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School interventions

Juliana N Scherer, Daiane Silvello, Vanessa L Volpato, Vinícius S Roglio, Letícia Fara, Felipe Ornell, Lisia von Diemen, Felix Paim Kessler, Flavio Pechansky
The incidence of driving under the influence of psychoactive substances (DUI) and its recidivism can be curtailed by the proper identification of specific and predictive characteristics among drug users. In this sense, interpersonal violence (IV), psychiatric comorbidity and impulsivity seem to play an important role in DUI engagement according to previous studies. There are, however, limited data originated from low and middle income countries. In the present study, drug-using Brazilian drivers reporting DUI (n = 75) presented a higher prevalence of bipolar disorders (BD; DUI: 8% vs...
December 12, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Katherine M White, Xiang Zhao, Louise C Starfelt Sutton, Ross McD Young, Kyra Hamilton, Anna L Hawkes, Stuart Leske
OBJECTIVE: Sun safety is crucial for preventing skin cancer. This study evaluated a school-based intervention based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) which aimed to encourage sun-protective behaviour among adolescents. METHODS: Secondary school students (N=382; 61.1% female; Mage =13.73 years) in Queensland, Australia participated in the study. Schools were randomly allocated to an intervention or control group. The intervention focussed on fostering positive attitudes, increasing perceptions of normative support, and strengthening control perceptions...
December 15, 2018: Psycho-oncology
Ci Zhang, Xianhong Li, Deborah Koniak-Griffin, Lloyd A Goldsamt, Jing Zhou
INTRODUCTION: HIV epidemic is increasing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China, yet HIV testing uptake remains low. As an emerging approach, HIV self-testing (HIVST) has the potential to promote HIV testing coverage and frequency in this population. However, evidence of the effectiveness on implementation of HIVST among Chinese MSM and their sexual partners is scarce. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The randomised controlled trial will be performed in Changsha, Changde, Shaoyang and Yiyang, Hunan province, China, recruiting 184 recent testers (men who had at least one HIV test within the past 2 years) and 26 non-recent testers (men who did not have HIV tests within 2 years or never had an HIV test)...
December 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Asma S Alrushud, Alison B Rushton, Gurjit Bhogal, Fraser Pressdee, Carolyn A Greig
INTRODUCTION: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic illness among older adults. Up to the submission date of this protocol, there are no published UK studies reporting the efficacy of a combined intervention programme of physical activity and dietary restriction on the musculoskeletal function of obese older adults with knee OA in spite of the clinical recommendation for exercise and diet for people with knee OA. The aim of this study is to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a combined dietary restriction and physical activity intervention programme and collect preliminary data...
December 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Corinna Jacobi, Kristian Hütter, Ulrike Völker, Katharina Möbius, Robert Richter, Mickey Trockel, Megan Jones Bell, James Lock, C Barr Taylor
BACKGROUND: Web-based preventive interventions can reduce risk and incidence of bulimia and binge eating disorders among young high-risk women. However, their specific effects on core symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN) are rather weak. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an indicated, parent-based, Web-based preventive program Eltern als Therapeuten (E@T) in reducing risk factors and symptoms of AN. METHODS: Girls aged between 11 and 17 years were screened by selected risk factors and early symptoms of AN...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Madeleine Irish, Francesca Solmi, Becky Mars, Michael King, Glyn Lewis, Rebecca M Pearson, Alexandra Pitman, Sarah Rowe, Ramya Srinivasan, Gemma Lewis
BACKGROUND: There are few population-based cohort studies of the emergence, development, and persistence of mental health problems in sexual minorities compared with heterosexuals. We compared trajectories of depressive symptoms in sexual-minority adolescents and heterosexual adolescents from when they were aged 10 years to 21 years, and examined self-harm at ages 16 years and 21 years. METHODS: The study included 4828 adolescents born between April 1, 1991, and Dec 31, 1992, from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children birth cohort (Bristol, UK) who reported their sexual orientation when aged 16 years...
December 11, 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Eric D Achtyes, Dror Ben-Zeev, Zhehui Luo, Heather Mayle, Brandi Burke, Armando J Rotondi, Jennifer D Gottlieb, Mary F Brunette, Kim T Mueser, Susan Gingerich, Piper S Meyer-Kalos, Patricia Marcy, Nina R Schooler, Delbert G Robinson, John M Kane
INTRODUCTION: Technology-delivered healthcare interventions may enhance dissemination of evidence-based treatments in low-resource areas. These interventions may be accessed 'on-demand,' including after hours. Patients with schizophrenia do engage with technological aids but when/how they would utilize these tools is not known. METHODS: We conducted a large, prospective, ten-site, longitudinal study of four technology-assisted interventions for patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders within 60 days of psychiatric hospital discharge, a high risk period...
December 11, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Fariba Kolahdooz, Forouz Nader, Maryam Daemi, Se Lim Jang, Nora Johnston, Sangita Sharma
OBJECTIVES: The Canadian Diabetes Risk Assessment Questionnaire (CANRISK) is a validated, evidence-based, self-administered tool to assess the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in multiethnic Canadian adults. Identifying individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes allows early intervention that improves modifiable risk factors. This study examined the risk factors for type 2 diabetes in multiethnic urban youth in Edmonton, Alberta. METHODS: An interviewer-administered questionnaire was developed based on CANRISK variables, such as age, gender, ethnicity, family history of diabetes, medical history of high blood sugar or high blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, physical activity and dietary intake...
October 9, 2018: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
Johna K Register-Mihalik, Kenneth L Cameron, Melissa C Kay, Zachary Y Kerr, Karen Y Peck, Megan N Houston, Laura A Linnan, Heidi Hennink-Kaminski, Paula Gildner, Steven J Svoboda, Stephen W Marshall
OBJECTIVES: Non-disclosure of concussion complicates concussion management, but almost nothing is known about non-disclosure in military settings. This study describes concussion disclosure-related knowledge, attitudes, perceived social norms, perceived control, and intention. Additionally, the study identifies determinants of high intention to disclose concussion symptoms. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey. METHODS: First-year service academy cadets completed a cross-sectional survey to assess perceptions of concussion disclosure...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Sayward Harrison, Xiaoming Li
Though mother-to-child HIV transmission has been dramatically reduced in the past decade, there are currently an estimated 1.8 million children living with HIV across the globe, and over 30% of all new HIV infections occur among youth ages 15-25. While all youth experience developmental challenges, children and adolescents who are living with HIV must navigate these challenges within the context of high HIV stigma and must cope with a host of psychosocial and health-related challenges. In addition, because HIV disproportionately impacts individuals from minority statuses (e...
December 14, 2018: AIDS Care
Vicky Van Stappen, Julie Latomme, Greet Cardon, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Mina Lateva, Nevena Chakarova, Jemina Kivelä, Jaana Lindström, Odysseas Androutsos, Esther González-Gil, Pilar De Miguel-Etayo, Anna Nánási, László R Kolozsvári, Yannis Manios, Marieke De Craemer
This study investigated barriers towards health behaviours (physical activity, limiting sedentary behaviour and healthy dietary habits) experienced by young European families living in vulnerable areas, from multiple perspectives (parents, teachers, local community workers). Focus groups were conducted in six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Finland, Hungary, Greece and Spain). In each country, three focus groups were conducted with parents, one with teachers and one with local community workers. Data were analysed using a deductive framework approach with a manifest content analysis using the software NVivo...
December 13, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ahmad Abu-Akel, Laura Baxendale, Christine Mohr, Sarah Sullivan
Difficulties in social functioning have been linked to schizotypy, which may reflect vulnerability to psychotic disorders. We investigated these links in early adolescence, a developmental stage when many mental illnesses first emerge. Using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire and The Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences, we examined the association of peer-relationship problems and prosocial behavior with positive and negative schizotypy in a sample of 149 school children (70 girls, 79 boys) between 12 and 15 years old...
December 2018: Psychiatry Research
Wendy Hadley, Christopher Houck, Larry K Brown, Josh S Spitalnick, Mirtha Ferrer, David Barker
Objective: The purpose of the current pilot study was to evaluate the acceptability and preliminary impact of using immersive virtual reality environments (IVREs) paired with a brief emotion regulation and risk reduction intervention (ER + IVRE) relative to this same intervention content paired with role-plays (ER + RP). Methods: Eighty-five adolescents attending middle school (grades 6th-8th; ages 12-15 years) in an urban northeast city were recruited and randomized to ER + IVRE (n = 44) or ER + RP (n = 41) and had complete data...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Sara Pereira, Ana Reyes, Marcos A Moura-Dos-Santos, Carla Santos, Thayse N Gomes, Go Tani, Olga Vasconcelos, Tiago V Barreira, Peter T Katzmarzyk, José Maia
OBJECTIVE: Children's differences in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels are not at random. This study investigates the relevance of individual- and school-level characteristics in explaining these differences. METHODS: In total, 307 children (154 girls) aged 5-10 years, from 19 Portuguese schools, were sampled. Height and weight were measured, and body mass index was calculated. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was measured by accelerometry...
December 11, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
Sian Calvert, Robert C Dempsey, Rachel Povey
Childhood obesity is a global health concern, which has both short- and long-term health consequences for the individual, and is a potential burden on health care services and the wider economy. The school environment is a setting where changes can be applied to dietary behaviours, as schools have direct and intensive contact with children. This systematic review evaluated school-based interventions designed to improve dietary behaviours among adolescents (11- to 16-year-olds). The aims were to review types of interventions delivered, dietary behaviours targeted, and interventions' effectiveness in improving dietary behaviour and associated intervention components...
December 14, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Kristin D Martinsen, Lene Mari P Rasmussen, Tore Wentzel-Larsen, Solveig Holen, Anne Mari Sund, Mona Elisabeth S Løvaas, Joshua Patras, Philip C Kendall, Trine Waaktaar, Simon-Peter Neumer
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine the effectiveness of a transdiagnostic program (EMOTION, Coping Kids Managing Anxiety and Depression) targeting symptoms of anxiety and depression in schoolchildren by comparing the intervention condition (EC) to a control condition (CC). METHOD: A clustered randomized design was used with schools as the unit of randomization. Children ( N = 1686) aged 8-12 years in 36 schools completed screening using the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale (MASC-Child) and The Mood and Feelings Questionnaire Short version (SMFQ-Child)...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Alberto Grao-Cruces, David Sánchez-Oliva, Víctor Segura-Jiménez, Verónica Cabanas-Sánchez, David Martínez-Gómez, Fernando Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Luis A Moreno, José Castro-Piñero
The study aimed (i) to examine changes in physical activity (PA) during the whole day, school hours, recess, and physical education classes (PEC) during a 2-year period in primary and secondary students; (ii) to identify changes in the proportion of compliance with specific PA recommendations for these periods; and (iii) to examine whether PA levels at baseline are associated with PA levels 2 years later. Eight hundred fourteen (51.8% boys) children and 658 (50.1% boys) adolescents from 41 Spanish schools participated in the study...
December 12, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Arzu Akcan, Ayse Ergun
OBJECTIVES: This quasi-experimental study with a pretest-posttest control group was conducted to determine the effects of the "Aggressive Behavior Prevention Program (ABPP)" on kindergarten students. The program was based on Social Cognitive Theory. DESIGN AND SAMPLE: The study was carried out with 90 children (intervention group = 45, control group = 45) who were registered in the kindergarten of a primary school. The ABPP was implemented with children and their families for 12 weeks...
December 11, 2018: Public Health Nursing
P T Hoekstra, M Casacuberta Partal, A S Amoah, L van Lieshout, P L A M Corstjens, S Tsonaka, R K Assaré, K D Silué, A Meité, E K N'Goran, Y K N'Gbesso, M Roestenberg, S Knopp, J Utzinger, J T Coulibaly, G J van Dam
BACKGROUND: Large scale administration of the anthelminthic drug praziquantel (PZQ) to at-risk populations is the cornerstone of schistosomiasis control, although persisting high prevalence of infections in some areas and growing concerns of PZQ resistance have revealed the limitations of this strategy. Most studies assessing PZQ efficacy have used relatively insensitive parasitological diagnostics, such as the Kato-Katz (KK) and urine-filtration methods, thereby overestimating cure rates (CRs)...
December 14, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Catharine Vander Linden, Helena Verhelst, Ellen Deschepper, Guy Vingerhoets, Karel Deblaere, Karen Caeyenberghs
BACKGROUND: Executive dysfunctioning after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been linked to poor outcomes in school performance, social functioning and employment. The credibility of training-induced cognitive enhancement in TBI is threatened by its limited proof of benefit in executive skills of daily living. AIM: Our primary aim was to investigate if cognitive intervention for improving impairments in executive functions in the chronic stage of traumatic brain injury is effective during adolescence...
December 14, 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
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