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School interventions

Kristen R Choi, Molly C Easterlin
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic literature review is to examine interventions designed to improve access to behavioral health services among youth in the United States and to identify how the concept of access to health care has been measured and conceptualized in these studies. METHOD: The review used a systematic search strategy to identify articles published in medical, nursing, and psychological literature. The search yielded 579 initial articles, of which 69 appeared to be candidates for inclusion in the review...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Peter H Kilmarx, Flora Katz, Myat Htoo Razak, John Palen, Laura W Cheever, Roger I Glass
Faced with a critical shortage of physicians in Africa, which hampered the efforts of the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) was established in 2010 to increase the number of medical graduates, the quality of their education, and their retention in Africa. To summarize the accomplishments of the initiative, lessons learned, and remaining challenges, the authors conducted a narrative review of MEPI-from the perspectives of the U.S. government funding agencies and implementing agencies-by reviewing reports from grantee institutions and conducting a search of scientific publications about MEPI...
October 16, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Sheikh Taslim Ali, Benjamin J Cowling, Eric H Y Lau, Vicky J Fang, Gabriel M Leung
In winter 2018, schools in Hong Kong were closed 1 week before the scheduled Chinese New Year holiday to mitigate an influenza B virus epidemic. The intervention occurred after the epidemic peak and reduced overall incidence by ≈4.2%. School-based vaccination programs should be implemented to more effectively reduce influenza illnesses.
November 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Morgan Lancaster
In a society where it is becoming more common for perpetrators to choose electronic forms of communication (cell phones, social media, etc.) to bully others, it is crucial that we understand how our country is working to intervene in this cyberbullying epidemic. Therefore, this systematic research synthesis sought to examine all intervention efforts addressing cyberbullying that have been implemented within the United States. A systematic search using variations of cyberbullying intervention program search terms was narrowed down to a final sample size of 11 articles fitting the inclusion and exclusion criteria...
October 2018: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
Cristiana Marques, Tiago Santos, Maria João Martins, Inês Rodrigues, Ana Telma Pereira, António Macedo
PURPOSE: This study examined the moderator role of gender in the relationship between negative affect and eating psychopathology as well as gender differences in these variables. METHODS: A community sample of 285 students (61.8% females), aged 13-25, was recruited in middle and high schools and universities. They filled instruments that assess negative affect and eating disordered symptoms (restraint, eating concern, shape concern, weight concern, and global scale)...
October 17, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Claudio Costantino, Gianmarco Ventura, Claudia Marotta, Stefania Enza Bono, Evelina Arcidiacono, Carlo Roberto Gambino, Maurizio Gentile, Sara Palmeri, Giovanna Ripoli, Claudia Emilia Sannasardo, Pierfrancesco Sannasardo, Francesco Scarpitta, Carlotta Vella, Walter Mazzucco, Alessandra Casuccio, Vincenzo Restivo
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK: Bullying involves a significant percentage of school-age children. According to the latest available surveillance data, in Sicily, the estimated prevalence among 11-15 years old children is 14%. This study aimed to estimate a prevalence of the bullying phenomenon, observed by teachers, in a sample of secondary schools of Palermo, Sicily. Moreover, after the conduction of preventive interventions among teachers, aimed to evaluate any modification in bullying prevalence...
October 8, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
Lynn M Jeffries, Sarah Westcott McCoy, Susan K Effgen, Lisa A Chiarello, Alejandro G Villasante Tezanos
Background: Students with disabilities receive school-based physical therapy services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004. A paucity of research exists regarding therapy services in schools. Objective: This study explored the school-based service that students received and what activities and interventions physical therapists implemented and determined if services differed based on the student's functional gross motor ability and age...
October 17, 2018: Physical Therapy
Rachel Lenzi, Catherine Packer, Kathleen Ridgeway, Troy D Moon, Ann F Green, Lazaro González-Calvo, Holly M Burke
Women First was a combined economic and social empowerment intervention implemented between 2010 and 2015 in Zambézia Province, Mozambique. The intervention was designed to reduce adolescent girls' risk of HIV and gender-based violence, improve school attendance and empower girls. However, perceptions of girls' improved respectfulness also emerged as an unanticipated effect during the programme evaluation. In this paper, we explore emic definitions of respect and girls' good behaviour and perceptions of how the intervention caused improvements in behaviour from the perspective of intervention participants, their heads of household, influential men in their lives, and community members...
October 17, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Katherine D Westmoreland, Francis M Banda, Andrew P Steenhoff, Elizabeth D Lowenthal, Erik Isaksson, Bernhard A Fassl
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate effectiveness of an educational training workshop using role-playing to teach medical students in Botswana to deliver bad news. METHOD: A 3-hour small group workshop for University of Botswana medical students rotating at the Princess Marina Hospital in Gaborone was developed. The curriculum included an overview of communication basics and introduction of the validated (SPIKES) protocol for breaking bad news...
October 17, 2018: Palliative & Supportive Care
Kelly Lynn Mulvey, Seçil Gönültaş, Eric Goff, Greysi Irdam, Ryan Carlson, Christine DiStefano, Matthew J Irvin
Youth aggression occurs at high rates. Aggressive acts can be curbed through bystander intervention; yet, little is known about school and family factors that predict bystander intervention in response to both aggression and victim retaliation. This research examines school and family factors related to standing up to aggression and intervening before possible retaliation occurs. Participants included 6th and 9th graders (N = 896, 52.8% female), who evaluated how likely they would be to intervene if they observed aggression and if they heard the victim was planning to retaliate...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
L M Hidding, M J M Chinapaw, T M Altenburg
BACKGROUND: In today's society, few adolescents meet physical activity guidelines and effects of physical activity promoting programmes are disappointing. In studies exploring determinants of physical activity, the perspective of adolescents themselves is largely lacking. Also, there is a lack of knowledge on potential environmental determinants of adolescent physical activity. Therefore, this study aimed to explore adolescents' perspectives on characteristics of an activity-friendly environment...
October 16, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Natoshia M Askelson, Patrick Brady, Grace Ryan, Cristian Meier, Cristina Ortiz, Carrie Scheidel, Patti Delger
School-based interventions can play an important role in improving childhood and adolescent nutrition and preventing obesity. Schools offer a unique opportunity to implement policy, systems, and environmental interventions targeting healthy eating behaviors. An intervention was piloted in six middle schools featuring behavioral economics-based changes to the lunchroom, communication training, and communicate cues for food service staff. The pilot study employed a multicomponent evaluation with students and food service directors and staff including a lunchroom assessment, online surveys, production records, and interviews...
October 16, 2018: Health Promotion Practice
Daleen Klop, Laurette Marais, Amanda Msindwana, Febe De Wet
BACKGROUND:  Children who enter school with limited vocabulary knowledge are at risk for reading failure. This study investigated the efficacy of an interactive e-book, implemented as a mobile application, to facilitate vocabulary learning in Grade 1 isiXhosa-speaking children (n = 65). OBJECTIVE:  The purpose was to measure if an e-book intervention, specifically developed for use in the South African context, could facilitate the acquisition and retention of new words at different levels of lexical representation...
September 13, 2018: South African Journal of Communication Disorders. die Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Kommunikasieafwykings
Imen Chaabène, Soumeyya Halayem, Ali Mrabet, Melek Hajri, Asma Bouden
BACKGROUND: Studies on parents of children with autistic spectrum disorders' (ASD) quality of life (QOL) agree on its alteration and seek to identify risk factors in order to target interventions. AIMS: To study the QOL of a Tunisian population of parents of children with ASD and to look for risk factors specific to the Tunisian population. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study of 50 parents of 50 children who met the DSM V criteria for autism spectrum disorder...
March 2018: La Tunisie Médicale
Christopher S Carpenter, Tim A Bruckner, Thurston Domina, Julie Gerlinger, Sara Wakefield
We provide the first evidence on the effects of state laws requiring students to receive education about alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs using data on over a million youths from the 1976-2010 Monitoring the Future study. In difference-in-differences and event-study models, we find robust evidence that these laws significantly reduced recent alcohol and marijuana use among high school seniors by 1.6-2.8 percentage points, or about 8-10% of the overall decline over this period. Our results suggest that information interventions can reduce youth substance use...
October 15, 2018: Health Economics
Konstantinos D Tambalis, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Glyceria Psarra, Labros S Sidossis
OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of fast-food consumption and the association between fast food and lifestyle factors in a representative sample of children and adolescents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, observational study. Fast-food consumption and dietary habits were evaluated using questionnaires (KIDMED index). Anthropometric and physical fitness measurements were obtained by trained investigators. Physical activity (PA) status, sedentary activities and sleeping habits were assessed through self-completed questionnaires...
October 16, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Tonje Holte Stea, Eline Tønnesson Tveter, Saskia J Te Velde, Frøydis Nordgård Vik, Knut-Inge Klepp, Elling Bere
BACKGROUND: The obesity epidemic presents a major public health challenge, and a poor diet quality has been identified as one of the most important contributing factors. Whereas a sufficient fruit and vegetable consumption has been associated with several positive health outcomes, the long-term effect on overweight and obesity is unclear. Thus, the aims of this study were to investigate if one year with free school fruit had any effect on weight status 14 years later, and if it affected the birth weight of the participants' children...
2018: PloS One
Reem A Ali, Nadin M Abdel Razeq, Fatmeh A Alzoubi, Karimeh M Alnuaimi
BACKGROUND: Although skipping breakfast is common among children and adolescents, daily breakfast consumption is a healthy habit that is particularly important in childhood. There is a link between children's attitudes toward breakfast, breakfast-skipping behaviors, and maternal factors. Evidence demonstrating a clear relationship between maternal factors and preadolescent attitudes and behaviors toward breakfast skipping is scarce. AIMS: This study aims to examine the mediation effect of preadolescent attitudes toward breakfast on the associations between maternal involvement (encouragement and control of breakfast eating) and preadolescent breakfast skipping...
October 15, 2018: Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing
Meghan E McDoniel, Kristin A Buss
Research Findings: Exuberant temperament, characterized by high approach and positive affect, is linked to socioemotional outcomes including risk for externalizing symptoms across development. Externalizing problems interfere with children's school readiness and lead to disruptive behavior in the classroom. While some moderating factors help identify which exuberant children are at risk and in which contexts they are at risk, few studies have identified early moderators that protect against maladjustment when children enter school...
2018: Early Education and Development
Lauren F Lichty, L Kris Gowen
Adolescents and young adults face the highest incidence of sexual assault, yet only limited research focuses on the experience of adolescent survivors, adolescent rape myth acceptance, or the ways youth respond to rape. Survivors tend to disclose to at least one person, typically peers, and the response, whether positive or negative, can impact well-being and help-seeking behaviors. Focus groups across Oregon, a leader in state-level comprehensive sexuality education policy, solicited high school-student reactions to an alcohol-involved rape scenario...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
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