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Medical marijuana cannabis

M E Levi, B T Montague, C Thurstone, D Kumar, S S Huprikar, C N Kotton
Transplant centers have varying policies for marijuana (MJ) use in donors, transplant candidates and recipients. Rationales for these differences range from concerns for fungal complications, impaired adherence and drug interactions. This paper reviews the current status of MJ policies and practices in transplant centers and results of a survey sent to the American Society of Transplantation (AST) membership by the Executive Committee of the AST Infectious Diseases Community of Practice. The purpose of the survey was to compare policies and concerns of MJ use to actual observed complications...
December 2, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
Lital Magid, Sami Heymann, Merav Elgali, Liat Avram, Yoram Cohen, Sigal Liraz-Zaltsman, Raphael Mechoulam, Esther Shohami
Cannabis is one of the most widely used plant drugs in the world today. In spite of the large number of scientific reports on medical marijuana there still exists much controversy surrounding its use and the potential for abuse due to the undesirable psychotropic effects. However, recent developments in medicinal chemistry of novel non-psychoactive synthetic cannabinoids have indicated that it is possible to separate some of the therapeutic effects from the psychoactivity. We have previously shown that treatment with the endocannabinoid 2-AG that binds to both CB1 and CB2 receptors 1 hr after traumatic brain injury in mice attenuates neurological deficits, edema formation, infarct volume, blood-brain barrier permeability, neuronal cell loss at the CA3 hippocampal region and neuroinflammation...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Chetna Bakshi, Allison M Barrett
BACKGROUND: As medicinal and recreational marijuana use broadens across the United States, knowledge of its effects on the body will become increasingly important to all health care providers, including surgeons. DATA SOURCES: We performed a literature review of Pubmed for articles discussing the basic science related to cannabinoids, as well as articles regarding cannabinoid medications, and cannabis use in surgical patients. CONCLUSIONS: The primary components in the cannabis plant, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), have been made available in numerous forms and formulations to treat multiple medical conditions, and recreational access to marijuana is increasing...
November 14, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
Ihsan Al-Zouabi, John M Stogner, Bryan Lee Miller, Elizabeth S Lane
The use of marijuana concentrates has escalated in recent years with butane extracts appearing particularly popular. The administration of butane hash oil, colloquially referred to as "dabbing," is distinct from traditional flower cannabis usage due to the THC content of samples and the presence of impurities such as unpurged butane. While this may confer heightened risk to the user, additional significant concerns are tied to fires and explosions. Using butane as a solvent in amateur "blasting" methods may result in a flammable vapor pooling in enclosed spaces and igniting when exposed to a spark...
2018: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
Theodora A Manolis, Antonis A Manolis, Antonis S Manolis
BACKGROUND: Cannabis use has increased over the past several years as some countries have legalized its use for treatment of certain medical conditions and/or for recreational use. Thus, concerns have risen about potential adverse health effects. Increasing number of reports have associated cannabis use with serious cardiovascular (CV) complications. Furthermore, there appears to be a likeness in the harmful health effects, especially on the CV and respiratory systems, of cannabis smoking to those of tobacco smoking...
November 13, 2018: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Olivier Beauchet
BACKGROUND: There is increasing scientific data suggesting that cannabis is beneficial for a large range of medical conditions. Physicians need up-to-date medical knowledge (i.e., indications, dose and safety properties) before prescribing cannabis for older patients, who are, a priori, more prone to its adverse effects than younger patients. A mini-review was conducted to examine the evidence on medical cannabis use in older patients. METHODS: An English and French systematic Medline (PubMed) search, from January 1, 2001 to October 15, 2018, was conducted using the MeSH terms "Cannabis"[Mesh] OR "Marijuana Abuse"[Mesh] OR "Medical Marijuana"[Mesh] OR "Marijuana Smoking"[Mesh] combined with the MeSH terms ("Aged"[Mesh]) OR "Aged, 80 and over"[Mesh]...
December 2018: Maturitas
William V Stoecker, Emily E Rapp, Joseph M Malters
We review recent findings on medical aspects of marijuana use in order to identify those who are at greatest risk of marijuana-related medical problems. We analyze the impact of medical marijuana laws on health, in particular the disproportionate effects on adolescents and children. Chronic marijuana use predominantly affects certain areas of the brain that overlap the default mode network, linked hubs in the brain that play a supervisory role in critical thought processes such as attention, memory, and social interactions...
September 2018: Missouri Medicine
Megan Lim, Mark G Kirchhof
There is a growing interest in the use of medical cannabis for a variety of dermatologic conditions. Despite the lack of evidence to validate the effectiveness and safety of marijuana, it is approved to treat a variety of dermatologic conditions in the United States. Furthermore, medical cannabis dispensaries have been making unsubstantiated claims about medical cannabis. It is important for dermatologists to know about the purported use of medical cannabis to help patients navigate this new treatment option, particularly as cannabis becomes legal in Canada in October 2018...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
Maira Aguiar Werneck, Guilherme Trevizan Kortas, Arthur Guerra de Andrade, João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia
BACKGROUND: About 30% of regular cannabis users report withdrawal symptoms on cessation of prolonged use, such as irritability, insomnia, decreased appetite, depressed mood, anxiety, and restlessness. However, among highly dependent and/or in-treatment users, the incidence of withdrawal can be even higher, reaching up to 50-95% of individuals. This syndrome was only recognized by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) as a diagnosis with specific criteria in 2013...
October 25, 2018: CNS Drugs
Arun Swaminath, Eric P Berlin, Adam Cheifetz, Ed Hoffenberg, Jami Kinnucan, Laura Wingate, Sarah Buchanan, Nada Zmeter, David T Rubin
There is significant interest among patients and providers in using cannabis (marijuana) and its derivatives to treat a number of chronic illnesses, including inflammatory bowel disease. Despite the Schedule I classification of cannabis by the federal government, state governments have sought ways to make cannabis available for specific medical conditions, and some states have legalized cannabis outright. This white paper summarizes the preclinical data, clinical data, safety data, and the regulatory landscape as they apply to medical cannabis use in inflammatory bowel disease...
October 24, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Kannan Ramar, Douglas B Kirsch, Kelly A Carden, Ilene M Rosen, Raman K Malhotra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Ahna Brutlag, Holly Hommerding
Pet exposure to marijuana-containing products-both recreational and medicinal-along with exposure to extracts such as cannabidiol is increasing in conjunction with greater accessibility. Cannabis products are even sold for use in pets. In addition, exposure to illegal synthetic cannabinoids remains concerning. Veterinarians need to be able to recognize associated clinical signs and understand when cases have the potential for severity. This article provides a brief history of cannabis along with a review of the endocannabinoid system, common cannabis products, expected clinical signs, and medical treatment approaches associated with cannabis exposure in pets...
November 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
Tsun Yee Law, Jennifer Kurowicki, Samuel Rosas, Karim Sabeh, Spencer Summers, Zachary Hubbard, Martin Roche
As an increasing number of states begin to legalize marijuana for either medical or recreational use, it is important to determine its effects on joint arthroplasty. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of cannabis use on total knee arthroplasty (TKA) revision incidence, revision causes, and time to revision by analyzing the Medicare database between 2005 and 2014. A retrospective review of the Medicare database for TKA, revision TKA, and causes was performed utilizing Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) and International Classification of Disease ninth revision codes (ICD-9)...
2018: Journal of Long-term Effects of Medical Implants
Mojgan Karbakhsh, Jennifer Smith, Ian Pike
The purpose of this commentary is to discuss how legalization of non-medical marijuana (LNMM) in Canada can potentially influence child and adolescent unintentional injuries based on evidence from states (American) and jurisdictions that have already legalized cannabis for recreational purposes. Although the evidence is still not conclusive, LNMM can bring about higher exposure, lower perceived harms, and higher prevalence of cannabis use by minors through role modeling and normalization of behaviour within the household and the community, and higher rates of driving under the influence of cannabis, which can contribute to a higher burden of road traffic injuries...
December 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Torri D Metz, Laura M Borgelt
The prevalence and perceived safety of marijuana use in pregnancy are increasing with expanding legalization. Marijuana crosses the placenta and passes into breast milk, resulting in fetal and neonatal exposure. Many women cite medical reasons for prenatal marijuana use such as nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, anxiety, and chronic pain. The scientific literature regarding marijuana in pregnancy is mixed, resulting in confusion among practitioners as to how to counsel women about risks of use. In addition, there is a paucity of literature related to marijuana use and breastfeeding...
October 5, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Larissa Hines, Jill Glick, Kristin Bilka, John D Lantos
The Food and Drug Administration categorizes marijuana (cannabis) as a Schedule I drug, meaning that it has no currently accepted medical use, a high potential for abuse, and no good data on safety. Other Schedule I drugs are heroin, lysergic acid diethylamide, peyote, methaqualone, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ("ecstasy"). The authors of some studies have shown that marijuana can reduce nausea and vomiting from chemotherapy, can improve food intake in patients with HIV, can reduce neuropathic pain, and may slow the growth of cancer cells...
October 2018: Pediatrics
Maria Antonietta De Luca, Liana Fattore
Cannabis sativa has a long history of use for medical purposes despite marijuana's addictive potential. The discovery of the endogenous cannabinoid system as a neuromodulatory system composed of receptors, endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids), and enzymes responsible for their synthesis and degradation, together with recent advancements in the elucidation of cannabinoid pharmacology, has renewed interest in medicines acting on the endocannabinoid system. Synthetic cannabinoid agonists have been developed and used for treatment of different human pathologic conditions, and promising potent cannabinoid antagonists are currently under clinical evaluation...
September 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
Mark A Ware, Dennis Jensen, Amy Barrette, Alan Vernec, Wayne Derman
OBJECTIVE: Cannabis (marijuana) is undergoing extensive regulatory review in many global jurisdictions for medical and nonmedical access. Cannabis has potential impact on the health of athletes as well as on performance in both training and in competition. The aim of this general review is to identify and highlight the challenges in interpreting information with respect to elite athletic performance, and to point to important research areas that need to be addressed. DATA SOURCES: A nonsystematic literature review was conducted using Medline and PubMed for articles related to cannabis/marijuana use and sports/athletic performance; abstracts were reviewed by lead author and key themes identified and explored...
September 2018: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Kitti Rusznák, Kata Csekő, Zsófia Varga, Dávid Csabai, Ágnes Bóna, Mátyás Mayer, Zsolt Kozma, Zsuzsanna Helyes, Boldizsár Czéh
Marijuana is a widely used recreational drug with increasing legalization worldwide for medical purposes. Most experimental studies use either synthetic or plant-derived cannabinoids to investigate the effect of cannabinoids on anxiety and cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to mimic real life situations where young people smoke cannabis regularly to relax from everyday stress. Therefore, we exposed young adult male NMRI mice to daily stress and concomitant marijuana smoke for 2 months and investigated the consequences on physiology, behavior and adult hippocampal neurogenesis...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
P Leal-Galicia, D Betancourt, A Gonzalez-Gonzalez, H Romo-Parra
Marijuana is a substance with a long and controversial history. At different times in its history, which goes back over 5,000 years, this plant has been used for different purposes, ranging from recreational and leisure to its use in the treatment of several diseases or to offer relief in processes that entail a certain type of malaise, and including its consideration as a means of relaxation and meditation. Although it was supposed that the roots of marijuana lay in Central America, it is now known that this is but an urban legend with little credibility and that its origins can be found recorded in Chinese medical references dating back to the year 2737 BC...
August 16, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
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