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Airway resistence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341986/pulmonary-dead-space-fraction-and-extubation-success-in-children-after-cardiac-surgery
#1
Renee L Devor, Paul Kang, Chasity Wellnitz, John J Nigro, Daniel A Velez, Brigham C Willis
OBJECTIVES: 1) Determine the correlation between pulmonary dead space fraction and extubation success in postoperative pediatric cardiac patients; and 2) document the natural history of pulmonary dead space fractions, dynamic compliance, and airway resistance during the first 72 hours postoperatively in postoperative pediatric cardiac patients. DESIGN: A retrospective chart review. SETTING: Cardiac ICU in a quaternary care free-standing children's hospital...
January 16, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341788/specific-airway-resistance-is-a-better-outcome-parameter-in-bronchial-provocation-testing-compared-to-fev1-in-patients-with-bronchial-asthma
#2
S A van Nederveen-Bendien, J Vahl, H G M Heijerman
OBJECTIVES: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). A bronchial provocation test (BPT) is used to test for AHR. However forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), used as outcome parameter is effort-related, in contrast to specific airway resistance (sRaw). This research was conducted to provide insight in the usefulness of sRaw as an outcome parameter in BPT. METHODS: A total of 85 patients performing a BPT were included in the study...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341484/nasal-ventilation-is-an-important-factor-in-evaluating-the-diagnostic-value-of-nasal-nitric-oxide-in-allergic-rhinitis
#3
Jing Hou, Hongfei Lou, Yang Wang, Fei He, Feifei Cao, Chengshuo Wang, Luo Zhang
BACKGROUND: The role of nasal nitric oxide (NO) in the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (AR) is controversial. The aim of this study was to identify factors that may affect levels of nasal NO in AR patients and evaluate the role of nasal NO in the diagnosis of AR. METHODS: Seventy-five AR patients and 31 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. AR symptom scores were assessed using the visual analog scale. Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) was detected by enzyme-linked immunoassay, nasal NO was measured using a chemiluminescence analyzer, and nasal airway resistance (NAR) was assessed by active anterior rhinomanometry...
January 17, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338960/small-airway-dysfunction-precedes-the-development-of-asthma-in-children-with-allergic-rhinitis
#4
E Skylogianni, M Triga, K Douros, K Bolis, K N Priftis, S Fouzas, M B Anthracopoulos
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence suggests the existence of a direct link between allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma. Several studies also support the presence of small-airway dysfunction (SAD) in non-asthmatic children with AR. However, it remains unknown whether SAD can predict the progression of AR to asthma. Our objective was to explore the existence of SAD in non-asthmatic children with AR and to assessed its ability to predict the development of asthma. METHODS: Seventy-three 6-year-old children with intermittent moderate-severe AR but without asthma symptoms/medication within the last two years, underwent spirometry and measurement of respiratory resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs) before and after bronchodilation (BD) (300mcg salbutamol)...
January 12, 2018: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336943/one-time-quantitative-pcr-detection-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-to-discriminate-intermittent-from-chronic-infection-in-cystic-fibrosis
#5
Sébastien Boutin, Michael Weitnauer, Selina Hassel, Simon Y Graeber, Mirjam Stahl, A Susanne Dittrich, Marcus A Mall, Alexander H Dalpke
BACKGROUND: Chronic airway infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major risk factor of progression of lung disease in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Chronic P. aeruginosa infection evolves from intermittent infection that is amenable to antibiotic eradication, whereas chronically adapted P. aeruginosa becomes resistant to antibiotic therapy. Discrimination of intermittent versus chronic infection is therefore of high therapeutic relevance, yet the available diagnostic methods are only partly satisfactory...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332324/effects-of-macrolide-and-corticosteroid-in-neutrophilic-asthma-mouse-model
#6
Tai Joon An, Chin Kook Rhee, Ji Hye Kim, Young Rong Lee, Jin Young Chon, Chan Kwon Park, Hyoung Kyu Yoon
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a disease of chronic airway inflammation with heterogeneous features. Neutrophilic asthma is corticosteroid-insensitive asthma related to absence or suppression of TH2 process and increased TH1 and/or TH17 process. Macrolides are immunomodulatory drug that reduce airway inflammation, but their role in asthma is not fully known. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of macrolides in neutrophilic asthma and compare their effects with those of corticosteroids...
January 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327118/effect-of-cpap-therapy-on-liver-disease-in-patients-with-osa-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Xin Liu, Yuyang Miao, Fan Wu, Tingting Du, Qiang Zhang
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may play an important role in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).The effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment, the first-line therapy for OSA, on liver disease in OSA patients is still debated. We provide this review of previous studies to summarize the effects of CPAP treatment on liver disease in OSA patients in aspects of liver function, liver steatosis, fibrosis, and incidence of liver disease. CPAP treatment may be beneficial to liver disease in subjects with OSA independent of metabolic risk factors, but a sufficiently long therapeutic duration (perhaps greater than 3 months) may be needed to achieve these positive effects...
January 11, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323699/leukotriene-b4-receptor-2-regulates-the-proliferation-migration-and-barrier-integrity-of-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#8
Min Liu, Juan Shen, Huimin Yuan, Fengling Chen, Huaidong Song, Hui Qin, Yanqin Li, Jiabo Xu, Qing Ye, Shenxian Li, Kazuko Saeki, Takehiko Yokomizo
The airway epithelium plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of asthma. The functions of leukotriene B4 receptor 2 (BLT2) on the airway epithelial cells remains unknown. In our study, BLT2 expression in 16HBE bronchial epithelial cells were manipulated by transfection with BLT2 overexpression plasmid or BLT2 small interference RNA. 16HBE cells were then exposed to BLT2 antagonist (LY255283) or BLT2 agonist (12(S)-hydroxyheptadeca-5Z,8E,10E-trienoic acid [12-HHT] or CAY10583). The results showed that BLT2 overexpression, 12-HHT stimulation or CAY10583 treatment resulted in the enhanced proliferation and migration of 16HBE cells...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319332/nebivolol-attenuates-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-a-guinea-pig-model-of-ovalbumin-induced-asthma-a-possible-mechanism-for-its-favorable-respiratory-effects
#9
Sally A Abuelezz
An experimental model of ovalbumin (OVA) induced asthma was used to assess the effects of nebivolol, the third-generation selective β1-adrenergic receptor blocker, on airway reactivity, lung inflammation, and oxidative stress markers. The asthma induction protocol was done by OVA sensitization and challenge. Guinea pigs were classified into control, asthmatic, or asthmatic receiving nebivolol either 7.5 or 15 mg·kg-1·day-1 orally. At the end of the study respiratory, the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of nebivolol were assessed...
January 10, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317351/a-new-physiological-model-for-studying-the-effect-of-chest-compression-and-ventilation-during-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-the-thiel-cadaver
#10
Emmanuel Charbonney, Stéphane Delisle, Dominique Savary, Gilles Bronchti, Marceau Rigollot, Adrien Drouet, Bilal Badat, Paul Ouellet, Patrice Gosselin, Alain Mercat, Laurent Brochard, Jean-Christophe M Richard
BACKGROUND: Studying ventilation and intrathoracic pressure (ITP) induced by chest compressions (CC) during Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation is challenging and important aspects such as airway closure have been mostly ignored. We hypothesized that Thiel Embalmed Cadavers could constitute an appropriate model. METHODS: We assessed respiratory mechanics and ITP during CC in 11 cadavers, and we compared it to measurements obtained in 9 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients and to predicted values from a bench model...
January 6, 2018: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316378/longitudinal-assessment-of-lung-function-in-extremely-prematurely-born-children
#11
Jessica Lo, Sanja Zivanovic, Alan Lunt, Mireia Alcazar-Paris, Gwendolyn Andradi, Mark Thomas, Neil Marlow, Sandy Calvert, Janet Peacock, Anne Greenough
OBJECTIVES: To assess longitudinally small airway function in children born extremely prematurely and whether there was a correlation between airway function in infancy and at 11-14 years. WORKING HYPOTHESES: There would be tracking of airways obstruction and small airway function would deteriorate during childhood in those born extremely prematurely. STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal study. PATIENT-SUBJECT SELECTION: Thirty-five children with a mean gestational age of 26 weeks had lung function assessed at 1 year corrected and 11-14 years of age...
January 9, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315896/respiratory-impedance-is-correlated-with-airway-narrowing-in-asthma-using-three-dimensional-computed-tomography
#12
Masato Karayama, Naoki Inui, Kazutaka Mori, Masato Kono, Hironao Hozumi, Yuzo Suzuki, Kazuki Furuhashi, Dai Hashimoto, Noriyuki Enomoto, Tomoyuki Fujisawa, Yutaro Nakamura, Hiroshi Watanabe, Takafumi Suda
BACKGROUND: Respiratory impedance comprises the resistance and reactance of the respiratory system, and can provide detailed information on respiratory function. However, details of the relationship between impedance and morphological airway changes in asthma are unknown. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the correlation between imaging-based airway changes and respiratory impedance in patients with asthma. METHODS: Respiratory impedance and spirometric data were evaluated in 72 patients with asthma and 29 reference subjects...
January 6, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315632/food-allergen-sensitized-ccr9-lymphocytes-enhance-airways-allergic-inflammation-in-mice
#13
Laure Castan, Marie-Aude Cheminant, Luc Colas, Sophie Brouard, Antoine Magnan, Grégory Bouchaud
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms of the atopic march, characterized by a natural progression from food and cutaneous allergies to rhinitis and asthma, are still unknown. However, as several organs can be involved, chemokines and their receptors might be implicated in this process and may be instrumental factors. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that the T-cell gut-homing receptor CCR9 could be implicated in the evolution of allergic diseases. METHODS: We characterized the immune response and the role of CCR9 in a murine model combining food allergy to wheat gliadin and a model of acute airways inflammation in response to house dust mite...
January 9, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313715/fluid-balance-is-associated-with-clinical-outcomes-and-extravascular-lung-water-in-children-with-acute-asthma-exacerbation
#14
David B Kantor, Eliotte L Hirshberg, Molly C McDonald, Jonathan Griffin, Tess Buccigrosso, Nicole Stenquist, Craig D Smallwood, Kyle A Nelson, David Zurakowski, Wanda Phipatanakul, Joel N Hirschhorn
RATIONALE: The effects of fluid administration during acute asthma exacerbation are likely unique in this patient population: highly negative inspiratory intrapleural pressure resulting from increased airway resistance may interact with excess fluid administration to favor the accumulation of extravascular lung water, leading to worse clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVES: Investigate how fluid balance influences clinical outcomes in children hospitalized for asthma exacerbation...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313707/sputum-eosinophilia-and-mri-ventilation-heterogeneity-in-severe-asthma
#15
Sarah Svenningsen, Rachel L Eddy, Hui Fang Lim, P Gerard Cox, Parameswaran Nair, Grace Parraga
RATIONALE: Inflammation and smooth muscle dysfunction are integral components of severe asthma that contribute to luminal obstruction causing airflow limitation, ventilation heterogeneity and symptoms. This is important for guiding treatment decisions directed at inflammatory (eg. anti-Th2 monoclonal antibodies) and non-inflammatory, smooth muscle-mediated (eg. bronchial thermoplasty) components of severe asthma. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the contribution of eosinophilic-bronchitis and smooth muscle dysfunction to magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) ventilation heterogeneity in severe asthmatics...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311363/il-1-signaling-prevents-alveolar-macrophage-depletion-during-influenza-and-streptococcus-pneumoniae-coinfection
#16
Shruti Bansal, Vijaya Kumar Yajjala, Christopher Bauer, Keer Sun
Influenza and bacterial coinfection is a significant cause of hospitalization and death in humans during influenza epidemics and pandemics. However, the fundamental protective and pathogenic mechanisms involved in this complex virus-host-bacterium interaction remain incompletely understood. In this study, we have developed mild to lethal influenza and Streptococcus pneumoniae coinfection models for comparative analyses of disease pathogenesis. Specifically, wild-type and IL-1R type 1-deficient (Il1r1-/- ) mice were infected with influenza virus and then superchallenged with noninvasive S...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310159/re-airway-resistance-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-following-robotic-prostatectomy
#17
Jeffery A Cadeddu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308071/positive-correlation-of-airway-resistance-and-serum-asymmetric-dimethylarginine-adma-in-bronchial-asthma-patients-lacking-evidence-for-systemic-inflammation
#18
Gabor Tajti, Csaba Papp, Laszlo Kardos, Sandor Keki, Krisztian Pak, Magdolna Emma Szilasi, Rudolf Gesztelyi, Angela Mikaczo, Andrea Fodor, Maria Szilasi, Judit Zsuga
Background: Contribution of nitric-oxide (NO) pathway to the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma (asthma) is ambiguous as NO may confer both protective and detrimental effects depending on the NO synthase (NOS) isoforms, tissue compartments and underlying pathological conditions (e.g. systemic inflammation). Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor and uncoupler of NOS with distinct selectivity for NOS isoforms. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed whether ADMA is an independent predictor of airway resistance (Raw) in therapy-controlled asthma...
2018: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303286/-cystic-fibrosis-in-adults
#19
Libor Fila
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disease caused by mutations in the transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. The disease leads to dysfunction of the exocrine glands with high concentration of chloride in the sweat and formation of abnormally viscous mucus in the respiratory, digestive and reproductive tract. Chronic sinopulmonary disease, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, liver disease, intestinal obstruction, impaired nutritional status, salt loss syndrome and male infertility dominates in the clinical presentation...
2018: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302215/inhibitory-effects-of-2-6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxymethylphenol-on-asthmatic-responses-to-ovalbumin-challenge-in-conscious-guinea-pigs
#20
Seul-Yong Jeong, Ji-Yun Lee
This study evaluated the anti-asthmatic activities of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxymethylphenol (DBHP) that is a potent phenolic antioxidant in edible vegetable oil. The effects of DBHP on bronchial asthma were evaluated by determining the specific airway resistance (sRaw) and tidal volume (TV) during the immediate asthmatic response (IAR) and the late-phase asthmatic response (LAR) in guinea pigs with aerosolized ovalbumin-induced asthma. Recruitment of leukocytes and the levels of biochemical inflammatory mediators were determined in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALFs), and histopathological surveys performed in lung tissues...
January 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
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