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Christopher Tomlinson, Alastair Campbell, Alison Hurley, Eoin Fenton, Neil Heron
Down syndrome (DS) is a clinical syndrome comprising typical facial features and various physical and intellectual disabilities due to extra genetic material on chromosome 21, with one in every 1000 babies born in the United Kingdom affected. Patients with Down syndrome are at risk of atlantoaxial instability (AAI). Although AAI can occur in other conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, this position statement deals specifically with patients with DS and asymptomatic AAI. Atlantoaxial instability, also referred to as atlantoaxial subluxation, is defined as increased movement between the first (atlas) and second (axial) cervical vertebra joint articulation, the atlantoaxial joint...
August 15, 2018: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Jessie K Edwards, Sarah Hileman, Yeycy Donastorg, Sabrina Zadrozny, Stefan Baral, James R Hargreaves, Elizabeth Fearon, Jinkou Zhao, Abhirup Datta, Sharon S Weir
BACKGROUND: National estimates of the sizes of key populations, including female sex workers, men who have sex with men, and transgender women are critical to inform national and international responses to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic. However, epidemiologic studies typically provide size estimates for only limited high priority geographic areas. This paper illustrates a two-stage approach to obtain a national key population size estimate in the Dominican Republic using available estimates and publicly available contextual information...
August 16, 2018: Epidemiology
Todd Alamin, John P Kleimeyer, James R Woodall, Vijay Agarwal, Angus Don, Derek Lindsey
The clinical efficacy of vertebral cement augmentation for compression fractures (VCFs) remains undetermined. Recent studies have shown that refracture and progression of deformity may occur after augmentation with significant clinical consequences. Vertebral body height loss following kyphoplasty has also been observed with cyclic loading. We hypothesized that height loss is partly due to lack of cement fill past the margin of cancellous bone created by balloon expansion with subsequent failure under load...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Ty Kirkpatrick, Bethany Zimmerman, Karl LeBlanc
BACKGROUND: Robotic-assisted surgery has proved to be a valuable modality in specialties such as urology and gynecology and has gained wide acceptance in those fields. Its value in general surgery, however, has had a slower acceptance rate among surgeons. This study reviews my first 150 cases using the robot for one of the most common general surgery operations-the repair of hernias. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All robotic hernia cases performed by a single surgeon were documented in an Excel� (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington) spreadsheet beginning in April, 2014...
August 14, 2018: Surgical Technology International
Nurul Azira Azizan, Khairul Salleh Basaruddin, Ahmad Faizal Salleh
Various studies have examined body posture stability, including postural sway and associated biomechanical parameters, to assess the severity effects of leg length discrepancy (LLD). However, various viewpoints have been articulated on the results of these studies because of certain drawbacks in the comprehensive analysis of the effect of variations in LLD magnitude. Therefore, this systematic review was performed to help focus on the current findings to help identify which biomechanical parameters are most relevant, commonly used, and able to distinguish and/or have specific clinical relevance to the effect of variations in LLD magnitude during static (standing) and dynamic (walking) conditions...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
P Solano, E Pizzorno, M Pompili, G Serafini, M Amore
OBJECTIVES: Suicide is a complex phenomenon determined by the interplay of an articulated network of factors including socio-economic factors which have a decisive role. This paper investigates the development of the modern conceptualization of suicide in Europe, its sociological understandings and its intertwinement with economic cycles throughout time. METHODS: MEDLINE, SCHOLAR, EMBASE using the keywords 'socioeconomic factors AND suicide'; 'economic cycles AND suicide'; 'history AND suicide' without timeframe limitations...
March 2018: Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine
Juan Sebastian Cuellar, Gerwin Smit, Amir Zadpoor, Paul Breedveld
In developing countries, prosthetic workshops are limited, difficult to reach, or even non-existent. Especially, fabrication of active, multi-articulated, and personalized hand prosthetic devices is often seen as a time-consuming and demanding process. An active prosthetic hand made through the fused deposition modelling technology and fully assembled right after the end of the 3D printing process will increase accessibility of prosthetic devices by reducing or bypassing the current manufacturing and post-processing steps...
August 16, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
Karen E Hauer, Catherine R Lucey
Core clerkship grading creates multiple challenges that produce high stress for medical students, interfere with learning, and create inequitable learning environments. Students and faculty alike succumb to the illusion of objectivity - that quantitative ratings converted to grades convey accurate measures of the complexity of clinical performance.Clerkship grading is the first high-stakes assessment within medical school and occurs just as students are newly immersed full time in an environment in which patient care supersedes their needs as learners...
August 14, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Rahul Paul, Samiran Das, Jayanta Bhattacharyya, Soumitra Ghosh, Preeti Goel, Kaushik Dutta
Context: Determination of horizontal condylar guidance (HCG) by various clinical and radiographic methods was performed by several investigators. If a correlation between HCG values using lateral radiographic tracing and protrusive interocclusal records can be established, the necessity of performing elaborate recording procedures can be eliminated. Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate and to compare the correlation between HCG values in edentulous people using the protrusive interocclusal records mounted on a semi-adjustable articulator with the manual tracing of panoramic radiograph and lateral cephalogram...
July 2018: Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society
Delia Dumitrica, Maria Bakardjieva
This article explores the symbolic construction of civic engagement mediated by social media in Canadian newspapers. The integration of social media in politics has created a discursive opening for reimagining engagement, partly as a result of enthusiastic accounts of the impact of digital technologies upon democracy. By means of a qualitative content analysis of Canadian newspaper articles between 2005 and 2014, we identify several discursive articulations of engagement: First, the articles offer the picture of a wide range of objects of engagement, suggesting a civic body actively involved in governance processes...
September 2018: Media, culture, and society
Ana Laura Puente Reyna, Bernhard Fritz, Jens Schwiesau, Christoph Schilling, Burkhard Summer, Peter Thomas, Thomas M Grupp
Total knee arthroplasty is a well established treatment for degenerative joint disease, which is also performed as a treatment in younger and middle-aged patients who have a significant physical activity and high life expectancy. However, complications may occur due to biological responses to wear particles, as well as local and systemic hypersensitivity reactions triggered by metal ions and particles such as cobalt, chromium and molybdenum. The purpose of the study was to perform a highly demanding activities (HDA) knee wear simulation in order to compare the wear characteristics and metal ion release barrier function of a zirconium nitride (ZrN) coated knee implant, designed for patients with suspected metal ion hypersensitivity, against an uncoated knee implant made out of CoCrMo...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Steven J Onken
This research engaged consumers with severe and persistent mental illness receiving services in the public mental health sector in creating a comprehensive list of 110 needed community services and supports, then individually sorting and rating these items. Within the resulting concept map generated by Concept System software and as interpreted by the study participants, successfully living in the community is actualized when there is an outer layer of support regarding basic needs; financial means; individualized, comprehensive and available services; competent and caring staff; community education; legal rights enforcement; and social change directed at dismantling the discrimination and stigma associated with mental illness...
August 8, 2018: Evaluation and Program Planning
Elizabeth Hall-Lipsy, Leila Barraza, Christopher Robertson
The 21st Century Cures Act encourages the Food and Drug Administration to consider "real-world evidence" in its regulation of the safety and efficacy of drugs and devices. Many have interpreted this mandate to focus on non-randomized observational research. However, we suggest that regulatory science must also move from rarefied academic hospitals to community-based settings, where the vast majority of patients in fact receive care in the fragmented U.S. healthcare system. This move is especially important if innovations are to reach, and be validated in, more diverse populations...
May 2018: American Journal of Law & Medicine
Jennifer Abe, Cheryl Grills, Negin Ghavami, Ghia Xiong, Carlene Davis, Carrie Johnson
This study describes a conceptual tool, labeled the "culture cube," developed to identify and articulate the cultural underpinnings of prevention and early intervention projects in five priority populations (i.e., African American, Asian Pacific Islander, Latino, Native American, and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, and Questioning), participating in the California Reducing Disparities Project Phase 2 (CRDP Phase 2). The culture cube was developed for evaluation of these practice-based evidence services (PBEs) for three purposes: (a) to focus attention on revealing and articulating more fully the operative worldview and culturally grounded frameworks underlying PBEs, explicitly identifying the links between cultural beliefs and values, community needs, and intervention design; (b) to guide the methods used to assess and evaluate PBEs so that the outcome indicators and process measures are conceptually consistent, community defined, and culturally centered; and (c) to invite communities to use their own indigenous epistemological frameworks to establish credible evidence...
August 14, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
R Janßen, A L Falkowski, A Hirschmann
An overview about the normal anatomy and frequent pathologies of tendons and ligaments of the elbow using MRI will be provided. The unique joint configuration and articulation, as well as passive ligamentous and active muscle structures as well as the unique configuration of the articulating components of the elbow contribute to joint stabilization. MRI is an essential imaging modality in patients with ligamentous injuries including the sequelae of joint dislocation as well as chronic pathologies such as long-standing and refractory tendinopathies...
August 13, 2018: Der Radiologe
Alex Paul Wacoo, Deborah Wendiro, Sarah Nanyonga, Joseph F Hawumba, Wilbert Sybesma, Remco Kort
In sub-Saharan Africa, there is a high demand for affordable and accessible methods for on-site detection of aflatoxins for appropriate food safety management. In this study, we validated an electrochemical immunosensor device by the on-site detection of 60 maize flour samples from six markets and 72 samples from households in Kampala. The immunosensor was successfully validated with a linear range from 0.7 ± 0.1 to 11 ± 0.3 µg/kg and limit of detection (LOD) of 0.7 µg/kg. The maize flour samples from the markets had a mean total aflatoxin concentration of 7...
August 11, 2018: Toxins
Ioanna Anastopoulou, Fotios A Karakostis, Konstantinos Moraitis
Accurate sorting of commingled human remains comprises a fundamental requirement for all further anthropological analyses. The lower limb bones are particularly important for reconstructing biological profiles. This study introduces a metric technique for sorting these elements using eight standard anthropological measurements and 222 adult individuals from Greece. The bones utilized were the os coxae, the femora, the tibiae and the tali. Simple regression analyses were used to develop functions for reassociating articulating bones, providing strong correlations (r = 0...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Wendy Cadge
Chaplains, like professionals in a range of industries, have long sought to maintain and build occupational power by articulating their professional mandate and advocating for their work. I describe how leaders of the Association of Professional Chaplains and its predecessor organizations used multiple strategies to articulate and re-articulate their professional mandate between 1940 and the present to become a companion profession, one that comes alongside another without seeking to challenge its jurisdiction...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Health Care Chaplaincy
Anna Robinson
People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) report painful experiences through emotional misunderstandings with typically developing peers. There are limited intervention methodologies for ASD on the impact of emotional injuries and how to work with resulting trauma. This paper presents a rational-empirical model of trauma-related experiences with the first presentation of a new case conceptualization model for emotion-focused therapy for ASD. It describes the transformation of problematic emotion schemes through a sequence of emotional processing steps illustrated with a case example...
2018: Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy
Rajiv Agarwal, Andrew S Epstein
OBJECTIVE: To highlight the importance, challenges, and evolution of advance care planning for patients with cancer. DATA SOURCES: Peer-reviewed journal articles and clinical guidelines. CONCLUSION: Advance care planning is fundamental to support the personhood of patients with advanced cancer. Patients must be encouraged by physicians and nurses to articulate what matters and provides meaning to them as they live, cope, and receive treatment for their cancer...
August 9, 2018: Seminars in Oncology Nursing
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