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School interventions

Holly A Swartz, Jill M Cyranowski, Yu Cheng, Marlissa Amole
OBJECTIVE: Treatment of maternal depression with psychotherapy has been shown to confer indirect benefits to school-age offspring with psychiatric disorders. The current study sought to understand mechanisms by which improvement in depressed mothers, with and without histories of trauma and treated with psychotherapy, produce changes in children who struggle with psychiatric illnesses themselves. We hypothesized that maternal history of childhood trauma would moderate the relationship between maternal and child outcomes and that increased positive and decreased negative parenting behaviors would mediate the relationship between maternal and child outcomes...
August 3, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Safwat Y Diab, Esa Palosaari, Raija-Leena Punamäki
Mental health problems are common in war-affected areas, but children have different levels of vulnerability. Based on ecological theory (Bronfenbrenner, 2005), this study analyses how factors related to the child (cognitive capacity), their family (parental depression and parenting styles), and their school (teachers' practices and peer relations) mediate the association between traumatic stress (traumatic war experiences and stressful life-events) and child mental health (posttraumatic stress and psychological distress symptoms)...
August 14, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Bin Yu, Xinguang Chen, Bonita Stanton, Ding-Geng Din Chen, Yunan Xu, Yan Wang
INTRODUCTION: The complex relationships among HIV knowledge, condom-use skills, self-efficacy, peer influence and intention to use condoms have been rigorously investigated. However, studies guided by a linear behavior change model often explain only a limited amount of variances. This study aims to advance our understanding of the relationships through a nonlinear quantum change paradigm. METHODS: Data (n = 1970, 40.61% male, mean age 16.94 ± 0.74) from a behavioral intervention program among high school students in the Bahamas were analyzed with a chained cusp catastrophe model in two steps...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
Hee Jung Yang, Gawon Kim, KangUk Lee, Jakyoung Lee, Hae Kwan Cheong, Bo Youl Choi, Soon Young Lee
BACKGROUND: In April 2014, a ferry carrying 476 passengers sunk on the coast of Korea, resulting in 304 deaths. Of these, 250 were local high school students, and the disaster significantly affected their community. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms and anxiety among Ansan city residents to understand their recovery process after the accident. METHODS: Two cross-sectional surveys (survey 1, after 4-6 months and survey 2, after 16-18 months of disaster) were used to compare prevalence among residents of Ansan city and adjacent cities...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Joe K Gerald, Julia M Fisher, Mark A Brown, Conrad J Clemens, Melissa A Moore, Scott C Carvajal, Donna Bryson, Nikki Stefan, Dean Billheimer, Lynn B Gerald
BACKGROUND: School-supervised use of a once-daily inhaled corticosteroid regimen (supervised therapy) can improve medication adherence and asthma control. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of supervised therapy in a unique setting and population. METHODS: We conducted a cluster-randomized trial of supervised therapy in 20 elementary schools with a disproportionate enrollment of low income Latino students. Schools were purposively selected, matched, and randomized to receive 9-months of supervised therapy with mometasone furoate or usual care...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Philip J Landrigan, Richard Fuller, Howard Hu, Jack Caravanos, Maureen L Cropper, David Hanrahan, Karti Sandilya, Thomas C Chiles, Pushpam Kumar, William A Suk
Pollution is a major, overlooked, global health threat that was responsible in 2015 for an estimated 9 million deaths and great economic losses. To end neglect of pollution and advance prevention of pollution-related disease, we formed the Lancet Commission on Pollution and Health. Despite recent gains in understanding of pollution and its health effects, this Commission noted that large gaps in knowledge remain. To close these gaps and guide prevention, the Commission made research recommendations and proposed creation of a Global Observatory on Pollution and Health...
August 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
José Alí Porras-Salazar, David P Wyon, Beatriz Piderit-Moreno, Sergio Contreras-Espinoza, Pawel Wargocki
A two-week long intervention study was performed in two classrooms in an elementary school in Costa Rica. Split-cooling air conditioning (AC) units were installed in both classrooms. During the first week, the air temperature was reduced in one classroom while in the other (placebo) classroom the fans were operated but no cooling was provided. During the second week, the conditions were exchanged to create a 2x2 crossover design in which each pupil was their own control. A total of 37 children performed tasks similar to school work and completed questionnaires reporting their thermal sensation and perceptions...
August 17, 2018: Indoor Air
Farid F Youssef
Background: There are limited empirical data on all matters pertaining to mental illness in the Caribbean but what little there is suggests significant levels of stigmatization exist. In this context, health professionals reveal at least equal to or only slightly improved attitudes to mental illness as compared to the general population. In addition, while there is evidence of improved attitudes among the population at large over the past decade this trend has not been observed among health professionals...
January 2018: Education for Health: Change in Training & Practice
Melissa J DuPont-Reyes, Alice P Villatoro, Jo C Phelan, Kris Painter, Bruce G Link
School-based violence is a current public concern in the United States. One factor that can impact school-based violence that has gained much attention is mental health status. To better inform public perceptions, this study provides new evidence concerning the association between mental health status and acting out violence in school-aged populations. We examined a diverse sample of sixth graders across 14 schools in Texas in 2011-2012 ( N = 721) who completed a self-administered survey assessing mental health symptoms and frequency of perpetration and/or receipt of different types of aggressive behaviors...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Manal Ibrahim Al-Kloub, Omar A Al-Khawaldeh, Mohammed ALBashtawy, Abdul-Monim Batiha, Mahmoud Al-Haliq
BACKGROUND: Disordered eating attitudes and behaviours are linked to poor physical and psychological outcomes. AIM: To examine the individual, psychological, and socio-cultural factors associated with disordered eating attitudes among Jordanian adolescents. METHODS: A stratified sampling method was used to select school students aged 15 to 18 years from three governates in Jordan in 2013/2014. Participants filled out questionnaires on socio-demographic variables, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26; to discriminate adolescents with disordered eating); the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ; used to measure psychological factors associated with disordered eating); Body Mass Index was calculated and obesity evaluated according to international cut off points (to categorize normal weight, overweight, and obese adolescents, and these categories were used as individual factors associated with disordered eating)...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Practice
Anne Ruhweza Katahoire, Cecily Banura, Wilson Winstons Muhwezi, Sheri Bastien, Annegreet Wubs, Knut-Inge Klepp, Leif Edvard Aarø
In a cluster-randomized trial conducted in 22 government secondary schools in Uganda, effects of a school-based intervention aimed at improving aspects of parent/caregiver-adolescent communication on sexuality were examined. The intervention comprised classroom-based education sessions, take home assignments for students to discuss with parents/caregivers and parenting workshops. Baseline and post intervention questionnaires were completed by students and by parents/caregivers. Effect estimates were significant for both students and parents/caregivers on sexuality communication frequency and quality, and for positive and negative attitudes towards sex-related communication, all in the desired direction with effect sizes ranging from 0...
August 16, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
C Mary Schooling, Heidi E Jones
Background: In biomedical research much effort is thought to be wasted. Recommendations for improvement have largely focused on processes and procedures. Here, we additionally suggest less ambiguity concerning the questions addressed. Methods: We clarify the distinction between two conflated concepts, prediction and explanation, both encompassed by the term "risk factor", and give methods and presentation appropriate for each. Results: Risk prediction studies use statistical techniques to generate contextually specific data-driven models requiring a representative sample that identify people at risk of health conditions efficiently (target populations for interventions)...
2018: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
Zahra Kashaninia, Zahra Payrovee, Reza Soltani, Seyed Alireza Mahdaviani
Background: Recent surveys have showed that asthma control still remains suboptimal. Family members have an extensive impact on the level of asthma control in school-age children. Family empowerment has a positive impact on the quality of life of school-age children with asthma. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of family empowerment on asthma control in school-age children. Materials and Methods: Forty-five children with asthma (6-12 years) and their parents were enrolled in a pediatric asthma clinic during their follow-up visits...
January 2018: Tanaffos
Wei-Ting Hsu, Yi-Hsiang Pan
This study examined how mechanisms of moral disengagement (MD) were related to students' self-reported misbehaviors. Participants were 282 and 336 high school students enrolled in physical education classes. In Stage 1, results of regression analysis showed that advantageous comparison and non-responsibility positively predicted four misbehaviors (i.e., low engagement, failure to follow directions, poor self-management, and distracting behavior). In Stage 2, results of the structural equation modeling confirmed that advantageous comparison and non-responsibility were the significant predictors of student misbehavior in physical education...
September 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Alyssa E McCarthy, Jami F Young, Jessica S Benas, Robert J Gallop
Previous research has demonstrated the effectiveness of school-based depression prevention programs in reducing depressive symptoms and improving functioning. This study examined whether these programs have positive effects on school-related outcomes. Students at 10 middle and high schools in New Jersey were randomized to weekly sessions of Interpersonal Psychotherapy - Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST) or group counseling (GC). Analyses examined whether there were intervention effects on participants' grades, attendance rates, and disciplinary outcomes over approximately one year post-intervention...
September 2018: Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
Rachel R Hardeman, Diana Burgess, Katy Murphy, David J Satin, Julie Nielsen, Teddie M Potter, J'Mag Karbeah, Makeda Zulu-Gillespie, Antonia Apolinario-Wilcoxon, Christopher Reif, Brooke A Cunningham
Background: To fight racism and its potential influence on health, health care professionals must recognize, name, understand and talk about racism. These conversations are difficult, particularly when stakes feel high-in the workplace and in interracial groups. We convened a multidisciplinary, multi-racial group of professionals in two phases of this exploratory project to develop and pilot an intervention to promote effective dialogues on racism for first year medical students at the University of Minnesota Medical School...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
Ryan D Burns, Timothy A Brusseau, You Fu
The purpose of this study was to examine potential moderators of school-based physical activity interventions on cardiorespiratory endurance in primary school-aged children using meta-regression. An Internet search with several databases was employed, extracting school-based pediatric physical activity intervention studies published within the past 30 years. Studies were included if there was a control or comparison group, if the study sample included primary school-aged children, if the targeted outcome of cardiorespiratory endurance was objectively assessed, if the intervention was at least partially school-based, and if the effect estimate's variability was reported...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Michael S Ryan, Lisa E Leggio, Christopher B Peltier, Archana Chatterjee, Steven Arenberg, Julie S Byerley, Julia L Belkowitz, Gerard P Rabalais, Michael A Barone
BACKGROUND: Recruiting and retaining community-based pediatricians for teaching medical students has been explored through the lens of preceptors and educational leaders. The purpose of this study was to explore the perspective of pediatric department chairs, a key stakeholder group charged with maintaining teaching capacity among a faculty. METHODS: In 2015, members of the Association of Medical School Pediatric Department Chairs and Council on Medical Student Education in Pediatrics joint task force disseminated a 20-item survey to pediatric department chairs in the United States and Canada...
August 16, 2018: Pediatrics
Julie Lynch, Jason Last, Philip Dodd, Daniela Stancila, Christine Linehan
BACKGROUND: Health disparities and disparities in the provision of healthcare to people with disabilities remains a topic of concern. Research demonstrates that attitudes of healthcare providers contribute to this disparity. The approach to disability education and training in medical school warrants evaluation. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate the efficacy of an educational intervention in cultivating positive attitudes towards disability in medical students, and determine the specific impact of an interaction-based hospital visit to patients undergoing neurological rehabilitation...
July 25, 2018: Disability and Health Journal
Hetty Fuspita, Herni Susanti, Dewi Eka Putri
OBJECTIVE: The research identified the influence of assertiveness training against teenage depression in high scholars in Kepahiang Regency, Bengkulu, Indonesia. METHOD: This study used a quasi-experiment approach with pre-test and post-test design and a control group. Eighty students were engaged through simple random sampling. RESULTS: The study found the frequency of depression in teenagers and considered the effect of assertiveness training...
February 2018: Enfermería Clínica
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