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Hanno C Erythropel, Sairam V Jabba, Tamara M DeWinter, Melissa Mendizabal, Paul T Anastas, Sven E Jordt, Julie B Zimmerman
Introduction: "Vaping" electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is increasingly popular with youth, driven by the wide range of available flavors, often created using flavor aldehydes. The objective of this study was to examine whether flavor aldehydes remain stable in e-cigarette liquids or whether they undergo chemical reactions, forming novel chemical species that may cause harm to the user. Methods: Gas chromatography was used to determine concentrations of flavor aldehydes and reaction products in e-liquids and vapor generated from a commercial e-cigarette...
October 18, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Saeed Ghasemi, Diba Eghbali Koohi, Mohammad Sadegh Bakhshi Emmamzadehhashemi, Shahriyar Shahbazi Khamas, Mohammad Moazen, Amin Khabbaz Hashemi, Gholamreza Amin, Fereshteh Golfakhrabadi, Zahra Yousefi, Fatemeh Yousefbeyk
The leaves of seventeen cultivars of olive growing in the north of Iran were investigated for total phenol content and antioxidant activity. The identification and quantification of main phenolic compounds were performed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector. The cultivars Kalamon, Gordal, and Coratina contained the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (190.65 ± 0.03, 184.72 ± 0.001, and 155.91 ± 0.06 mg GAE/g extract, respectively). The maximum radical scavenging activities were found in Gordal, Coratina, and Kalamon extracts (IC50 20...
November 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Yuejiao Xie, Qing Hu, Guodong Feng, Xu Jiang, Jinlong Hu, Mingxiong He, Guoquan Hu, Shumiao Zhao, Yunxiang Liang, Zhiyong Ruan, Nan Peng
Phenolic inhibitors generated during alkaline pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomasses significantly hinder bacterial growth and subsequent biofuel and biochemical production. Water rinsing is an efficient method for removing these compounds. Nevertheless, this method often generates a great amount of wastewater, and leads to the loss of solid fiber particles and fermentable sugars. Kurthia huakuii LAM0618T , a recently identified microorganism, was herein shown to be able to efficiently transform phenolic compounds (syringaldehyde, hydroxybenzaldehyde, and vanillin) into less toxic acids...
October 12, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Satish Chandra Pandey, Anubhuti Jha, Awanish Kumar, Mukesh Samant
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the most devastating diseases of the tropical region caused by protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani. So far, there is no effective drug and vaccine available against this fatal disease. The DEAD-box RNA helicase is quite essential for the RNA processing, amastigote differentiation and infectivity in Leishmania. In this study, L. donovani DEAD-box RNA helicase (LdHel-67) was evaluated as a potential drug target against VL. Using in-silico approach we have identified ligands that can specifically bind to this protein by using various application of Schrodinger (Maestro, version 10...
October 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Song Hee Lee, Bo Young Choi, A Ra Kho, Jeong Hyun Jeong, Dae Ki Hong, Dong Hyeon Kang, Beom Seok Kang, Hong Ki Song, Hui Chul Choi, Sang Won Suh
Apocynin, also known as acetovanillone, is a natural organic compound structurally related to vanillin. Apocynin is known to be an inhibitor of NADPH (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase activity and is highly effective in suppressing the production of superoxide. The neuroprotective effects of apocynin have been investigated in numerous brain injury settings, such as stroke, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and epilepsy. Our lab has demonstrated that TBI or seizure-induced oxidative injury and neuronal death were reduced by apocynin treatment...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yuanyuan Zhu, Lu Wu, Junjun Zhu, Yong Xu, Shiyuan Yu
To obtain a global insight into the dynamic protein expression pattern in Pichia stipitis during xylose fermentation in the presence of three representative inhibitors (acetic acid, vanillin, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural), proteins were extracted for quantitative proteomic analysis using 8-plex isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) on a liquid chromatography-mass/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) instrument. Interestingly, aconitase (Aco1p) and NAD-isocitrate dehydrogenase (Idh1p), were upregulated during the middle exponential phase in the presence of the three inhibitors during tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle...
October 8, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Roberta Zangrando, Fabiana Corami, Elena Barbaro, Anna Grosso, Carlo Barbante, Clara Turetta, Gabriele Capodaglio, Andrea Gambaro
The presence of free phenolic compounds (PC) in Antarctic sea water has been investigated to explain their source and particle size distribution in the atmospheric aerosols, as determined in our previous research. The sea water samples were filtered to distinguish the PC concentrations in the particulate and dissolved fractions. Two sample preparation procedures were developed to quantify nine PC in both fractions. The highest concentrations were found in the dissolved fraction of Ross Sea water, with vanillin, vanillic acid, acetovanillone and p-coumaric acid being the most abundant PC...
October 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Shashi Kant Bhatia, Ranjit Gurav, Tae-Rim Choi, Hye-Rim Jung, Soo-Yeon Yang, Yu-Mi Moon, Hun-Suk Song, Jong-Min Jeon, Kwon-Young Choi, Yung-Hun Yang
Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass results in the formation of byproducts (furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural [HMF], vanillin, acetate etc.), which affect microbial growth and productivity. Furfural (0.02%), HMF (0.04%), and acetate (0.6%) showed positive effects on Ralstonia eutropha 5119 growth and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production, while vanillin exhibited negative effects. Response optimization and interaction studies between the variables glucose, ammonium chloride, furfural, HMF, and acetate using the response surface methodology resulted in maximum PHA production (2...
September 26, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Tanvi M Deshpande, Piyusha P Pagare, Mohini S Ghatge, Qiukan Chen, Faik N Musayev, Jurgen Venitz, Yan Zhang, Osheiza Abdulmalik, Martin K Safo
Increasing the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen represents a feasible and promising therapeutic approach for sickle cell disease by mitigating the primary pathophysiological event, i.e. the hypoxia-induced polymerization of sickle hemoglobin (Hb S) and the concomitant erythrocyte sickling. Investigations on a novel synthetic antisickling agent, SAJ-310, with improved and sustained antisickling activity have previously been reported. To further enhance the biological effects of SAJ-310, a structure-based approach was employed to modify this compound to specifically inhibit Hb S polymer formation through interactions which perturb the Hb S polymer-stabilizing αF-helix, in addition to primarily increasing the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin...
October 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
Q U A Jamil, S M Iqbal, W Jaeger, C Studenik
Turmeric is a yellowish orange spice, widely used in Asian cuisine and obtained from the rhizome of Curcuma longa. It is a mixture of three curcuminoids namely, curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin. Turmeric has been used as a medicinal substance since ancient times for respiratory and gastrointestinal problems. The aim of the present study was to investigate which curcuminoid contributes to the observed pharmacological activities, all three curcuminoids, the major curcumin metabolite tetrahydrocurcumin, and the non-enzymatic curcumin hydrolysis products ferulic acid, feruloyl methane and vanillin were analyzed for spasmolytic, inotropic and chronotropic activity...
June 2018: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Bhranti S Shah, Kevin G Burt, Timothy Jacobsen, Tiago D Fernandes, D Olivier Alipui, Kathryn T Weber, Mitchell Levine, Sangeeta S Chavan, Huan Yang, Kevin J Tracey, Nadeen O Chahine
Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration (DD) is associated with low back pain, the leading cause of disability worldwide. Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that contribute to inflammation and trigger DD have not been well characterized. Extracellular high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein has been implicated as a potent DAMP and pro-inflammatory stimulus in the immune system. In this study, we show that HMGB1 and IL-6 levels increase in patients with advanced DD in comparison to early DD. This study further tested the hypothesis that HMGB1 promotes inflammatory signaling driving DD in human nucleus pulposus (NP) cells and tissue...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Ming-Yeh Yang, Kai-Chih Chang, Liang-Yü Chen, Anren Hu
Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is an opportunistic infection in human skin that causes acne vulgaris. Antibiotic agents provide the effective eradication of microbes until the development of drug-resistant microbes. Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is a non-antibiotic therapy for microbial eradication. In this study, the visible blue light (BL, λmax  = 462 nm) was used to enhance the antimicrobial activities of curcumin, a natural phenolic compound. Individual exposure to curcumin or BL irradiation does not generate cytotoxicity on P...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Lorena Polo, Borja Díaz de Greñu, Elena Della Bella, Stefania Pagani, Paola Torricelli, José Luis Vivancos, María Ruiz-Rico, José M Barat, Elena Aznar, Ramón Martínez-Máñez, Milena Fini, Félix Sancenón
Infections represent one of the most frequent causes of arthroplasty revision. Thus, design of new antimicrobial scaffolds to reduce implant rejections, bone infections and associated medical costs is highly desired. In recent years, essential oil components (EOCs) have merged as compounds with significant antimicrobial activity that can be attached to specific surfaces to enhance and prolong their antimicrobial effect. Herein calcium phosphate CaP regenerative materials have been coated with a vanillin derivative to combine its original bone regeneration properties with antimicrobial action of EOCs...
September 28, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Aki Yamada, Kan'ichiro Ishiuchi, Toshiaki Makino, Hajime Mizukami, Kazuyoshi Terasaka
4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF) is a key aroma compound in Fragaria × ananassa (strawberry). A considerable amount of HDMF is converted into HDMF β-D-glucoside and accumulated in mature strawberry fruits. Here we isolated a novel UDP-glucose: HDMF glucosyltransferase, UGT85K16 from Fragaria × ananassa. UGT85K16 preferentially glucosylated the hydroxyl group of HDMF and its structural analogs. Although UGT85K16 also catalyzed the glucosylation of vanillin, its affinity and efficiency toward HDMF was higher...
September 29, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Ashley M Frank, Michelle J Chua, Christopher A Gulvik, Alison Buchan
The hydroxycinnamates (HCAs) ferulate and p -coumarate are among the most abundant constituents of lignin and their degradation by bacteria is an essential step in the remineralization of vascular plant material. Here, we investigate the catabolism of these two HCAs by the marine bacterium, Sagittula stellata E-37, a member of the roseobacter lineage with lignolytic potential. Bacterial degradation of HCAs is often initiated by the activity of a hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA synthase. Genome analysis of S. stellata revealed the presence of two feruloyl-CoA ( fcs ) synthase homologs, an unusual occurrence amongst characterized HCA degraders...
September 21, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
C S Frei, S Qian, P C Cirino
Customized transcription factors that control gene expression in response to small molecules can act as endogenous molecular biosensors and are valuable tools for synthetic biology. We previously engineered the Escherichia coli regulatory protein AraC to respond to non-native inducers such as D-arabinose and triacetic acid lactone. Those prior studies involved the construction and screening of individual 4- or 5-site saturation mutagenesis libraries, followed by iterative rounds of positive- and negative fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)...
September 19, 2018: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
Albert Escuer, Julia Mayans, Merce Font-Bardia, Lorenzo Di Bari, Marcin Gorecki
From the reaction of manganese halides with the chiral Schiff bases obtained by condensation of o-vanillin and (R)- or (S)-phenylglycinol, eleven complexes based on pentanuclear cages with trigonal bipyramidal [MnIIMnIII3M'] (M = NaI, CaII, MnII) or enneanuclear MnIIMnIII6NaI2 cores have been synthesized. Structural, supramolecular chirality and optical properties have been explored. The magnetic properties of related systems have been reviewed and the magnetic response of the new systems has been rationalized to the bond parameters...
September 19, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Andreas Wargenau, Sebastian Schulz, Arsham Hakimzadeh, Nathalie Tufenkji
Supported phospholipid bilayers (SPBs) are promising models for studying the passive penetration of lipid-soluble compounds into cells and cell membranes. A widely used tool to characterize molecular SPB interactions is the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). As QCM-D provides access to the mass density of supported membranes, it is well-suited to examine surface adsorption and membrane disruption phenomena. In the present study, we report on a novel approach to characterize SPB interactions with low molecular weight lipid-soluble substances...
October 2, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Shubo Tian, Ziyun Wang, Wanbing Gong, Wenxing Chen, Quanchen Feng, Qi Xu, Chun Chen, Chen Chen, Qing Peng, Lin Gu, Huijun Zhao, P Hu, Dingsheng Wang, Yadong Li
Hydrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation are significant and distinct approaches for the conversion of biomass and biomass-derived oxygenated chemicals into high value-added chemicals and fuels. However, it remains a great challenge to synthesize catalysts that simultaneously possess excellent hydrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation performance. Herein, we report a catalyst made of isolated single-atom Ru supported on mesoporous graphitic carbon nitride (Ru1 /mpg-C3 N4 ), fabricated by a wet impregnation method. The as-prepared Ru1 /mpg-C3 N4 catalyst shows excellent hydrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation performance...
September 12, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Vinod Kumar Gupta, Hassan Karimi-Maleh, Shilpi Agarwal, Fatemeh Karimi, Majede Bijad, Mohammad Farsi, Seyed-Ahmad Shahidi
Herein, we describe the fabrication of NiO decorated single wall carbon nanotubes (NiO-SWCNTs) nanocomposites using the precipitation method. The synthesized NiO-SWCNTs nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Remarkably, NiO-SWCNTs and 1-butylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate modified carbon paste electrode (CPE/NiO-SWCNTs/BPrPF6) were employed for the electrochemical detection of vanillin. The vanillin sensor showed an ultra-high sensitivity of 0...
August 27, 2018: Sensors
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