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James F Pankow, Kilsun Kim, Wentai Luo, Kevin J McWhirter
For an electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) aerosol with known total particulate matter concentration (TPM, μg/m3 ), predictions of the fractions of some compound i in the gas and particle phases ( fg, i and fp, i ) at equilibrium can be made based on Kp, i (m3 /μg), the compound-dependent gas/particle partitioning equilibrium constant. fg, i and fp, i affect the modes and locations of deposition in the respiratory tract. Kp, i depends inversely on: 1) the pure-compound liquid vapor pressure ( po L, i ); 2) mole-fraction activity coefficient (ζ i ) in the absorbing liquid; and 3) mean molecular weight of the absorbing liquid (MW)...
August 16, 2018: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Kamireddy Kiran, Priyanka Purushottam Sonbarse, Lokesh Veeresh, Nandini P Shetty, Giridhar Parvatam
To explore the transcriptional control of phenylpropanoid pathway (PPP) involved in vanillin flavour metabolites production in tuberous roots of Decalepis hamiltonii , four PPP key genes expressed during the tuber development were identified and their mRNA expression profiles were evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR. Flavour metabolite quantification by HPLC analysis confirmed 10, 170 and 500 µg/g 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzaldehyde and 4, 20 and 40 µg/g vanillin in first- (3-month-old plant), second- (18-month-old plant) and third-stage tubers (60-month-old matured plant), respectively...
August 2018: 3 Biotech
Mi Eun Kim, Ju Yong Na, Yong-Duk Park, Jun Sik Lee
Microglia, resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS), is responsible for immune responses and homeostasis of the CNS. Microglia plays a complex role in neuroinflammation, which has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Therefore, therapeutic agents that suppress the microglia-mediated inflammatory response could potentially be used in the prevention or treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Vanillin, a primary component of vanilla bean extract, has anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antitumor properties...
August 10, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Goutam Banerjee, Pritam Chattopadhyay
BACKGROUND: Biotechnological production of fragrances is a recent trend that has expanded rapidly in the last two decades. Vanillin is the second most demanded flavoring agent after saffron. Vanillin is extensively used in various applications, e.g., as a food additive in food and beverages and a masking agent in various pharmaceutical formulations. PRESENT PERSPECTIVE: Vanillin is also considered as a valuable product for other applications, such as metal plating and production of other flavoring agents, herbicides, ripening agents, antifoaming agents, and personal and home-use products (such as in deodorants, air fresheners, and floor polishing agents)...
August 9, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Fangfang Li, Zhaofeng Chang, Kaythi Khaing, Yuwei Zhou, Haiyun Zhao, Ni Liang, Dandan Zhou, Bo Pan, Christian E W Steinberg
The formation of organo-mineral complexes is essential in organic matter (OM) stabilization. However, limited studies have been conducted to systematically examine the mineral influence on the decomposition of plant residuals at a molecular level. In this study, pine needles and chestnut leaves were mixed with kaolinite at the weight ratio of 5:1. The controls were plant tissues without kaolinite. All the samples were incubated in the laboratory for one year. Molecular markers, including lignin-derived phenols (e...
July 31, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Pravin Kumar, Priya Kumari, Shashwati Ghosh Sachan, Raju Poddar
Microbial Ferulic Acid Decarboxylase (FADase) catalyses the conversion of ferulic acid to 4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene (4-vinylguaiacol) via non-oxidative decarboxylation. In this article, we present a computational, three-dimensional structural and functional analysis of FADase from Enterobacter sp. P × 6-4 (3NX1) which can be used to generate enhanced bindings of substrates. The enzymatic catalytic site and binding sites have been critically evaluated. Sequential site directed mutations on enzyme have also been introduced for formation of a greater number of hydrogen bonds...
July 18, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Balaji Venkatesagowda
The ability of enzymatic Kraft Lignin (KL) demethylation was determined using catechol and ferric ion coordination (catechol-Fe3+ complexes) by reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ and formation of mono, bis- and/or tris-catechol-Fe3+ complexes has been investigated to identify enzyme that can strip-off O-methyl groups from lignin such as O-demethylase. To detect fungal demethylation and release of catechol-like structures, these were demonstrated using catechol, gallic acid and caffeic acid as standard model compounds to forms mono, bis- and/or tris-catechol-Fe3+ complexes...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Ryohei Kono, Misa Nakamura, Sachiko Nomura, Naomi Kitano, Tomoko Kagiya, Yoshiharu Okuno, Ken-Ichi Inada, Akihiko Tokuda, Hirotoshi Utsunomiya, Masami Ueno
Japanese apricot (Prunus mume; ume) is a traditional food in Japan that has been shown to have various beneficial health effects. There is some evidence to suggest that ume is also effective against allergic disease. Here, we conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological pilot study to examine the association between ume intake frequency and allergic symptoms including rhinitis in 563 adults (288 men and 275 women) who resided in Wakayama, Japan. After adjusting for age, present illness and medication, women with high ume intake had significantly lower odds ratio (OR) for the presence of symptoms of allergy [OR: 0...
August 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Peiran Zhao, Shanshan Zhai, Jianfang Dong, Lei Gao, Xinru Liu, Lei Wang, Jinming Kong, Lianzhi Li
Three hexacoordinated octahedral nickel(II) complexes, [Ni(sal-L-phe)(phen)(CH3 OH)]·CH3 OH ( 1 ), [Ni(naph-L-phe)(phen)(CH3 OH)] ( 2 ), and [Ni( o -van-L-phe)(phen)(CH3 OH)]·5CH3 OH ( 3 ) (sal-L-phe = a Schiff base derived from salicylaldehyde and L-phenylalanine, naph-L-phe = a Schiff base derived from 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde and L-phenylalanine, o -van-L-phe = a Schiff base derived from o -vanillin and L-phenylalanine, and phen = 1,10-phenanthroline), have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction...
2018: Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications
Sabrina Feitosa, Ralf Greiner, Ann-Katrin Meinhardt, Alexandra Müller, Deusdélia T Almeida, Clemens Posten
Micronutrient deficiencies are a major public health problem. Beans are an important plant-based source of iron, zinc and copper, but their absorption is reduced in the presence of anti-nutrients such as phytates, polyphenols and tannins. Soaking and discarding the soaking water before cooking is unanimously recommended, but this can result in mineral loss. Data on the consequences for mineral bioaccessibility is still limited. This study aimed to evaluate iron, zinc and copper bioaccessibility in black beans cooked (regular pan, pressure cooker) with and without the soaking water...
July 31, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Ruoyu Fan, Chun Chen, Miaomiao Han, Wanbing Gong, Haimin Zhang, Yunxia Zhang, Huijun Zhao, Guozhong Wang
Highly dispersed copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) supported on activated carbon (AC) are effectively synthesized by one-pot carbothermal method at temperature range of 400-700 °C. The X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis reveal that Cu NPs with diameters of 20-30 nm are evenly anchored in carbon matrix. The 15 wt%-Cu/AC-600 catalyst (derived at 600 °C) exhibits best bifunctional catalysis of aqueous-phase hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and organic-phase transfer-hydrogenation reaction (THR) to selectively transform vanillin to 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol (MMP)...
July 29, 2018: Small
Yueqi Chen, Ce Dou, Jin Yi, Ruohui Tang, Tao Yu, Lan Zhou, Wei Luo, Mengmeng Liang, Xiaolong Yin, Jianmei Li, Fei Kang, Yufeng Zhao, Shiwu Dong
Bone matrix homeostasis associated diseases such as osteoporosis and erosive arthritis were caused by the imbalance of osteoclast-mediated bone-resorption and osteoblast-mediated bone-formation. Suppressing the fusion and differentiation of osteoclast from osteoclast precursors are an essential way to maintain the dynamic balance of resorption and formation. Recently, some natural products were discovered to inhibit osteoclast formation and function for potential treatment of osteoporosis. Vanillin was previously reported to have anti-tumor and anti-oxidant activities; however, its effect on bone health has not been elucidated...
July 25, 2018: Life Sciences
Cécilia Tremblay, Johannes Frasnelli
The olfactory and trigeminal systems are intimately connected as most odorants stimulate both sensory systems. They interact by mutually suppressing and enhancing each other. However, the location and the degree of their interaction remain unclear. One method to test sensitivity in the trigeminal system is the odor localization task: when an odorant is presented to one nostril, we are able to localize the stimulated nostril only if the odorant stimulates the trigeminal nerve. Our objective was to evaluate the interaction between olfactory and trigeminal system by measuring the effect of an olfactory co-stimulation on the ability to localize a trigeminal stimulus...
July 25, 2018: Chemical Senses
Tiina Virtanen, Satu-Pia Reinikainen, Jussi Lahti, Mika Mänttäri, Mari Kallioinen
Membrane fouling, i.e. accumulation of unwanted material on the surface of the membrane is a significant problem in filtration processes since it commonly degrades membrane performance and increases operating costs. Therefore, the advantages of early stage monitoring and control of fouling are widely recognized. In this work, the potential of using Raman spectroscopy coupled to chemometrics in order to quantify degree of membrane fouling in real-time was investigated. The Raman data set collected from adsorption experiments with varying pHs and concentrations of model compound vanillin was used to develop a predictive model based on principal component analysis (PCA) for the quantification of the vanillin adsorbed on the membrane...
July 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gossa G Wordofa, Mette Kristensen
Background: Bio-conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to high-value products offers numerous benefits; however, its development is hampered by chemical inhibitors generated during the pretreatment process. A better understanding of how microbes naturally respond to those inhibitors is valuable in the process of designing microorganisms with improved tolerance. Pseudomonas taiwanensis VLB120 is a natively tolerant strain that utilizes a wide range of carbon sources including pentose and hexose sugars...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Henry Syukur Purwanto, Mi-Sook Kang, Lenny Ferrer, Sang-Soo Han, Jin-Young Lee, Hak-Sung Kim, Jin-Ho Lee
4-Hydroxybenzoate (4HBA) is a valuable platform intermediate for the production of commodity and fine chemicals, including protocatechuate, cis,cis-muconic acid, adipic acid, terephthalic acid, phenol, vanillin, and 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol glycoside (gastrodin). Here we describe rational engineering of the shikimate and related pathways in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13032 for over-producing 4HBA. As an approach to increase the carbon flux to 4HBA, we first introduced a mutated chorismate-pyruvate lyase (CPLpr ) and feedback-resistant 3-deoxy-d-arabinoheptulosonate-7-phosphate synthases encoded by ubiCpr and aroFfbr /aroGfbr , respectively, from Escherichia coli along with blockage of carbon flux to the biosynthetic pathways for aromatic amino acids and the catabolic pathway for 4HBA by deletion of the genes trpE (encoding anthranilate synthase I), csm (chorismate mutase), and pobA (4HBA hydroxylase)...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Piotr M Kuś, Igor Jerković
Qualitative chemical fingerprinting of the honey volatiles by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been an efficient authentication tool that allowed for the classification of the honey botanical origin (strongly related to its medicinal and market value). However, the usage of current sample preparation methods is limited by selectivity of the volatiles extraction from the honey matrix and requires significant solvent volume. Therefore, a new sample preparation method based on dehydrating homogeneous liquid⁻liquid extraction (DHLLE) involving reduced solvent usage was developed for screening volatiles and semi-volatiles from the honey...
July 19, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Lahiru N Jayakody, Timothy Lee Turner, Eun Ju Yun, In Iok Kong, Jing-Jing Liu, Yong-Su Jin
Engineered S. cerevisiae employing the xylose reductase pathway enables efficient xylose valorization to fuels and chemicals. However, toxicity of thermochemically pretreated biomass hydrolysate on S. cerevisiae is one of the key technical challenges to upgrade biomass-derived sugars including xylose and glucose into high-value products. We investigated the effect of glycolaldehyde, one of the biomass-derived highly toxic aldehyde compounds, and its combinatorial inhibitory effect with other major fermentation inhibitors commonly found in plant hydrolysate such as methylglyoxal, 5-HMF, furfural, vanillin, and acetic acid on engineered xylose-fermenting S...
July 19, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Kiran Kamireddy, Salim Chinnu, P S Priyanka, P S Rajini, Parvatam Giridhar
In this study, we investigated the possible neuroprotective efficacy of Decalepis hamiltonii tuber extract against 6-Hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA) induced neurotoxicity and associated effects in Caenorhabditis elegans. The major component of flavour rich extract from D. hamiltonii is 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzaldehyde (2H4MB) which is an isomer of vanillin. We have conducted preliminary experiments with different types of extracts and subsequently DHFE (D. hamiltonii Fresh Tuber Extract) and DHPF (D. hamiltonii purified 2H4MB fraction) were used for further studies...
September 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Stefan Bötschi, Ashwin Kumar Rajagopalan, Manfred Morari, Marco Mazzotti
The solute concentration in crystallization processes is generally estimated by observing properties of the liquid phase. Here, a novel method for online estimation of the change in the solute concentration caused by seeded batch crystallization or dissolution of a population of crystals in suspension is presented. The method is based on multiprojection imaging to track variations in the total solid volume of the population, thus enabling inference of the solute concentration through the mass conservation constraint...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
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