Hong, Jinmi Lee, Hyemi Kwon, Se Eun Park, Eun Jung Rhee, Cheol Young Park, Ki Won Oh, Sung Woo Park, Won Young Lee
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that sphingolipids may be involved in type 2 diabetes. However, the exact signaling defect through which disordered sphingolipid metabolism induces β-cell dysfunction remains unknown. The current study demonstrated that sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), the product of sphingosine kinase (SphK), is an essential factor for maintaining β-cell function and survival via regulation of mitochondrial action, as mediated by prohibitin (PHB). METHODS: We examined β-cell function and viability, as measured by mitochondrial function, in mouse insulinoma 6 (MIN6) cells in response to manipulation of cellular S1P and PHB levels...
September 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism
Chen Ling, Guan-Qing Qiao, Bo-Wen Shuai, Karel Olavarria, Jin Yin, Rui-Juan Xiang, Kun-Nan Song, Yun-Hao Shen, Yingying Guo, Guo-Qiang Chen
Halomonas bluephagenesis has been developed as a platform strain for the next generation industrial biotechnology (NGIB) with advantages of resistances to microbial contamination and high cell density growth (HCD), especially for production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) including poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) (P34HB) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV). However, little is known about the mechanism behind PHA accumulation under oxygen limitation...
September 13, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Noha S Elsayed, Khaled M Aboshanab, Mahmoud A Yassien, Nadia A Hassouna
To control the poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) biopolymer production by Acinetobacter baumannii isolate P39 kinetic modeling of the fermentation process, polymer downstream processing, enzymological analysis, and molecular characterization of PHA synthase, key biosynthetic enzyme, should be addressed. A. baumannii isolate P39 produced 0.15 g/L PHB after 24 h of incubation with a polymer content of 28% per dry weight. Logistic and Leudeking-Piret models were used for describing cell growth and PHB production, respectively...
September 7, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Weibin Wang, Lai Xu, Yu Yang, LiangBo Dong, BangBo Zhao, Jun Lu, Taiping Zhang, Yupei Zhao
BACKGROUND: Previous study, using immunoblotting with IgG and membrane proteins, identified prohibitin (PHB) as a potential immunogenic membrane antigen. Now, investigate PHB expression and biological functions in pancreatic cancer. METHODS: PHB expression was analysed in PDAC cell lines, normal pancreas tissues, cancer tissues, PDAC patient sera and healthy volunteer sera using QRT-PCR, Western blotting, IHC, and ELISA, and a survival analysis and a COX regression analysis were performed...
September 6, 2018: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
Jing Zhao, Guojun Weng, Jianjun Li, Jian Zhu, Junwu Zhao
Gene therapy is promising for the treatment of inherited diseases and complex diseases such as chronic infections and cancer. The advancement in science and technology has extended the scope of gene therapy from gene transfer to the delivery of a variety of nucleic acids such as mRNA, antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), siRNA and miRNA. Nanoparticle delivery systems can efficiently protect the nucleic acids from enzymatic degradation and immune recognition, facilitate intracellular transportation and assist the nucleic acid in escaping from renal and hepatic clearance, thus achieve sustained delivery to the target tissue...
November 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Jayven Chee Chuan Yeo, Joseph K Muiruri, Warintorn Thitsartarn, Zibiao Li, Chaobin He
Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a natural biodegradable polymer that is produced by many types of bacteria as an intracellular energy storage material. Due to its numerous advantages such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, availability and with physical properties comparable to petroleum-based thermoplastics, PHB is a potential substitute in biomedical and packaging fields. However, several physical drawbacks, such as high production cost, thermal instability, and poor mechanical properties, due to secondary crystallization and slow nucleation rate, limit its competition with traditional plastics in industrial and biomedical applications...
November 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Zhi-Hua Xu, Zi-Wei Miao, Qian-Zhu Jiang, Dong-Xue Gan, Xu-Ge Wei, Xiao-Zhi Xue, Jue-Qi Li, Fei Zheng, Xiao-Xue Qin, Wen-Gang Fang, Yu-Hua Chen, Bo Li
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is the most aggressive histologic subtype of lung cancer, with a strong predilection for early brain metastases. Despite efforts and advances in new therapeutics for SCLC, the prognosis of patients with SCLC with brain metastases is consistently poor. Therefore, a better understanding of the mechanisms of SCLC brain metastasis is important in improving current treatments. In this study, elevated S100A16 levels were associated with SCLC brain metastases, which was a possible secondary event arising from the brain metastatic microenvironment...
September 5, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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