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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30264194/-where-does-the-high-road-lead-potential-implications-of-cannabis-legalization-for-pediatric-injuries-in-canada
#1
Mojgan Karbakhsh, Jennifer Smith, Ian Pike
The purpose of this commentary is to discuss how legalization of non-medical marijuana (LNMM) in Canada can potentially influence child and adolescent unintentional injuries based on evidence from states (American) and jurisdictions that have already legalized cannabis for recreational purposes. Although the evidence is still not conclusive, LNMM can bring about higher exposure, lower perceived harms, and higher prevalence of cannabis use by minors through role modeling and normalization of behaviour within the household and the community, and higher rates of driving under the influence of cannabis, which can contribute to a higher burden of road traffic injuries...
September 27, 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30234728/marijuana-use-in-pregnancy-and-while-breastfeeding
#2
Torri D Metz, Laura M Borgelt
The prevalence and perceived safety of marijuana use in pregnancy are increasing with expanding legalization. Marijuana crosses the placenta and passes into breast milk, resulting in fetal and neonatal exposure. Many women cite medical reasons for prenatal marijuana use such as nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, anxiety, and chronic pain. The scientific literature regarding marijuana in pregnancy is mixed, resulting in confusion among practitioners as to how to counsel women about risks of use. In addition, there is a paucity of literature related to marijuana use and breastfeeding...
October 5, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30213842/medical-marijuana-for-minors-may-be-considered-child-abuse
#3
Larissa Hines, Jill Glick, Kristin Bilka, John D Lantos
The Food and Drug Administration categorizes marijuana (cannabis) as a Schedule I drug, meaning that it has no currently accepted medical use, a high potential for abuse, and no good data on safety. Other Schedule I drugs are heroin, lysergic acid diethylamide, peyote, methaqualone, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ("ecstasy"). The authors of some studies have shown that marijuana can reduce nausea and vomiting from chemotherapy, can improve food intake in patients with HIV, can reduce neuropathic pain, and may slow the growth of cancer cells...
October 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30180974/therapeutic-use-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-still-an-openissue
#4
Maria Antonietta De Luca, Liana Fattore
Cannabis sativa has a long history of use for medical purposes despite marijuana's addictive potential. The discovery of the endogenous cannabinoid system as a neuromodulatory system composed of receptors, endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids), and enzymes responsible for their synthesis and degradation, together with recent advancements in the elucidation of cannabinoid pharmacology, has renewed interest in medicines acting on the endocannabinoid system. Synthetic cannabinoid agonists have been developed and used for treatment of different human pathologic conditions, and promising potent cannabinoid antagonists are currently under clinical evaluation...
September 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30153174/cannabis-and-the-health-and-performance-of-the-elite-athlete
#5
Mark A Ware, Dennis Jensen, Amy Barrette, Alan Vernec, Wayne Derman
OBJECTIVE: Cannabis (marijuana) is undergoing extensive regulatory review in many global jurisdictions for medical and nonmedical access. Cannabis has potential impact on the health of athletes as well as on performance in both training and in competition. The aim of this general review is to identify and highlight the challenges in interpreting information with respect to elite athletic performance, and to point to important research areas that need to be addressed. DATA SOURCES: A nonsystematic literature review was conducted using Medline and PubMed for articles related to cannabis/marijuana use and sports/athletic performance; abstracts were reviewed by lead author and key themes identified and explored...
September 2018: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083103/long-term-stress-and-concomitant-marijuana-smoke-exposure-affect-physiology-behavior-and-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#6
Kitti Rusznák, Kata Csekő, Zsófia Varga, Dávid Csabai, Ágnes Bóna, Mátyás Mayer, Zsolt Kozma, Zsuzsanna Helyes, Boldizsár Czéh
Marijuana is a widely used recreational drug with increasing legalization worldwide for medical purposes. Most experimental studies use either synthetic or plant-derived cannabinoids to investigate the effect of cannabinoids on anxiety and cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to mimic real life situations where young people smoke cannabis regularly to relax from everyday stress. Therefore, we exposed young adult male NMRI mice to daily stress and concomitant marijuana smoke for 2 months and investigated the consequences on physiology, behavior and adult hippocampal neurogenesis...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30039841/-a-brief-history-of-marijuana-in-the-western-world
#7
REVIEW
P Leal-Galicia, D Betancourt, A Gonzalez-Gonzalez, H Romo-Parra
Marijuana is a substance with a long and controversial history. At different times in its history, which goes back over 5,000 years, this plant has been used for different purposes, ranging from recreational and leisure to its use in the treatment of several diseases or to offer relief in processes that entail a certain type of malaise, and including its consideration as a means of relaxation and meditation. Although it was supposed that the roots of marijuana lay in Central America, it is now known that this is but an urban legend with little credibility and that its origins can be found recorded in Chinese medical references dating back to the year 2737 BC...
August 16, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29966459/marijuana-matters-reviewing-the-impact-of-marijuana-on-cognition-brain-structure-and-function-exploring-policy-implications-and-barriers-to-research
#8
Kelly A Sagar, Staci A Gruber
The neurobiologic effects of cannabis, commonly referred to as 'marijuana' (MJ), have been studied for decades. The impact of recreational MJ use on cognition and measures of brain function and structure is outlined, and variables influencing study results are discussed, including age of the consumer, patterns of MJ use, variations in MJ potency, and the presence of additional cannabinoids. Although evidence suggests that chronic, heavy recreational MJ use is related to cognitive decrements and neural changes, particularly when use begins in adolescence, findings from studies of recreational MJ users may not be applicable to medical marijuana (MMJ) patients given differences in demographic variables, product selection, and reasons for use...
June 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29947796/the-association-between-cannabis-use-and-aberrant-behaviors-during-chronic-opioid-therapy-for-chronic-pain
#9
David J DiBenedetto, Valerie F Weed, Kelly M Wawrzyniak, Matthew Finkelman, Jenelle Paolini, Michael E Schatman, David Herrera, Ronald J Kulich
Objective: Health care providers are likely to see an increase in the concomitant use of cannabis and opioids, particularly with the increased liberalization and ongoing research into the possible role of medical marijuana for chronic pain. Recent literature reports a prevalence of concurrent use ranging from 8.9% to 31.8%. The primary aim of this study was to determine the relationship between cannabis use and aberrant drug behaviors in noncancer pain patients receiving chronic opioid therapy...
October 1, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29943977/high-resolution-ion-mobility-spectrometry-for-rapid-cannabis-potency-testing
#10
Marianne Hädener, Michael Z Kamrath, Wolfgang Weinmann, Michael Groessl
We report initial results from an ion mobility spectrometry (IMS)-based analysis of natural cannabis samples and explore the possibility of using this technique to distinguish medical marijuana from illegal forms of the drug, as defined by Swiss legislation. We analyzed cannabis extracts by electrospray ionization IMS-MS and found that high-resolution drift-tube IMS ( R > 150) can effectively isolate and quantify the controlled substance, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), even in the presence of other noncontrolled cannabinoid isomers including cannabidiol (CBD)...
August 7, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933822/when-and-how-to-treat-possible-cannabis-use-disorder
#11
REVIEW
Annie Lévesque, Bernard Le Foll
Cannabis (marijuana) is a drug product derived from the plant Cannabis sativa. Cannabinoid is a general term for all chemical constituents of the cannabis plant. Legalization of marijuana in numerous US states, the availability of cannabis of higher potency, and the emergence of synthetic cannabinoids may have contributed to increased demand for related medical services. The most effective available treatments for cannabis use disorder are psychosocial approaches. There is no pharmacotherapy approved treatment...
July 2018: Medical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928146/therapeutic-potential-of-medicinal-marijuana-an-educational-primer-for-health-care-professionals
#12
REVIEW
Yara Mouhamed, Andrey Vishnyakov, Bessi Qorri, Manpreet Sambi, Sm Signy Frank, Catherine Nowierski, Anmol Lamba, Umrao Bhatti, Myron R Szewczuk
With the proposed Canadian July 2018 legalization of marijuana through the Cannabis Act, a thorough critical analysis of the current trials on the efficacy of medicinal marijuana (MM) as a treatment option is necessary. This review is particularly important for primary care physicians whose patients may be interested in using MM as an alternative therapy. In response to increased interest in MM, Health Canada released a document in 2013 for general practitioners (GPs) as an educational tool on the efficacy of MM in treating some chronic and acute conditions...
2018: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927691/a-survey-of-payer-perspectives-on-cannabis-use-disorder
#13
Andrew M Kiselica, Amy Duhig, Ivan Montoya, Phil Skolnick, Jennifer Floyd, Cigi Byars
BACKGROUND: Cannabis use disorder (CUD) as described/defined in DSM 5, is characterized by impaired control of marijuana use and related personal, health, and legal consequences. CUD is a serious public health problem, affecting nearly 6 million individuals in the United States. There are no FDA approved medications to treat this disorder. The lack of available treatment options contributes to uncertainties by drug sponsors about formulary and reimbursement decision-making for CUD pharmacotherapies...
November 10, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923025/cannabinoids-for-treatment-of-ms-symptoms-state-of-the-evidence
#14
REVIEW
Jessica Rice, Michelle Cameron
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cannabis and cannabinoids have been used medically and recreationally for thousands of years and recently there has been a growing body of research in this area. With increased access now that medical marijuana is available in many jurisdictions, patients and providers want to know more about the evidence for benefits and risks of cannabinoid use. This paper provides an overview of the available cannabinoid-based formulations, a summary of the highest quality evidence for the use of cannabinoids for treating spasticity and pain associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), and a discussion of possible dosing regimens based on information from these studies...
June 19, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885927/the-effects-of-medical-marijuana-laws-on-cannabis-involved-driving
#15
Eric L Sevigny
This study uses data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and a differences-in-differences model to examine the effect of state medical marijuana laws (MMLs) on cannabis-involved driving among U.S. drivers involved in a fatal crash between 1993-2014. Findings indicate that MMLs in general have a null effect on cannabis-positive driving, as do state laws with specific supply provisions including home cultivation and unlicensed or quasi-legal dispensaries. Only in jurisdictions with state-licensed medical marijuana dispensaries did the odds of marijuana-involved driving increase significantly by 14 percent, translating into an additional 87 to 113 drivers testing positive for marijuana per year...
September 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863387/influence-of-tiagabine-maintenance-on-cannabis-effects-and-related-behaviors-in-daily-cannabis-users
#16
Michael J Wesley, Philip M Westgate, William W Stoops, Thomas H Kelly, Lon R Hays, Joshua A Lile
No medications are approved for cannabis use disorder (CUD). Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) reuptake is modulated by cannabinoid (CB) receptor agonists, and there are shared effects between CB agonists and the GABA reuptake inhibitor tiagabine. This overlapping neuropharmacology suggested that tiagabine might be useful for CUD. The study determined the ability of tiagabine maintenance to reduce cannabis self-administration using a placebo-controlled, double-blind, counterbalanced, within-subjects design. Nontreatment-seeking daily cannabis users (N = 12; 3 female, 9 male) completed two 12-day outpatient maintenance phases (0 or 12 mg of tiagabine/day)...
June 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787529/motor-vehicle-crash-fatalaties-and-undercompensated-care-associated-with-legalization-of-marijuana
#17
Susan Steinemann, Daniel Galanis, Tiffany Nguyen, Walter Biffl
BACKGROUND: Half of the US states have legalized medical cannabis (marijuana), some allow recreational use. The economic and public health effects of these policies are still being evaluated. We hypothesized that cannabis legalization was associated with an increase in the proportion of motor vehicle crash fatalities involving cannabis-positive drivers, and that cannabis use is associated with high-risk behavior and poor insurance status. METHODS: Hawaii legalized cannabis in 2000...
September 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770251/review-of-the-neurological-benefits-of-phytocannabinoids
#18
REVIEW
Joseph Maroon, Jeff Bost
Background: Numerous physical, psychological, and emotional benefits have been attributed to marijuana since its first reported use in 2,600 BC in a Chinese pharmacopoeia. The phytocannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD), and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) are the most studied extracts from cannabis sativa subspecies hemp and marijuana. CBD and Δ9-THC interact uniquely with the endocannabinoid system (ECS). Through direct and indirect actions, intrinsic endocannabinoids and plant-based phytocannabinoids modulate and influence a variety of physiological systems influenced by the ECS...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742676/recommendations-from-cannabis-dispensaries-about-first-trimester-cannabis-use
#19
Betsy Dickson, Chanel Mansfield, Maryam Guiahi, Amanda A Allshouse, Laura M Borgelt, Jeanelle Sheeder, Robert M Silver, Torri D Metz
OBJECTIVE: To characterize recommendations given to pregnant women by Colorado cannabis dispensaries regarding use of cannabis products for nausea during the first trimester of pregnancy. METHODS: This was a statewide cross-sectional study in which advice about cannabis product use was requested using a mystery caller approach. The caller stated she was 8 weeks pregnant and experiencing morning sickness. Dispensaries were randomly selected from the Colorado Department of Revenue Enforcement Division website...
June 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686308/unique-treatment-potential-of-cannabidiol-for-the-prevention-of-relapse-to-drug-use-preclinical-proof-of-principle
#20
Gustavo Gonzalez-Cuevas, Remi Martin-Fardon, Tony M Kerr, David G Stouffer, Loren H Parsons, Dana C Hammell, Stan L Banks, Audra L Stinchcomb, Friedbert Weiss
Cannabidiol (CBD), the major non-psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa, has received attention for therapeutic potential in treating neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Recently, CBD has also been explored for potential in treating drug addiction. Substance use disorders are chronically relapsing conditions and relapse risk persists for multiple reasons including craving induced by drug contexts, susceptibility to stress, elevated anxiety, and impaired impulse control. Here, we evaluated the "anti-relapse" potential of a transdermal CBD preparation in animal models of drug seeking, anxiety and impulsivity...
September 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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