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Airway resistence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148150/pressure-flow-characteristics-of-breathing-systems-and-their-components-for-pediatric-and-adult-patients
#1
Christin Wenzel, Stefan Schumann, Johannes Spaeth
BACKGROUND: Breathing circuits connect the ventilator to the patients' respiratory system. Breathing tubes, connectors, and sensors contribute to artificial airway resistance to a varying extent. We hypothesized that the flow-dependent resistance is higher in pediatric breathing systems and their components compared to respective types for adults. AIMS: We aimed to characterize the resistance of representative breathing systems and their components used in pediatric patients (including devices for adults) by their nonlinear pressure-flow relationship...
November 17, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148123/donohue-syndrome-a-review-of-literature-case-series-and-anesthetic-considerations
#2
REVIEW
Alana Kirkwood, Grant Stuart, Louise Harding
BACKGROUND: Donohue syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of insulin resistance, causing a functional defect in insulin receptor function, and affecting the ability of the insulin to bind the receptor. Features include severe hyperinsulinism and fasting hypoglycemia, along with severe failure to thrive despite feeding. An accelerated fasting state results in muscle wasting, decreased subcutaneous fat, and an excess of thick skin. A reduced thoracic diameter is accentuated by increased abdominal distension, which impacts on respiratory reserve...
November 17, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146858/whole-genome-shotgun-sequences-of-three-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains-isolated-from-morocco
#3
Lamiaa Lahlou, Nadia El Mrimar, Meriem Laamarti, Tarek Alouane, Mohammed A Bendahou, Fatna Bssaibis, Yassine Ben Lahlou, Adil Zegmout, N El Hafidi, Rachid ElJaoudi, Mohammed Frikh, Abdelhay Lemnouar, Mostafa Elouennass, Azeddine Ibrahimi
Tuberculosis is a contagious disease that usually attacks the lungs but sometimes attacks other parts of the body, such as the kidneys, glands, and bones. It is an endemic and major public health problem in Morocco. Tuberculosis is transmitted through the airways via the inhalation of microdroplets containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis We present here the whole-genome shotgun sequences of three multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains isolated from Morocco.
November 16, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146574/mast-cell-dependent-il-33-st2-signaling-is-protective-against-the-development-of-airway-hyperresponsiveness-in-a-house-dust-mite-mouse-model-of-asthma
#4
Anna Maria Zoltowska Nilsson, Ying Lei, Mikael Adner, Gunnar P Nilsson
Interleukin-33 (IL-33) and its receptor ST2 have been influentially associated to the pathophysiology of asthma. Due to the divergent roles of IL-33 in regulating mast cell functions, there is a need to further characterize IL-33/ST2-dependent mast cell responses and their significance in the context of asthma. This study aimed to investigate how IL-33/ST2-dependent mast cell responses contribute to the development of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and airway inflammation in a mouse model of house dust mite (HDM) induced asthma...
November 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142211/the-microbiota-protects-against-respiratory-infection-via-gm-csf-signaling
#5
Rebecca L Brown, Richard P Sequeira, Thomas B Clarke
The microbiota promotes resistance to respiratory infection, but the mechanistic basis for this is poorly defined. Here, we identify members of the microbiota that protect against respiratory infection by the major human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae. We show that the microbiota enhances respiratory defenses via granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) signaling, which stimulates pathogen killing and clearance by alveolar macrophages through extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141272/peripheral-airway-dysfunction-and-relationship-with-symptoms-in-smokers-with-preserved-spirometry
#6
Kanika Jetmalani, Cindy Thamrin, Claude S Farah, Amy Bertolin, David G Chapman, Norbert Berend, Cheryl M Salome, Gregory G King
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Smokers develop respiratory symptoms and peripheral airway dysfunction even when spirometry is preserved. Multiple breath nitrogen washout (MBNW) and impulse oscillometry system (IOS) are potentially useful measures of peripheral airway function but they have not been compared in such subjects. We hypothesized that MBNW and IOS are jointly abnormal in smokers with normal spirometry and that these abnormalities relate to respiratory symptoms. METHODS: Eighty smokers with normal spirometry completed a symptom questionnaire, had ventilation heterogeneity in diffusion (Sacin) and convection-dependent (Scond) airways and trapped gas volume at functional residual capacity as a percentage of vital capacity (%VtrFRC/VC) measured by MBNW...
November 15, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138462/the-antibacterial-and-anti-inflammatory-activity-of-chicken-cathelicidin-2-combined-with-exogenous-surfactant-for-the-treatment-of-cystic-fibrosis-associated-pathogens
#7
Brandon J H Banaschewski, Brandon Baer, Christina Arsenault, Teah Jazey, Edwin J A Veldhuizen, Johan Delport, Tracey Gooyers, James F Lewis, Henk P Haagsman, Ruud A W Veldhuizen, Cory Yamashita
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by recurrent airway infections with antibiotic-resistant bacteria and chronic inflammation. Chicken cathelicin-2 (CATH-2) has been shown to exhibit antimicrobial activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria and to reduce inflammation. In addition, exogenous pulmonary surfactant has been suggested to enhance pulmonary drug delivery. It was hypothesized that CATH-2 when combined with an exogenous surfactant delivery vehicle, bovine lipid extract surfactant (BLES), would exhibit antimicrobial activity against CF-derived bacteria and downregulate inflammation...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133824/comparison-and-evaluation-of-two-different-methods-to-establish-the-cigarette-smoke-exposure-mouse-model-of-copd
#8
Jiaze Shu, Defu Li, Haiping Ouyang, Junyi Huang, Zhen Long, Zhihao Liang, Yuqin Chen, Yiguan Chen, Qiuyu Zheng, Meidan Kuang, Haiyang Tang, Jian Wang, Wenju Lu
Animal model of cigarette smoke (CS) -induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the primary testing methodology for drug therapies and studies on pathogenic mechanisms of disease. However, researchers have rarely run simultaneous or side-by-side tests of whole-body and nose-only CS exposure in building their mouse models of COPD. We compared and evaluated these two different methods of CS exposure, plus airway Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) inhalation, in building our COPD mouse model. Compared with the control group, CS exposed mice showed significant increased inspiratory resistance, functional residual capacity, right ventricular hypertrophy index, and total cell count in BALF...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126451/acceleration-sensors-in-abdominal-wall-position-as-a-non-invasive-approach-to-detect-early-breathing-alterations-induced-by-intolerance-of-increased-airway-resistance
#9
Thomas Breuer, Christian S Bruells, Rolf Rossaint, Henning Steffen, Catherine Disselhorst-Klug, Michael Czaplik, Norbert Zoremba
BACKGROUND: Early detection of respiratory overload is crucial to mechanically ventilated patients, especially during phases of spontaneous breathing. Although a diversity of methods and indices has been established, there is no highly specific approach to predict respiratory failure. This study aimed to evaluate acceleration sensors in abdominal and thoracic wall positions to detect alterations in breathing excursions in a setting of gradual increasing airway resistance. METHODS: Twenty-nine healthy volunteers were committed to a standardized protocol of a two-minutes step-down spontaneous breathing on a 5 mm, 4 mm and then 3 mm orally placed endotracheal tube...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124506/heart-rate-variability-biofeedback-does-not-substitute-for-asthma-steroid-controller-medication
#10
Paul M Lehrer, Charles G Irvin, Shou-En Lu, Anthony Scardella, Beatrix Roehmheld-Hamm, Milisyaris Aviles-Velez, Jessica Graves, Evgeny G Vaschillo, Bronya Vaschillo, Flavia Hoyte, Harold Nelson, Frederick S Wamboldt
Despite previous findings of therapeutic effects for heart rate variability biofeedback (HRVB) on asthma, it is not known whether HRVB can substitute either for controller or rescue medication, or whether it affects airway inflammation. Sixty-eight paid volunteer steroid naïve study participants with mild or moderate asthma were given 3 months of HRVB or a comparison condition consisting of EEG alpha biofeedback with relaxing music and relaxed paced breathing (EEG+), in a two-center trial. All participants received a month of intensive asthma education prior to randomization...
November 9, 2017: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119707/impaired-expression-of-cxcl5-and-matrix-metalloproteinases-in-the-lungs-of-mice-with-high-susceptibility-to-streptococcus-pneumoniae-infection
#11
Rubia I Mancuso, Eliane N Miyaji, Cristiane C F Silva, Fernanda V Portaro, Alessandra Soares-Schanoski, Orlando G Ribeiro, Maria Leonor S Oliveira
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizes the nasopharynx of healthy individuals establishing a commensal relationship with the host. In some conditions, bacteria invade the lower respiratory tract and innate immune responses are crucial to avoid diseases such as pneumonia, sepsis, or meningitis. METHODS: Here, we compared the susceptibility to pneumococcal respiratory infection of two outbred mouse lines, AIRmin and AIRmax, selected for low or high acute inflammatory responses, respectively...
November 9, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116046/radon-enriched-hot-spring-water-therapy-for-upper-and-lower-respiratory-tract-inflammation
#12
Desiderio Passali, Giacomo Gabelli, Giulio Cesare Passali, Ralph Mösges, Luisa Maria Bellussi
Background Radon-222-enriched hot spring therapy, which is characterized by a safe level of radioactivity, is used for the treatment of rheumatic disorders, and its efficacy has already been studied in several clinical trials. Radon-water inhalation therapy for the treatment of upper and lower airway inflammatory diseases is used in many hot springs centers. However, its application has not been reviewed to date. Methods We systematically searched the PubMed and Scopus databases for clinical trials published in the last 20 years in which objective parameters of upper and lower airway function had been tested before and after radon-enriched inhalation treatment...
August 31, 2017: Otolaryngologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106789/depression-and-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#13
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), is described as intermittent interruptions or reductions in airflow which are initiated by an incomplete or complete collapse of the upper airways despite respiratory effort. When left untreated, OSA is connected with comorbid conditions, such as cardiovascular and metabolic illnesses. METHOD: The PubMed database was used to examine papers published until April 2017 using the subsequent terms: "obstructive sleep apnea" or "obstructive sleep apnoea" and "depression" in successive combination with "CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure)", "therapy", "pharmacotherapy", "psychotherapy", "cognitive behavioral therapy" or "quality of life"...
October 6, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101533/efficacy-of-a-sheet-combined-with-fibrin-glue-in-repair-of-pleural-defect-at-the-early-phase-after-lung-surgery-in-a-canine-model
#14
Takashi Sakai, Noriyuki Matsutani, Eiichi Kanai, Yoshikane Yamauchi, Hirofumi Uehara, Hisae Iinuma, Masafumi Kawamura
OBJECTIVE: Polyglycolic acid and oxidized regenerated cellulose have been widely used as a sealant for repairing pulmonary air leakage during respiratory surgery. However, fundamental research of these materials has not been sufficiently conducted. Therefore, we conducted studies to assess the pressure resistance ability of these materials using a canine visceral pleural defect model at the early phase. METHOD: The 6-mm circular defect and the 12-mm square defect were created on the visceral pleura of anesthetized beagles...
November 3, 2017: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097771/subclinical-pulmonary-dysfunction-contributes-to-high-altitude-pulmonary-edema-susceptibility-in-healthy-non-mountaineers
#15
Rajinder K Gupta, Poonam Soree, Koundinya Desiraju, Anurag Agrawal, Shashi Bala Singh
HAPE susceptible (HAPE-S, had HAPE episode in past) subjects may have subclinical cardio-pulmonary dysfunction. We compared the results of pulmonary function tests in 25 healthy HAPE-S non-mountaineers and 19 matched HAPE resistant (HAPE-R, no HAPE episode in past). Acute normobaric hypoxia (FIo2 0.12) was administered at sea level to confirm hypoxia intolerance in HAPE-S. Unlike HAPE-R, HAPE-S subjects had elevated baseline and post-hypoxia systolic pulmonary arterial pressures (20.9 ± 3 vs 27.3 ± 5 mm Hg during normoxia and 26...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096195/lung-epithelium-barrier-immunity-to-inhaled-fungi-and-driver-of-fungal-associated-allergic-asthma
#16
REVIEW
Darin L Wiesner, Bruce S Klein
Fungi are ubiquitous in the environment. The epithelium that lines our airways is the first point of contact with the frequent encounter of inhaled fungi. Consequently, the lung epithelium has evolved behaviors that instruct the earliest immune events to resist fungal penetration. Although the epithelium efficiently assists in immunity to invasive fungi, it also can be inappropriately triggered, to the detriment of the host, by normally innocuous fungi or fungal components. Thus, there is a tipping point of protective immunity against fungal pathogens versus inflammatory disease caused by an exuberant immune response to harmless fungal antigens...
October 26, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090123/investigation-of-the-effects-of-miniscrew-assisted-rapid-palatal-expansion-on-airflow-in-the-upper-airway-of-an-adult-patient-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-using-computational-fluid-structure-interaction-analysis
#17
Jae-Sik Hur, Hyoung-Ho Kim, Jin-Young Choi, Sang-Ho Suh, Seung-Hak Baek
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of miniscrew-assisted rapid palatal expansion (MARPE) on changes in airflow in the upper airway (UA) of an adult patient with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) using computational fluid-structure interaction analysis. METHODS: Three-dimensional UA models fabricated from cone beam computed tomography images obtained before (T0) and after (T1) MARPE in an adult patient with OSAS were used for computational fluid dynamics with fluid-structure interaction analysis...
November 2017: Korean Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089424/evolved-aztreonam-resistance-is-multifactorial-and-can-produce-hypervirulence-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#18
Peter Jorth, Kathryn McLean, Anina Ratjen, Patrick R Secor, Gilbert E Bautista, Sumedha Ravishankar, Amir Rezayat, Jayanthi Garudathri, Joe J Harrison, Rachel A Harwood, Kelsi Penewit, Adam Waalkes, Pradeep K Singh, Stephen J Salipante
While much attention has been focused on acquired antibiotic resistance genes, chromosomal mutations may be most important in chronic infections where isolated, persistently infecting lineages experience repeated antibiotic exposure. Here, we used experimental evolution and whole-genome sequencing to investigate chromosomally encoded mutations causing aztreonam resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and characterized the secondary consequences of resistance development. We identified 19 recurrently mutated genes associated with aztreonam resistance...
October 31, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079097/assessing-the-relationship-between-movement-and-airflow-in-the-upper-airway-using-computational-fluid-dynamics-with-motion-determined-from-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#19
Alister J Bates, Andreas Schuh, Gabriel Amine-Eddine, Keith McConnell, Wolfgang Loew, Robert J Fleck, Jason C Woods, Charles L Dumoulin, Raouf S Amin
BACKGROUND: Computational fluid dynamics simulations of respiratory airflow in the upper airway reveal clinically relevant information, including sites of local resistance, inhaled particle deposition, and the effect of pathological constrictions. Unlike previous simulations, which have been performed on rigid anatomical models from static medical imaging, this work utilises ciné imaging during respiration to create dynamic models and more closely represent airway physiology. METHODS: Airway movement maps were obtained from non-rigid image registration of fast-cine MRI and applied to high-spatial-resolution airway surface models...
October 14, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076751/analyses-of-aerodynamic-characteristics-of-the-oropharynx-applying-cbct-obstructive-sleep-apnea-patients-versus-control-subjects
#20
Hui Chen, Yingguang Li, Johan Hc Reiber, Jan de Lange, Shengxian Tu, Paul van der Stelt, Frank Lobbezoo, Ghizlane Aarab
OBJECTIVES: To determine the most relevant aerodynamic characteristic of the oropharynx related to the collapse of the upper airway in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients; and to determine the correlation between the most relevant aerodynamic characteristic(s) of the oropharynx and anatomical characteristics of the oropharynx in OSA patients. METHODS: 31 mild to moderate OSA patients (mean±SD age = 43.5±9.7 yrs) and 13 control subjects (mean±SD age = 48.5±16...
October 27, 2017: Dento Maxillo Facial Radiology
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