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Atherosclerosys

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645074/relationship-between-inter-arm-blood-pressure-difference-and-severity-of-coronary-atherosclerosis
#1
Se-Jun Park, Jung-Woo Son, Sang-Min Park, Hyun-Hee Choi, Kyung-Soon Hong
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A greater inter-arm blood pressure difference (IABPD) is associated with atherosclerosis, but its association with coronary artery disease is unknown. We investigated the relationship between IABPD and coronary atherosclerosis. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed blood pressure (BP) data that was measured simultaneously in both arms of patients who underwent initial coronary angiography. Coronary atherosclerosis was assessed using the Gensini score, based on quantitative coronary angiography findings...
June 9, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644251/risk-factors-etiological-classification-topographical-location-and-outcome-in-medullary-infarctions
#2
Elif Gökçal, Gözde Baran, Elvin Niftaliyev, Vildan Güzel, Talip Asil
An understanding of the etiological mechanisms is important for therapeutic decisions and prognostic evaluation of patients with ischemic stroke. The object of this study was to evaluate the risk factors, etiological subtypes, and topography of lesion in patients with medullary infarctions (MIs). Besides, we also investigated early neurological deterioration, new vascular events, and functional outcome of all patients at 3-month follow-up. We analyzed our database consisting of patients who were diagnosed with acute MI and who were admitted within 24 hours of onset...
July 2017: Neurologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644213/platelet-pathophysiology-pharmacology-and-function-in-coronary-artery-disease
#3
Homam Ibrahim, Neal S Kleiman
Platelets play a key role in the pathophysiology of coronary artery disease and acute coronary syndromes. Our understanding of platelet function in thrombus formation has increased considerably, resulting in the development of clinically effective treatment strategies and identification of new targets. An underappreciated platelet function is their contribution toward acute and chronic inflammatory processes including atherogenesis. In this review, we discuss the role of platelets in atherosclerosis and thrombosis, platelet function testing, and the pharmacology of currently available antiplatelet drugs...
June 21, 2017: Coronary Artery Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644210/frequency-domain-optical-coherence-tomography-plaque-morphology-in-stable-coronary-artery-disease-sex-differences
#4
Luca Mariani, Francesco Burzotta, Cristina Aurigemma, Andrea Romano, Giampaolo Niccoli, Antonio M Leone, Italo Porto, Carlo Trani, Filippo Crea
BACKGROUND: The cause for discrepancy in the clinical presentation and outcome of coronary artery disease (CAD) between men and women is not established. Different prevalences of risk factors or specific sex-related atherosclerotic aspects have been advocated as possible explanations. We investigated coronary plaque morphology looking at possible differences in plaque vulnerability between men and women with stable CAD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively collected and analyzed clinical data and coronary plaque morphology by frequency-domain optical coherence tomography in men and women with stable CAD...
June 21, 2017: Coronary Artery Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644056/plasmonic-photothermal-therapy-of-atherosclerosis-with-nanoparticles-long-term-outcomes-and-safety-in-nanom-fim-trial
#5
Alexander N Kharlamov, John A Feinstein, John A Cramer, John A Boothroyd, Ekaterina V Shishkina, Vladimir Shur
AIM: The safety options in nanomedicine raise an issue of the optimal niche at the real-world clinical practice. METHODS: This is an observational prospective cohort analysis of the 5-year clinical outcomes at the intention-to-treat population (nano vs ferro vs stenting; n = 180) of NANOM first-in-man trial (NCT01270139). RESULTS: Mortality (6 vs 9 vs 10 cases of cardiac death in groups, p < 0.05), major adverse cardiovascular events (14...
June 23, 2017: Future Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644038/critical-review-on-the-analytical-techniques-for-the-determination-of-the-oldest-statin-atorvastatin-in-bulk-pharmaceutical-formulations-and-biological-fluids
#6
K S Kokilambigai, R Seetharaman, K S Lakshmi
Statins are a group of medicines that can help to lower the level of low-density-lipoprotein(LDL) cholesterol "bad cholesterol" in the blood. Having a high level of LDL cholesterol is potentially dangerous, as it can lead to a hardening and narrowing of arteries (atherosclerosis) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), Atorvastatin is one of the oldest member of the statin family and is used in the treatment of dyslipidemia and the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Atorvastatin was first made in August 1985 and from 1996 to 2012 under the trade name Lipitor, atorvastatin became the world's best selling drug...
June 23, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643478/critical-role-of-tnf-inhibition-in-combination-therapy-for-elderly-mice-with-atherosclerosis
#7
Kyung-Yeon Park, Tae-Hwe Heo
We have previously shown that the combination of pravastatin and sarpogrelate is synergistically beneficial for atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated whether the pravastatin-sarpogrelate combination was sufficient for treatment in an old mouse model of atherosclerosis or if additional intervention would be needed to address the newly included aging factor and its complex pathophysiological impact on the atherosclerogenic state. We added an anti-TNF biologic to the combination treatment cocktail because of the known pathologic roles of TNF in the aging process...
June 23, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643464/adiponectin-isoform-patterns-in-ethnic-specific-adipoq-mutation-carriers-the-iras-family-study
#8
Keri L Tabb, Chuan Gao, Pamela J Hicks, Gregory A Hawkins, Jerome I Rotter, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Xiuqing Guo, Jill M Norris, Carlos Lorenzo, Barry I Freedman, Donald W Bowden, Nicholette D Palmer
OBJECTIVE: Adiponectin is found in human serum in three groups of multimers (high molecular weight [HMW], medium molecular weight [MMW], and low molecular weight [LMW]). Two ethnic-specific variants in ADIPOQ, G45R (Hispanic-Americans) and R55C (African-Americans), were previously reported. Although carriers of both variants had mean adiponectin levels ≤ 20% of those of noncarriers, they were not clinically different from noncarriers. To compare carriers of both variants and noncarriers, relative quantification of adiponectin isoforms to total adiponectin was performed on serum samples...
June 23, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642975/association-of-bone-metabolism-markers-with-coronary-atherosclerosis-and-coronary-artery-disease-in-postmenopausal-women
#9
Yan Ling, Zhen Wang, Bingjie Wu, Xin Gao
This study aimed to evaluate the association of bone metabolism markers with coronary atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease (CAD) in postmenopausal women. Based on the findings of coronary angiography, 111 women with CAD and 116 women without CAD were recruited. Serum calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), osteocalcin, N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (P1NP) and C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) were measured. The Gensini score was used to assess the severity of coronary atherosclerosis...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642873/serum-amyloid-a-induces-a-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-phenotype-switch-through-the-p38-mapk-signaling-pathway
#10
Xincai Zhang, Jinqin Chen, Shixun Wang
Atherosclerosis is an important pathological condition which is accompanied by a vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype switch toward a synthetic phenotype. As an acute-phase protein, Serum Amyloid A (SAA) is thought to have a close relationship to atherosclerosis development. However, no study has investigated the direct effect of SAA on the VSMC phenotype switch, as well as the underlying mechanisms. The purpose of our study was to explore the effect of SAA on the VSMC phenotype switch and the potential mechanisms involved...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642624/whole-exome-sequencing-to-identify-genetic-variants-associated-with-raised-atherosclerotic-lesions-in-young-persons
#11
James E Hixson, Goo Jun, Lawrence C Shimmin, Yizhi Wang, Guoqiang Yu, Chunhong Mao, Andrew S Warren, Timothy D Howard, Richard S Vander Heide, Jennifer Van Eyk, Yue Wang, David M Herrington
We investigated the influence of genetic variants on atherosclerosis using whole exome sequencing in cases and controls from the autopsy study "Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth (PDAY)". We identified a PDAY case group with the highest total amounts of raised lesions (n = 359) for comparisons with a control group with no detectable raised lesions (n = 626). In addition to the standard exome capture, we included genome-wide proximal promoter regions that contain sequences that regulate gene expression...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642237/mediator-1-is-atherosclerosis-protective-by-regulating-macrophage-polarization
#12
Liang Bai, Zhao Li, Qianwei Li, Hua Guan, Sihai Zhao, Ruihan Liu, Rong Wang, Jin Zhang, Yuzhi Jia, Jianglin Fan, Nanping Wang, Janardan K Reddy, John Y-J Shyy, Enqi Liu
OBJECTIVE: MED1 (mediator 1) interacts with transcription factors to regulate transcriptional machinery. The role of MED1 in macrophage biology and the relevant disease state remains to be investigated. APPROACH AND RESULTS: To study the molecular mechanism by which MED1 regulates the M1/M2 phenotype switch of macrophage and the effect on atherosclerosis, we generated MED1/apolipoprotein E (ApoE) double-deficient (MED1(ΔMac)/ApoE(-)(/-)) mice and found that atherosclerosis was greater in MED1(ΔMac)/ApoE(-/-) mice than in MED1(fl/fl)/ApoE(-/-) littermates...
June 22, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642018/clinical-study-of-27-patients-with-medial-medullary-infarction
#13
Takayoshi Akimoto, Katsuhiko Ogawa, Akihiko Morita, Yutaka Suzuki, Satoshi Kamei
BACKGROUND: Medial medullary infarction (MMI) is a rare ischemic stroke. Frequency of each neurological finding in MMI was different in each study. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the medical records of patients with cerebral infarction who were admitted between March 1998 and October 2015. Patients in our study were diagnosed as having MMI by magnetic resonance image examination. RESULTS: Of 2727 patients with ischemic stroke, 27 patients (20 males and 7 females) had MMI...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641952/the-effect-of-tissue-segmented-attenuation-maps-on-pet-quantification-with-a-special-focus-on-large-arteries
#14
A Mota-Cobian, J C Alonso-Farto, L Fernández-Friera, J Sánchez-González, B López-Melgar, L J Jiménez-Borreguero, V Fuster, J Ruiz-Cabello, S España
OBJECTIVES: Accuracy on quantitative PET image analysis relies on the correct application of attenuation correction which is one of the major challenges for PET/MRI that remains to be solved. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of MRI-based attenuation maps and the use of flexible coils on the quantitative accuracy of PET images with a special focus on large arteries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PET/CT data from eight oncologic patients was used. PET data was reconstructed using attenuation maps with different level of detail emulating several approaches available on current PET/MRI scanners...
June 19, 2017: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641818/the-role-of-kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-factor-14-in-the-pathogenesis-of-atherosclerosis
#15
REVIEW
Wei Xie, Liang Li, Xi-Long Zheng, Wei-Dong Yin, Chao-Ke Tang
The Krüppel-like factor (KLF) family, as the SP/XKLF transcription factors, plays important roles in regulating the expression of genes required for the proper execution of important biological and pathological processes. Recent studies have demonstrated that KLF14, a member of the KLF family, participates in the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). From the molecular function aspect, this review focuses on the impact of KLF14-mediated regulation in major atherosclerosis-related diseases and pathological processes, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, inflammation, obesity, metabolic syndrome, cell proliferation and differentiation...
June 7, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641798/hiv-1-associated-atherosclerosis-unraveling-the-missing-link
#16
REVIEW
Alison Kearns, Jennifer Gordon, Tricia H Burdo, Xuebin Qin
Cardiovascular disease, including atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis-associated complications, is an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients in the post-antiretroviral therapy era. HIV alone accelerates atherosclerosis. Antiretroviral therapy; HIV-associated comorbidities, such as dyslipidemia, drug abuse, and opportunistic infections; and lifestyle are risk factors for HIV-associated atherosclerosis. However, our current understanding of HIV-associated atherogenesis is very limited and has largely been obtained from clinical observation...
June 27, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641407/efficacy-of-ezetimibe-combined-with-atorvastatin-in-treatment-of-carotid-artery-plaque-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-complicated-with-coronary-heart-disease
#17
Jing Wang, Xiao-Bo Ai, Fei Wang, Yao-Wu Zou, Li Li, Xiao-Lei Yi
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the efficacy of ezetimibe combined with atorvastatin in treatment of carotid artery plaque in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: A total of 100 patients with carotid atherosclerosis (CAS) confirmed by ultrasound and diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus and CHD were randomly assigned to atorvastatin group (atorvastatin 20 mg/d) or combined treatment group (ezetimibe 10 mg/d and atorvastatin 20 mg/d)...
June 21, 2017: International Angiology: a Journal of the International Union of Angiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641276/atherosclerosis-and-the-hydrogen-sulfide-signaling-pathway-therapeutic-approaches-to-disease-prevention
#18
Zhi-Jun Wang, Jian Wu, Wei Guo, Yi-Zhun Zhu
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is now admitted as a third gasotransmitter together with nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), albeit it was originally considered as a foul and poisonous gas. Endogenous H2S production in mammalian cells is counting on the three enzymes acting on cysteine. Involvement of H2S in various physiological and pathological processes has been extensively studied in the last fifteen years. Mounting evidence suggests that H2S is able to protect against atherosclerosis development and progression...
June 23, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641133/abc-transporters-in-megakaryopoiesis-and-platelet-activity
#19
REVIEW
Wei Wang, Lorena Buitrago, Ying Wang
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) is a family of transporters that facilitates the translocation of substrates across cell membrane using its ATPase subunit. These transporters have key roles in multidrug resistance, lipid homeostasis, antigen processing, immunity, cell proliferation and hematopoiesis. Some ABC transporters are selectively expressed on megakaryocyte progenitor, megakaryocyte and its cellular fragment platelet. However, the role of ABC transporters in hemostasis and thrombosis were not well explored until recently...
June 14, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640972/understanding-adaptogenic-activity-specificity-of-the-pharmacological-action-of-adaptogens-and-other-phytochemicals
#20
REVIEW
Alexander Panossian
Adaptogens are stress-response modifiers that increase an organism's nonspecific resistance to stress by increasing its ability to adapt and survive. The classical reductionist model is insufficiently complex to explain the mechanistic aspects of the physiological notion of "adaptability" and the adaptogenic activity of adaptogens. Here, I demonstrate that (1) the mechanisms of action of adaptogens are impossible to rationally describe using the reductionist concept of pharmacology, whereas the network pharmacology approach is the most suitable method; and (2) the principles of systems biology and pharmacological networks appear to be more suitable for conceptualizing adaptogen function and are applicable to any phytochemical...
June 22, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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