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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908527/-historical-review-on-obstructive-sleep-apnea-in-children
#1
Y H Chien, C Guilleminault
An historical review on the discoveries on pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and sleep-disordered breathing is outlined. Starting with the description by Dickens of "Joe" the obese, snoring and sleepy individual, the authors trace more than 50 years of questions and research starting with the lean adult to the child and from the recognition of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome to the outline of upper-airway resistance syndrome. The pathophysiological knowledge on sleep-disordered breathing has evolved over time, as have treatment approaches in children, from tracheostomy to positive-airway-pressure therapy, to adenotonsillectomy with and without orthodontic treatments to oral-facial myofunctional therapy...
November 28, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906840/renal-artery-denervation-for-treatment-of-patients-with-self-reported-obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-resistant-hypertension-results-from-the-global-symplicity-registry
#2
Dominik Linz, Giuseppe Mancia, Felix Mahfoud, Krzysztof Narkiewicz, Luis Ruilope, Markus Schlaich, Ingrid Kindermann, Roland E Schmieder, Sebastian Ewen, Bryan Williams, Michael Böhm
BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing, predominantly obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), is highly prevalent in patients with hypertension. OSA may underlie the progression to resistant hypertension, partly due to increased activation of the sympathetic nervous system. This analysis of patients with and without OSA evaluated the blood pressure (BP)-lowering effect of sympathetic modulation by renal denervation (RDN) in a real-world setting. METHODS: The Global SYMPLICITY Registry (NCT01534299) is a prospective, open-label, multicenter registry conducted worldwide to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of RDN in patients with uncontrolled hypertension...
January 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905295/desensitization-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-fibroblasts-to-alternaria-alternata-extract-mediated-necrotic-cell-death
#3
Jintaek Im, Kyutae Kim, Ji Young Yhee, Scott M O'Grady, Richard S Nho
Alternaria alternata is an allergenic fungus and known to cause an upper respiratory tract infection and asthma in humans with compromised immunity. Although A. alternata's effect on airway epithelial cells has previously been examined, the potential role of A. alternata on lung fibroblast viability is not understood. Since lung fibroblasts derived from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) display a distinct phenotype that is resistant to stress and cell death inducing conditions, the investigation of the role of Alternaria on pathological IPF fibroblasts provides a better understanding of the fibrotic process induced by an allergenic fungus...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901270/adipose-tissue-inflammation-by-intermittent-hypoxia-mechanistic-link-between-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-and-metabolic-dysfunction
#4
Silke Ryan
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a highly prevalent condition and recognized as a major public health burden conveying a significant risk of cardiometabolic diseases and mortality. Type 2 diabetes (T2D), insulin resistance (IR) and glucose tolerance are common in subjects with OSA and this association is at least in part independent of the effects of obesity. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the treatment of choice for the majority of patients with OSA but the benefit of CPAP on glycaemic health is uncertain...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888992/il-17-protein-levels-in-both-induced-sputum-and-plasma-are-increased-in-stable-but-not-acute-asthma-individuals-with-obesity
#5
Jian-Hui Chen, Ling Qin, Ying-Ying Shi, Jun-Tao Feng, Yu-Long Zheng, Yu-Feng Wan, Chuan-Qin Xu, Xiao-Mei Yang, Cheng-Ping Hu
BACKGROUND: Obesity worsens asthma control partly through enhanced airway neutrophilia, altered lung mechanics and comorbidities, including obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, gastroesophageal reflux disease and depression. Although controversial, obesity may also cause poorer outcomes in acute asthma. IL-17 is associated with neutrophilic inflammation, steroid resistance and severe asthma, but its importance in the association between asthma and obesity is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of IL-17 in obese asthma in both acute and stable settings...
December 2016: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887950/cyslt2-receptor-activation-is-involved-in-ltc4-induced-lung-air-trapping-in-guinea-pigs
#6
Tomohiko Sekioka, Michiaki Kadode, Yasuo Yonetomi, Akihiro Kamiya, Manabu Fujita, Takeshi Nabe, Kazuhito Kawabata
CysLT1 receptors are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of asthma. However, the functional roles of CysLT2 receptors in this condition have not been determined. The purpose of this study is to develop an experimental model of CysLT2 receptor-mediated LTC4-induced lung air-trapping in guinea pigs and use this model to clarify the mechanism underlying response to such trapping. Because LTC4 is rapidly converted to LTD4 by γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (γ-GTP) under physiological conditions, S-hexyl GSH was used as a γ-GTP inhibitor...
November 22, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885203/examination-of-the-effectiveness-of-slow-and-deep-inhalation-of-fp-fm-pmdi-for-the-small-airways-dysfunction-of-adult-onset-asthma
#7
Shoji Hashimoto
BACKGROUNDS: To date adult-onset asthmatic patients who lack a clear stridor and show prolonged coughs and chest discomfort caused by small-airways dysfunction have increased. We examined the small-airways function of these cases and the effectiveness of slow and deep inhalation of FP/FM-pMDI. METHODS: 62 adult-onset asthmatic patients who had prolonged coughs and chest discomfort with the middle or high dose of ICS/LABA combination agents under well technique (32 of BUD/FM-DPI group and 30 of FP/SM-pMDI group) were included into this study...
2016: Arerugī, [Allergy]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884393/1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-targeting-vegf-pathway-alleviates-house-dust-mite-hdm-induced-airway-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction
#8
Ruhui Zhang, Hangming Dong, Haijin Zhao, Liqin Zhou, Fei Zou, Shaoxi Cai
BACKGROUND: In our previous studies, we have indentified that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) can alleviate toluene diisocyanate-induced airway epithelial barrier disruption and we also found that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) derived from airway epithelials cells could disrupt epithelial barrier. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate whether 1,25(OH)2D3 can inhibit house dust mite (HDM) induced airway epithelial barrier dysfunction by regulating the VEGF pathway...
November 16, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882916/spirometry-improvement-after-muscular-exercise-in-elite-swimmers
#9
Alessandro Rubini, Alex Rizzato, Simone Fava, Nicola Olivato, Devanand Mangar, Enrico M Camporesi, Gerardo Bosco
BACKGROUND: An increased sympathetic activity during muscular effort is a well established physiological response, whose intensity is known to increase with the muscular load. Spirometry was described to improve as an effect of swimming training in healthy and asthmatic subjects, suggesting a decrease in airway resistance The aim was to investigate the possible effect of muscular exercise (swimming) on spirometry, in particular searching for possible differences because of different swimming times...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878828/rhs6-coordinately-regulates-the-th2-cytokine-genes-by-recruiting-gata3-satb1-and-irf4
#10
S S Hwang, S W Jang, K O Lee, H S Kim, G R Lee
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a Th2 cell-driven inflammatory disease and a major public health concern. The cis-acting element Rad50 hypersensitive site 6 (RHS6) in the Th2 locus control region is essential for regulation of the Th2 cytokine genes; however, its role in allergic airway inflammation and underlying molecular mechanisms of the regulation by RHS6 are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: We sought to understand the role of RHS6 in the development of allergic airway inflammation and its molecular mechanism for Th2 cytokine expression...
November 5, 2016: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871083/work-of-breathing-in-fixed-and-pressure-relief-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-c-flex%C3%A2-a-post-hoc-analysis
#11
Lukas Jerrentrup, Sebastian Canisius, Susanne Wilhelm, Karl Kesper, Thomas Ploch, Claus Vogelmeier, Timm Greulich, Heinrich F Becker
BACKGROUND: Expiratory pressure relief continuous positive airway pressure (pressure relief CPAP; C-Flex™) causes increases in inspiratory duty cycle and shortening of expiratory time. It has been suggested that these changes are caused by an increase in work of breathing. OBJECTIVES: We studied the effects of C-Flex on work of breathing and intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure as compared to fixed CPAP. METHODS: Work of breathing was analyzed in 24 patients with obstructive sleep apnea during treatment with fixed CPAP and C-Flex with 3 different pressure relief settings in a randomized order during rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM sleep...
November 22, 2016: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870560/effect-of-prenatal-versus-postnatal-vitamin-d-deficiency-on-pulmonary-structure-and-function-in-mice
#12
Ammar Saadoon, Namasivayam Ambalavanan, Kurt Zinn, Ambika P Ashraf, Mark MacEwen, Teodora Nicola, Michelle V Fanucchi, William T Harris
Epidemiologic studies have linked gestational vitamin D deficiency to respiratory diseases, although mechanisms have not been defined. We hypothesized that antenatal vitamin D deficiency would impair airway development and alveolarization in a mouse model. We studied the effect of antenatal vitamin D deficiency by inducing vitamin D deficiency in pregnant mice and then compared lung development and function in their offspring to littermate controls. Postnatal vitamin D deficiency and sufficiency models from each group were also studied...
November 21, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870310/paradoxical-increase-in-nasal-airway-resistance-after-topical-nasal-decongestion-does-it-really-exist-a-retro-and-prospective-study
#13
S Swoboda, H L Thulesius, M Jessen
OBJECTIVE: To explore the prevalence and reproducibility of paradoxically increased nasal airway resistance after decongestion of the nasal mucosa as well as to identify patient-related factors associated with it. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of all rhinomanometric measurements carried out at one ENT department in Sweden in the time between 1990 and 2010. In the baseline material, 207 of 4435 patients (4.7%) showed a paradoxically increased nasal airway resistance >20%...
December 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868188/patency-of-paediatric-endotracheal-tubes-for-airway-instrumentation
#14
J Elfgen, P K Buehler, J Thomas, M Kemper, S Imach, M Weiss
BACKGROUND: Airway exchange catheters (AEC) and fiberoptic bronchoscopes (FOB) for tracheal intubation are selected so that there is only a minimal gap between their outer and inner diameter of endotracheal tube (ETT) to minimize the risk of impingement during airway instrumentation. This study aimed to test the ease of passage of FOBs and AECs through paediatric ETT of different sizes and from different manufacturers when using current recommendations for dimensional equipment compatibility taken from text books and manufacturers information...
November 20, 2016: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865895/intensive-care-unit-acquired-pneumonia-due-to-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-with-and-without-multidrug-resistance
#15
Laia Fernández-Barat, Miquel Ferrer, Francesca De Rosa, Albert Gabarrús, Mariano Esperatti, Silvia Terraneo, Mariano Rinaudo, Gianluigi Li Bassi, Antoni Torres
OBJECTIVE: Pseudomonas aeruginosa often presents multi-drug resistance (MDR) in intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired pneumonia (ICUAP), possibly resulting in inappropriate empiric treatment and worse outcomes. We aimed to identify patients with ICUAP at risk for these pathogens in order to improve treatment selection and outcomes. METHODS: We prospectively assessed 222 consecutive immunocompetent ICUAP patients confirmed microbiologically. We determined the characteristics, risk factors, systemic inflammatory response and outcomes of P...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864284/region-specific-role-for-pten-in-maintenance-of-epithelial-phenotype-and-integrity
#16
Per Flodby, Janice Marie Liebler, Mitsuhiro Sunohara, Dan Ran, Alicia M McConnell, Manda Sai Krishnaveni, Agnes Banfalvi, Min Li, Barry R Stripp, Beiyun Zhou, Edward D Crandall, Parviz Minoo, Zea Borok
Previous studies have demonstrated resistance to naphthalene-induced injury in proximal airways of mice with lung epithelial-specific deletion of the tumor-suppressor gene Pten, attributed to increased proliferation of airway progenitors. We tested effects of Pten loss following bleomycin injury, a model typically used to study distal lung epithelial injury, in conditional PtenSFTPC-cre knockout mice. Pten-deficient airway epithelium exhibited marked hyperplasia, particularly in small bronchioles and at bronchoalveolar duct junctions, with reduced E-cadherin and β-catenin expression between cells towards the luminal aspect of the hyperplastic epithelium...
November 18, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856731/airway-delivery-of-interferon-%C3%AE-overexpressing-macrophages-confers-resistance-to-mycobacterium-avium-infection-in-scid-mice
#17
Rajamouli Pasula, Bradley E Britigan, Banurekha Kesavalu, Maher Y Abdalla, William J Martin
Mycobacterium avium (M. avium) causes significant pulmonary infection, especially in immunocompromised hosts. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) represent the first line of host defense against infection in the lung. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) activation of AMs enhances in vitro killing of pathogens such as M. avium We hypothesized that airway delivery of AMs into the lungs of immunodeficient mice infected with M. avium will inhibit M. avium growth in the lung and that this macrophage function is in part IFN-γ dependent...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856329/airway-reactivity-in-response-to-repeated-emotional-film-clip-presentation-in-asthma
#18
Thomas Janssens, Ashton M Steele, David Rosenfield, Thomas Ritz
Emotional stimuli elicit airway constriction in individuals with asthma and in healthy individuals, but little is known about effects of repeated stimulation. We therefore explored the effect of repeated emotion induction on respiratory resistance (Rrs) using unpleasant, high-arousal surgery films and investigated effects of respiration and emotional reactivity. Twenty-six participants (13 with asthma) watched a series of 12 short, 45-s surgery films followed by 2-min recovery periods. Rrs assessed with impulse oscillometry was significantly elevated during films in both groups compared to baseline and recovered quickly after that...
November 14, 2016: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854516/evasion-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-by-respiratory-pathogens
#19
Daniel M L Storisteanu, Joanna M Pocock, Andrew S Cowburn, Jatinder K Juss, Angalee Nadesalingam, Victor Nizet, Edwin R Chilvers
The release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is a major immune mechanism intended to capture pathogens. These histone and protease-coated DNA structures are released by neutrophils in response to a variety of stimuli, including respiratory pathogens, and have been identified in the airways of patients with respiratory infection, cystic fibrosis, acute lung injury, primary graft dysfunction and COPD. NET production has been demonstrated in the lungs of mice infected with Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Aspergillus fumigatus...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854117/treatment-of-neonates-with-respiratory-distress-syndrome-by-proportional-assist-ventilation-plus-synchronized-intermittent-mandatory-ventilation-a-comparison-study
#20
Rong Wu, Zhao F Tian, Xiang Y Kong, Shao D Hua, Jin H Hu, Guo F Zhen
BACKGROUND: The proportion assisted ventilation (PAV) can improve patient-ventilator interaction, reduce the incidence of end-expiratory asynchrony and increase the time of synchrony. PAV could compensate for the leaks by Elastic and resistive unloading and thus is ideal for neonates with uncuffed airways. The aim of this study was to compare the relevant clinical parameters of neonates with respiratory distress syndrome(RDS) who are surported by PAV plus synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) and SIMV...
November 17, 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
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