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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733286/the-regulator-ldhr-and-the-d-lactate-dehydrogenase-ldha-of-burkholderia-multivorans-play-a-role-in-carbon-overflow-and-in-planktonic-cellular-aggregates-formation
#1
Inês N Silva, Marcelo J Ramires, Lisa A Azevedo, Ana R Guerreiro, Andreia C Tavares, Jörg D Becker, Leonilde M Moreira
LysR-type transcriptional regulators (LTTR) are the most commonly found regulators in Burkholderia cepacia complex, comprising opportunistic pathogens causing chronic respiratory infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Despite LTTRs being global regulators of pathogenicity in several bacteria, few have been characterized in Burkholderia Here, we showed that gene ldhR of B. multivorans encoding a LTTR is co-transcribed with ldhA encoding a d-lactate dehydrogenase, and evaluate their implication in virulence traits like exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis and biofilm formation...
July 21, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730380/acute-and-chronic-effects-of-oral-erdosteine-on-ciliary-beat-frequency-cough-sensitivity-and-airway-reactivity
#2
L Pappová, I Kazimierová, M Jošková, M Šutovská, S Fraňová
Erdosteine as a mucolytic agent that decreases mucus viscosity and facilitates mucus expulsion from the airways by cough or ciliary movement. Our objective was to determine whether erdosteine can directly contribute to mucus clearance. We addressed the issue by monitoring acute and chronic effects of erdosteine on ciliary beat frequency (CBF), cough sensitivity, and airway smooth muscle reactivity. The experiments were performed in healthy guinea pigs. Erdosteine (10 mg/kg) was administrated orally in a single dose or daily through 7 days...
July 21, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729731/anti-asthmatic-effect-of-pitavastatin-through-aerosol-inhalation-is-associated-with-cd4-cd25-foxp3-t-cells-in-an-asthma-mouse-model
#3
Songquan Wu, Ruhui Yang, Guangli Wang
Statins are competitive inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-A) reductase, and studies have shown that statins also have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-asthmatic effects of pitavastatin, a type of statin, in an asthma mouse model. Mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) to establish the asthma model. These mice were then treated with inhaled pitavastatin (5 mg/kg) or dexamethasone (2 mg/kg), the latter of which served as a positive control...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729052/tedizolid-inhibits-muc5ac-production-induced-by-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#4
Kazuaki Takeda, Norihito Kaku, Yoshitomo Morinaga, Kosuke Kosai, Naoki Uno, Yoshifumi Imamura, Hiroo Hasegawa, Taiga Miyazaki, Koichi Izumikawa, Hiroshi Mukae, Katsunori Yanagihara
The innate immune system plays an important role in early immunity against respiratory tract infection. Although airway epithelial cells produce mucus to eliminate pathogens and irritants, hypersecretion of mucus is harmful for the host as it may cause airway obstruction and inhibit influx of antimicrobial agents. It has been reported that several antimicrobial agents have an immunomodulatory effect in vitro and in vivo, but little is known about whether tedizolid, a novel oxazolidinone, can modulate immune responses...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728620/insulin-resistance-and-hypertension-in-obese-youth-with-sleep-disordered-breathing-treated-with-positive-airway-pressure-a-prospective-multicenter-study
#5
Sherri L Katz, Joanna E MacLean, Lynda Hoey, Linda Horwood, Nicholas Barrowman, Bethany Foster, Stasia Hadjiyannakis, Laurent Legault, Glenda N Bendiak, Valerie G Kirk, Evelyn Constantin
STUDY OBJECTIVES: There is evidence that cardiometabolic disease associated with obesity and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in adults is present in youth. SDB is often treated with positive airway pressure (PAP) in youth with obesity. Our aims were to determine: (1) the prevalence of cardiometabolic disease and (2) whether PAP improves markers of cardiometabolic disease, in youth with obesity and newly diagnosed moderate-severe SDB. METHODS: A prospective multicenter cohort study was conducted in youth (8 to 16 years old) with obesity, prescribed PAP therapy for newly diagnosed moderate-severe SDB...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727888/association-of-mental-health-status-with-perception-of-nasal-function
#6
Erika Strazdins, Yu Feng Nie, Raziqah Ramli, Tom Palesy, Jenna M Christensen, George Nicholas Marcells, Richard John Harvey
Importance: Mental health issues are thought to be overrepresented among patients undergoing rhinoplasty and may be associated with patient presentation prior to surgery. Objective: To assess the association of poor mental health with perception of nasal function. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional study of patients presenting for airway assessment was performed from December 1, 2011, to October 31, 2015, at 2 tertiary rhinoplasty centers in Sydney, Australia...
July 20, 2017: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725641/mechanisms-mediating-pediatric-severe-asthma-and-potential-novel-therapies
#7
REVIEW
Aldara Martin Alonso, Sejal Saglani
Although a rare disease, severe therapy-resistant asthma in children is a cause of significant morbidity and results in utilization of approximately 50% of health-care resources for asthma. Improving control for children with severe asthma is, therefore, an urgent unmet clinical need. As a group, children with severe asthma have severe and multiple allergies, steroid resistant airway eosinophilia, and significant structural changes of the airway wall (airway remodeling). Omalizumab is currently the only add-on therapy that is licensed for use in children with severe asthma...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720732/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-alters-staphylococcus-aureus-sensitivity-to-vancomycin-in-a-biofilm-model-of-cystic-fibrosis-infection
#8
Giulia Orazi, George A O'Toole
The airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients have thick mucus, which fosters chronic, polymicrobial infections. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are two of the most prevalent respiratory pathogens in CF patients. In this study, we tested whether P. aeruginosa influences the susceptibility of S. aureus to frontline antibiotics used to treat CF lung infections. Using our in vitro coculture model, we observed that addition of P. aeruginosa supernatants to S. aureus biofilms grown either on epithelial cells or on plastic significantly decreased the susceptibility of S...
July 18, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720345/the-potential-of-phage-therapy-in-cystic-fibrosis-essential-human-bacterial-phage-interactions-and-delivery-considerations-for-use-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infected-airways
#9
REVIEW
Stephanie Trend, Angela M Fonceca, William G Ditcham, Anthony Kicic, Arest Cf
As antimicrobial-resistant microbes become increasingly common and a significant global issue, novel approaches to treating these infections particularly in those at high risk are required. This is evident in people with cystic fibrosis (CF), who suffer from chronic airway infection caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria, typically Pseudomonas aeruginosa. One option is bacteriophage (phage) therapy, which utilises the natural predation of phage viruses upon their host bacteria. This review summarises the essential and unique aspects of the phage-microbe-human lung interactions in CF that must be addressed to successfully develop and deliver phage to CF airways...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718683/the-measurement-of-cough-response-to-bronchoconstriction-induced-by-methacholine-inhalation-in-healthy-subjects-an-examination-using-the-astograph-method
#10
Johsuke Hara, Masaki Fujimura, Noriyuki Ohkura, Tamami Sakai, Kenta Yamamura, Miki Abo, Hayato Koba, Satoshi Watanabe, Taro Yoneda, Shingo Nishikawa, Takashi Sone, Hideharu Kimura, Yoshihisa Ishiura, Kazuo Kasahara
BACKGROUND: We demonstrated that heightened cough response to bronchoconstriction is a fundamental feature of cough variant asthma (CVA). To evaluate this physiological feature of CVA in daily clinical practice, it is necessary to clarify the cough response to bronchoconstriction in healthy subjects. We evaluated cough response to methacholine (MCh)-induced bronchoconstriction in healthy subjects. A forced oscillometry technique was used to measure airway resistance changes with Mch. METHODS: Healthy never-smokers (21 men, 20 women; mean 22...
July 18, 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718208/quantification-of-nasal-airflow-resistance-in-english-bulldogs-using-computed-tomography-and-computational-fluid-dynamics
#11
Eric T Hostnik, Brian A Scansen, Rachel Zielinski, Samir N Ghadiali
Stenotic nares, edematous intranasal turbinates, mucosal swelling, and an elongated, thickened soft palate are common sources of airflow resistance for dogs with brachycephalic airway syndrome. Surgery has focused on enlarging the nasal apertures and reducing tissue of the soft palate. However, objective measures of surgical efficacy are lacking. Twenty-one English bulldogs without previous surgery were recruited for this prospective, pilot study. Computed tomography was performed using conscious sedation and without endotracheal intubation using a 128 multidetector computed tomography scanner...
July 17, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715132/return-of-neonatal-cpap-resistance-the-medijet-device-family-examined-using-in-vitro-flow-simulations
#12
M Falk, S Donaldsson, B Jonsson, T Drevhammar
AIM: Medijet nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) generators are a family of devices developed from the Benveniste valve. Previous studies have shown that the in-vitro performance of the Medijet disposable generator was similar to the Neopuff resistor system. We hypothesised that resistance would be the main mechanism of CPAP generation in the Medijet disposable generator. METHODS: The in-vitro performance of the Medijet reusable and disposable systems, the Neopuff resistor system and the Benveniste and Infant Flow non-resistor systems were investigated using static and dynamic bench tests...
July 17, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701597/randomized-comparative-study-of-intravenous-infusion-of-three-different-fixed-doses-of-milrinone-in-pediatric-patients-with-pulmonary-hypertension-undergoing-open-heart-surgery
#13
Neeraj Kumar Barnwal, Sanjeeta Rajendra Umbarkar, Manjula Sudeep Sarkar, Raylene J Dias
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension secondary to congenital heart disease is a common problem in pediatric patients presenting for open heart surgery. Milrinone has been shown to reduce pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary artery pressure in pediatric patients and neonates postcardiac surgery. We aimed to evaluate the postoperative outcome in such patients with three different fixed maintenance doses of milrinone. METHODOLOGY: Patients were randomized into three groups...
July 2017: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700253/house-dust-mite-induced-allergic-airway-disease-is-independent-of-ige-and-fc%C3%A9-ri%C3%AE
#14
Christopher G McKnight, Joseph A Jude, Zhenqi Zhu, Reynold A Panettieri, Fred D Finkelman
IgE contributes to disease exacerbations but not to baseline airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in human asthma. In rodent allergic airway disease (AAD), mast cell and IgE dependence for the induction of AHR has only been observed when mice are immunized with a relatively weak allergen without adjuvant. To evaluate the role of IgE in murine AAD that is induced by a potent allergen, we inoculated BALB/c and FVB/N background wild-type, and IgE- or FcεRIα-deficient mice intratracheally with large or limiting doses of house dust mite extract (HDM) and evaluated AHR, pulmonary eosinophilia, goblet cell metaplasia, serum IgE, and lung mastocytosis...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697969/childhood-severe-asthma-new-insights-on-remodelling-and-biomarkers
#15
REVIEW
Sejal Saglani
Severe asthma in children is characterised by severe and multiple aeroallergen sensitisation, food allergy, eosinophilic airway inflammation and airway remodelling. However, it is a heterogeneous disease with considerable variability in the manifestation of each of these characteristics between patients. Recent data from mechanistic studies that have used translational approaches including neonatal mouse models and airway bronchoscopic samples, have shown specific molecular mediators that drive remodelling and steroid resistance in paediatric severe asthma will be discussed...
June 12, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697288/obstructive-sleep-apnoea-and-obesity
#16
Garun S Hamilton, Simon A Joosten
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and obesity are two common conditions affecting the Australian population; obesity is the major risk factor for OSA. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this article are to review the interactions between obesity and OSA, including the increased cardiovascular risk, and highlight the importance of using OSA diagnosis as a critical time to address obesity itself and other cardiovascular risk factors. DISCUSSION: Snoring and symptoms of OSA frequently worsen during periods of rapid weight gain...
2017: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696966/defining-a-ventilation-strategy-for-flexible-bronchoscopy-on-mechanically-ventilated-patients-in-the-medical-intensive-care-unit
#17
Yonatan Y Greenstein, Eric Shakespeare, Peter Doelken, Paul H Mayo
BACKGROUND: Flexible bronchoscopy (FB) in intubated patients on mechanical ventilation increases airway resistance. During FB, two ventilatory strategies are possible: maintaining tidal volume (VT) while maintaining baseline CO2 or allowing reduction of VT. The former strategy carries risk of hyperinflation due to expiratory flow limitation with FB. The aim of the authors was too study end expiratory lung volume (EELV) during FB of intubated subjects while limiting VT. METHODS: We studied 16 subjects who were intubated on mechanical ventilation and required FB...
July 2017: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696809/effects-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-on-glucocorticoid-receptor-and-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptor-expression-in-a-rat-model-of-asthma
#18
Xia Zhou, Ya-Jie Dang, Gui-Fang Wang, Xian-Qiao Jin
PURPOSE: Conventional inhaled corticosteroids or β2-adrenergic receptor agonists do not work well in some asthmatic populations while empirical antifungal therapy has obvious impact on those patients. The study was designed to investigate whether short-term exposure to Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) could decrease glucocorticoid receptor (GCR) and β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) expression in lung tissue of asthmatic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A rat model of chronic asthma was first established by ovalbumin sensitization and challenge...
July 11, 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694492/chronic-lung-inflammation-primes-humoral-immunity-and-augments-antipneumococcal-resistance
#19
Julia D Boehme, Sabine Stegemann-Koniszewski, Andrea Autengruber, Nicole Peters, Josef Wissing, Lothar Jänsch, Andreas Jeron, Dunja Bruder
Airway epithelial cells (AECs) display remarkable plasticity in response to infectious stimuli and their functional adaptations are critical for antimicrobial immunity. However, the roles of AECs and humoral mediators to host defense in non-communicable lung inflammation remain elusive. We dissected pulmonary defense against Streptococcus pneumoniae in hosts with pre-existing inflammatory conditions (SPC-HAxTCR-HA mice). Lung tissue transcriptomics and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) proteomics revealed an induction of humoral defense mechanisms in inflamed lungs...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693498/sirolimus-alters-lung-pathology-and-viral-load-following-influenza-a-virus-infection
#20
Ahmed R Alsuwaidi, Junu A George, Saeeda Almarzooqi, Stacey M Hartwig, Steven M Varga, Abdul-Kader Souid
BACKGROUND: Inhibitors of mTOR, such as sirolimus, have been shown to induce thymus involution and inflammatory lung disease in mice. The latter effect supports the role of this serine/threonine kinase in ameliorating lung inflammation. Other studies have shown sirolimus reduces/delays lung disease associated with various strains of influenza A virus (IAV). Thus, the effects of mTOR inhibitors on influenza infection deserve further studies. METHODS: Here, we examined the changes in lung viral copies, pathology and pulmonary function associated with IAV (A/PR/8/34) infection in mice treated with sirolimus...
July 11, 2017: Respiratory Research
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