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Xuewen Lu, Ting Mei, Qi Guo, Wenjing Zhou, Xiaomei Li, Jitao Chen, Xinke Zhou, Ning Sun, Zhiyuan Fang
The sensitivity of lateral flow assays (LFA) was increased 30-fold by making use of spherical core-shell gold-silica nanoparticles (AuNP@SiO2 NPs). They can be prepared by silylation of surfactant stabilized AuNPs. The AuNP@SiO2 NPs are highly stable and can be used to label antibodies at virtually any concentration. The detection limit of an LFA for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) can be decreased from 10 ng·mL-1 to 300 pg·mL-1 which makes it comparable to an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To demonstrate the applicability to an immunoassay, a sandwich assay was developed for vanillin by covalent modification of the AuNP@SiO2 NPs with antibody...
December 4, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Rajeev Kumar Singla, Ashok Kumar Dubey
Drugs with post-prandial action constitute one of the main course of treatments for diabetes. In the present investigation, we have explored the α-amylase inhibitory potential of ethanolic extract of Cocos nucifera endocarp. DNS based α-amylase assay indicated that IC50 value of extract lies in the range of 63-126 µg/ml and at higher doses, i.e. above 250 µg/ml, it is having better α-amylase inhibition than the standard drug, acarbose. Phytochemical screening indicated that ethanolic extract is rich in alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, triterpenes, glycosides, carbohydrates, terpenoids, quinones and lactones...
November 27, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Jielong Guo, Xue Han, Jicheng Zhan, Yilin You, Weidong Huang
Vanillin, a simple phenolic compound, exists marginally in some plants and can be produced by microbes. This study uses high-fat-diet (HFD) induced obese mice to study the effect of vanillin on obesity and obtain positive results. First, both body and adipose tissue weight are reduced. Second, the blood properties signaling certain disorders such as ALT, LDH, glucose, cholesterol, LDL-C, TG and HDL-C are ameliorated and both insulin sensitivity, and glucose tolerance are improved. Third, vanillin reduced elevated levels of inflammatory factors including LPS, IL-6, and TNF-α in plasma and liver tissue resulting from obesity...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Raquel Seró, Nerea Núñez, Oscar Núñez, Amelia Camprubí, Josep Manel Grases, Javier Saurina, Encarnación Moyano, Cinta Calvet
BACKGROUND: Rosemary forms an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis with a group of soilborne fungi belonging to the phylum Glomeromycota, which can modify the plant metabolome responsible for the antioxidant capacity and other health beneficial properties of Rosemary. RESULTS: The effect of inoculating rosemary plants with an AM fungus on their growth via their polyphenolic fingerprinting was evaluated after analyzing leaf extracts from non-inoculated and inoculated rosemary plants by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry...
November 26, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Yuanyuan Zhu, Lu Wu, Junjun Zhu, Yong Xu, Shiyuan Yu
During the bioconversion of xylose to ethanol, Pichia stipitis cells are often inhibited by substances generated in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate. However, the response mechanism of P. stipitis to inhibitors has not been completely understood till date. With this aim, integrated transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses were performed on P. stipitis to investigate the interactive effects of three representative inhibitors [vanillin, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), and acetic acid] present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates...
November 26, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
Chong Wang, Ting Yu, Tsugumi Fujita, Eiichi Kumamoto
BACKGROUND: Transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) channels expressed in the central terminal of dorsal root ganglion neurons in the spinal substantia gelatinosa (SG) play a role in modulating nociceptive transmission. Although plant-derived compounds exhibiting antinociception (such as eugenol, carvacrol and thymol) activate TRPA1 channels to enhance spontaneous excitatory transmission while hyperpolarizing membranes in SG neurons without TRPA1 activation, specific chemical moieties involved in synaptic modulation are unknown...
September 7, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Esin Akarsu, Ertuğrul Arpaç
In this study, the thermal catalytic powder mixtures of Mn, Ce and Co oxides supported on Al2 O3 were synthesized. In order to obtain thermally active porous coating on the steel substrate, a binder solution produced via sol-gel method was used to bind the synthesized powder. Additionally by incorporation of TiO2 nanoparticles to previously described thermally active coating, both thermally and photocatalytically active multifunctional surfaces were obtained. The self-cleaning property and the rate of volatile organic compounds (VOC) degradation of the coatings were studied, in which pyrazine, thiazole, maltol, vanillin and toluene were applied as VOC...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Youri Yang, Woo-Young Song, Hor-Gil Hur, Tae-Young Kim, Sunil Ghatge
Enzymatic conversion of lignin into high-value chemicals is a key step in sustainable and eco-friendly development of lignin valorization strategies. In the present study, a novel thermoalkaliphilic laccase, CtLac, from Caldalkalibacillus thermarum strain TA2.A1 was tested for the depolymerization of lignin and the production of value-added chemicals, using three different lignocellulosic biomass, organosolv lignin (OSL), and Kraft lignin. Seven valuable lignin monomers were identified from the CtLac-treated samples using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS)...
November 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Nosaibah Ebrahimi, Rahmat Sadeghi
Aiming at designing efficient extraction processes, this work proposes the novel aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) composed of sugars and alcohols. The complete liquid-liquid phase diagrams (binodal curves and tie-lines) for several ternary systems of {water + 1-propanol / 2-propanol + sugar (mono- and di-saccharides, and their polyols)} were determined, for the first time. The main factors which affect the phase separation ability of these systems, such as temperature, structure and stereochemistry of sugars, and the alcohol type were discussed...
November 3, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Momen S A Abdelaty
Vanillin was used to synthesize a new derivative with an active aldehyde group and response to pH. It is named 2-((diethylamino) methyl)-4-formyl-6-methoxyphenyl acrylate, abbreviated to DEAMVA. The chemical structures were evaluated by ¹H, 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), infrared (IR), and UV-Vis-spectroscopy, and all results demonstrated good statement. In order to achieve the dual responsive behavior thermo-pH with functionality, free radical polymerization of N -isopropylacrylamide with DEAMVA in different molar ratios (5, 10, 15 mol%) has been used, with azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as the initiator...
November 6, 2018: Biomolecules
Stipe Lukin, Martina Tireli, Ivor Lončarić, Dajana Barišić, PrimoŽ Šket, Domagoj Vrsaljko, Marco di Michiel, Janez Plavec, Krunoslav UŽarević, Ivan Halasz
We report the first cocrystal as an intermediate in a solid-state organic reaction wherein molecules of barbituric acid and vanillin assume a favorable orientation for the subsequent Knoevenagel condensation.
November 22, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Mizuho Yabushita, Nicolás A Grosso-Giordano, Atsushi Fukuoka, Alexander Katz
The separation of aromatic contaminants from sugar-aromatic aqueous mixtures is required in second-generation biorefineries because aromatic compounds deactivate (bio)catalysts typically involved in upgrading lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. This separation remains challenging, however, because of the degree of molecular recognition needed to sequester dilute aromatic impurities from concentrated sugar streams. Herein, we demonstrate that hydrophobic cavities of p- tert-butylcalix[4]arene macrocycles grafted on amorphous silica (calix/SiO2 ) perform this separation selectively and efficiently by acting as selective molecular hosts that adsorb aromatic compounds (5-hydroxymethylfurfural, vanillin, and vanillic acid) while excluding monomeric sugar (glucose chosen as a prototypical model) in aqueous mixtures...
November 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jun Ni, Yu-Tong Wu, Fei Tao, Yuan Peng, Ping Xu
Value-added utilization of lignin waste streams is vital to fully sustainable and economically viable biorefineries. However, deriving substantial value from its main constituents is seriously hindered by the constant requirement for expensive coenzymes. Herein, we devised a coenzyme-free biocatalyst that could transform lignin-derived aromatics into various attractive pharmaceutical and polymer building blocks. At the center of our strategy is the integrated use of new mining phenolic acid decarboxylase and aromatic dioxygenase with extremely high catalytic efficiency, which realizes the value-added utilization of lignin in a coenzyme-independent manner...
November 28, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Christopher B Durr, Charlotte K Williams
A series of eight new bis(alkoxy)bis(phenoxy-imine)titanium(IV) catalysts, coordinated by Schiff base ligands derived from o-vanillin (2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde), show good activity and control for the ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone and ω-pentadecalactone. The new complexes are easily prepared in two high-yield steps from commercial reagents. The new ligands can all adopt two different coordination modes, depending on the steric bulk on the imine: a six-membered N-O chelate and/or a five-membered O-O chelate...
November 19, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Zhenxian Zhang, Phillip M Gerk
Phenylephrine (PE) has low and variable oral bioavailability in humans, due in part to presystemic metabolism by sulfation. LS180 cells were used as a model of the human intestinal epithelium to examine phenylephrine metabolism and its inhibition by generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and dietary compounds. Curcumin, zingerone, resveratrol, guaiacol, pterostilbene and isoeugenol significantly inhibited phenylephrine disappearance, while vanillin, propylparaben and eugenol did not. However, when propylparaben was combined with either vanillin or eugenol, the phenylephrine disappearance was significantly inhibited...
November 2018: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
Yinghui Ma, Lijun Li, Haixia Tian, Meihuan Lu, Mallavarapu Megharaj, Wenxiang He
Bacterial laccases have received considerable attention because of several advantages associated with the higher environmental stability of these enzymes compared with fungal laccases. In this study, a laccase-like gene from Burkholderia cepacia BNS was successfully cloned. This gene was found to encode a mature protein of 279 amino acids that exhibited laccase activity in dimer form. The mature protein was found to contain approximately 4 mol of copper per monomer, and the metal ion-binding sites were predicted...
October 26, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Motohiro Nishimura, Susumu Kawakami, Hideaki Otsuka
BACKGROUND: Streptomyces sp. NL15-2K, previously isolated from the forest soil, features an extensive catabolic network for lignin-derived aromatic compounds, including pathways transforming ferulic acid to vanillin, vanillic acid, and protocatechuic acid. To successfully use Streptomyces sp. NL15-2K as a biocatalyst for vanillin production, it is necessary to characterize the vanillin dehydrogenase (VDH) that degrades the produced vanillin to vanillic acid, as well as the gene encoding this enzyme...
October 24, 2018: BMC Microbiology
C Géniès, E L Jamin, L Debrauwer, D Zalko, E N Person, J Eilstein, S Grégoire, A Schepky, D Lange, C Ellison, A Roe, S Salhi, R Cubberley, N J Hewitt, H Rothe, M Klaric, H Duplan, C Jacques-Jamin
Skin metabolism is important to consider when assessing local toxicity and/or penetration of chemicals and their metabolites. If human skin supply is limited, pig skin can be used as an alternative. To identify any species differences, we have investigated the metabolism of 10 chemicals in a pig and human skin explant model. Phase I metabolic pathways in skin from both species included those known to occur via cytochrome P450s, esterases, alcohol dehydrogenases and aldehyde dehydrogenases. Common Phase II pathways were glucuronidation and sulfation but other conjugation pathways were also identified...
October 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Hanno C Erythropel, Sairam V Jabba, Tamara M DeWinter, Melissa Mendizabal, Paul T Anastas, Sven E Jordt, Julie B Zimmerman
Introduction: "Vaping" electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is increasingly popular with youth, driven by the wide range of available flavors, often created using flavor aldehydes. The objective of this study was to examine whether flavor aldehydes remain stable in e-cigarette liquids or whether they undergo chemical reactions, forming novel chemical species that may cause harm to the user. Methods: Gas chromatography was used to determine concentrations of flavor aldehydes and reaction products in e-liquids and vapor generated from a commercial e-cigarette...
October 18, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Saeed Ghasemi, Diba Eghbali Koohi, Mohammad Sadegh Bakhshi Emmamzadehhashemi, Shahriyar Shahbazi Khamas, Mohammad Moazen, Amin Khabbaz Hashemi, Gholamreza Amin, Fereshteh Golfakhrabadi, Zahra Yousefi, Fatemeh Yousefbeyk
The leaves of seventeen cultivars of olive growing in the north of Iran were investigated for total phenol content and antioxidant activity. The identification and quantification of main phenolic compounds were performed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector. The cultivars Kalamon, Gordal, and Coratina contained the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (190.65 ± 0.03, 184.72 ± 0.001, and 155.91 ± 0.06 mg GAE/g extract, respectively). The maximum radical scavenging activities were found in Gordal, Coratina, and Kalamon extracts (IC50 20...
November 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
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