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Wanderlei Abadio de Oliveira, Jorge Luiz da Silva, Neire Aparecida Machado Scarpini, Susana Segura Munõz, Marta Angélica Iossi Silva, Marlene Fagundes Carvalho Gonçalves
OBJECTIVE: To analyze a professor training experience for higher education. METHOD: This is a descriptive case report on the professor training process in the postgraduate course of the College of Nursing of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo. An evaluative activity was performed to capture the perceptions and experiences of 21 graduate students who were interns of an educational improvement program. The data were analyzed following the thematic content analysis guidelines...
November 2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Elitiele Ortiz Dos Santos, Leandro Barbosa de Pinho, Adriane Domingues Eslabão, Rafael Gil Medeiros, Talita Portella Cassola
The objective of this article is to discuss the empowerment evaluation as a theoretical and methodological framework and its applications to the health area. This is a theoretical article that presents the conceptual and methodological aspects and the principles of the empowerment evaluation. This evaluation is regarded as an approach that allows the participation of interest groups in the process, in order to improve the qualification and transformation of the knowledge and practices of the context evaluated...
November 29, 2018: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
Susan Jerger, Markus F Damian, Cassandra Karl, Hervé Abdi
Purpose: Successful speech processing depends on our ability to detect and integrate multisensory cues, yet there is minimal research on multisensory speech detection and integration by children. To address this need, we studied the development of speech detection for auditory (A), visual (V), and audiovisual (AV) input. Method: Participants were 115 typically developing children clustered into age groups between 4 and 14 years. Speech detection (quantified by response times [RTs]) was determined for 1 stimulus, /buh/, presented in A, V, and AV modes (articulating vs...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Kara J Wyant, Erika Yasuda, Vikas Kotagal
Background: We know little about how well the goals and results of clinical trials in Parkinson disease (PD) reflect the priorities of patients and the broader PD community. Objectives: We conducted a review of registered trials on from 2007 to 2016 to explore whether PD trials have moved closer to the therapeutic priority goals articulated by the PD community. Methods: Using the search terms: Parkinson, interventional trials, phase "0-4," we categorized therapeutic PD studies from http://clinicaltrials...
September 2018: Movement Disorders Clinical Practice
Francesca Valeria Hansstein, Fabián Echegaray
BACKGROUND: Wearing a pollution mask is an effective, practical, and economic way to prevent the inhalation of dangerous particulate matter (PM). However, it is not uncommon to observe negligence in adopting such behaviour, and this especially among young segments of the population. Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) as conceptual framework, this study explores the role of socio-cognitive factors that affect the decision of wearing a pollution mask in the context of young educated people...
December 4, 2018: Globalization and Health
Tajudeen O Yahaya, Titilola F Salisu
INTRODUCTION: Scientists are considering the possibility of treating diabetes mellitus (DM) using a personalized approach in which various forms of the diseases will be treated based on the causal gene and its pathogenesis. To this end, scientists have identified mutations in certain genes as probable causes of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with diverse mechanisms. AIM: This review was aimed at articulating already identified T2DM genes with their mechanisms of action and phenotypic presentations for the awareness of all stakeholders...
December 4, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Matthew Fifolt, Emma V Richardson, Elizabeth Barstow, Robert W Motl
BACKGROUND: Bandura has identified knowledge and four core determinants (e.g., self-efficacy, outcomes expectations, goals, and facilitators/impediments) along with a threefold stepwise implementation model for guiding health promotion and disease prevention interventions. AIMS: This research explored the exercise behaviors of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) through the articulated lens of social cognitive theory. METHODS: We conducted secondary analysis of qualitative data from 50 people with MS using deductive, thematic analysis...
December 4, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Carolina Espina, Isabelle Soerjomataram, David Forman, Jose M Martín-Moreno
Through the application of science to public health practice, National Cancer Control Programmes provide the framework for the development of policies on cancer control, with the ultimate goal of reducing cancer morbidity and mortality, and improving quality of life. In the last decade, a substantial number of Member States in the European Union (EU) have formulated and/or updated their National Cancer Control Programmes, Plans or Strategies including primary prevention (health promotion and environmental protection), secondary prevention (screening and early detection), integrated care and organization of services, and palliative care as main elements...
December 2018: Journal of Cancer Policy
Sung Ho Jang, Seong Ho Kim, Young Hyeon Kwon
RATIONALE: Many studies using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have demonstrated traumatic axonal injury (TAI) in patients whose conventional brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results are negative following head trauma. Injury mechanism for TAI in these patients has been mainly associated with motor vehicle accident, whereas very little is known about TAI by violence. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 42-year-old male patient presented after experiencing head trauma due to violence...
November 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Elise Lockamy-Kassim, Jared Friedberg, Christina Newby, Carolina Lecours, Kimball Credle, Monica Leonard
Success stories showcase a public health program's progress toward achieving population health objectives. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program (CLPPP) develops "success stories" in partnership with state and local cooperative agreement recipients as one way to highlight lead poisoning prevention achievements. Success stories can be used to inform policy makers, stakeholders, and the general public. Over time, the process for collecting and developing CLPPP "successes" has evolved...
January 2019: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Alan J McCubbin, Gregory R Cox, Ricardo J S Costa
There is little information describing how endurance athletes perceive sodium intake in relation to training and competition. Using an online questionnaire, this study assessed the beliefs, information sources and intended practices regarding sodium ingestion for training and competition. Endurance athletes (n= 344) from six English-speaking countries completed the questionnaire and were included for analysis. The most cited information sources were social supports (63%), self-experimentation (56%) and media (48%)...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Hyung-Jin Park, Hee-June Kim, Shukho Kim, Seong-Min Kim, Jong-Uk Mun, Jungmin Kim, Hee-Soo Kyung
Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of sonication technique for microbiological diagnosis and the sterility of the recycled autoclaved femoral components from infected total knee arthroplasty (TKA) using a sonication method. Methods: Nineteen femoral implants explanted from patients with infected TKA were sterilized with a standard autoclave method. Standard culture of the fluid before and after sonication of the sterilized implants was performed to detect pathogenic microorganisms...
December 2018: Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery
David G Dunning, Kenneth J Davis, Brian M Lange
The dental practice market continues to experience unprecedented changes, including the increasing presence and influence of dental service organizations (DSOs)-corporate entities that provide support and practice management for group practices in such areas as financial operations, human resources, marketing, and legal services. At the same time, increasing percentages of new dental graduates are choosing to pursue an initial career path in corporate dental practices. As a result, new graduates and others making a transition into private practice are likely to encounter complicated, multifaceted variables related to associateship opportunities...
December 2018: Journal of Dental Education
Aspen T Reese, Rachel N Carmody
The gut microbiota is a diverse and dynamic ecological community that is increasingly recognized to play important roles in host metabolic, immunological, and behavioral functioning. As such, identifying new routes for manipulating the microbiota may provide valuable additional methods for improving host health. Dietary manipulations and prebiotic supplementation are active targets of research for altering the microbiota, but, to date, this work has disproportionately focused on carbohydrates. However, many other resources can limit or shape microbial growth...
November 30, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Toshiki Kobayashi, Michael S Orendurff, Grace Hunt, Fan Gao, Nicholas LeCursi, Lucas S Lincoln, K Bo Foreman
Mechanical tuning of an ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) is important in improving gait in individuals post-stroke. Alignment and resistance are two factors that are tunable in articulated AFOs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of changing AFO ankle alignment on lower limb joint kinematics and kinetics with constant dorsiflexion and plantarflexion resistance in individuals post-stroke. Gait analysis was performed on 10 individuals post-stroke under four distinct alignment conditions using an articulated AFO with an ankle joint whose alignment is adjustable in the sagittal plane...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Agnese Sile
When it comes to depicting ill or disabled children, the ethics of representation becomes increasingly complex. The perception of photographs as voyeuristic and objectifying is of particular concern here and resonates with widespread fear about the eroticisation, mistreatment and exploitation of children. Although these fears are reasonable, this view does not take into account the voice and agenda of the photographic subject, disregards the possibility of recognition and the participatory nature of photography...
December 2, 2018: Health (London)
Matthew F Koff, Christina Esposito, Parina Shah, Mauro Miranda, Elexis Baral, Kara Fields, Thomas Bauer, Douglas E Padgett, Timothy Wright, Hollis G Potter
BACKGROUND: MRI is predictive of adverse local tissue reactions (ALTRs) after THA but how MRI directly relates to implant surface wear, fretting, and trunnion corrosion at different articulations between implant components remains unclear. MRI generates high-contrast images to display soft tissues around arthroplasty and may provide a surgeon the means to distinguish and differentiate host-related synovial patterns as a response to either polyethylene wear or metal wear and corrosion products...
November 26, 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
T R Turgeon, T C Gascoyne, E K Laende, M J Dunbar, E R Bohm, C G Richardson
AIMS: The introduction of a novel design of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) must achieve outcomes at least as good as existing designs. A novel design of TKA with a reducing radius of the femoral component and a modified cam-post articulation has been released and requires assessment of the fixation to bone. Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) of the components within the first two postoperative years has been shown to be predictive of medium- to long-term fixation. The aim of this study was to assess the stability of the tibial component of this system during this period of time using RSA...
December 2018: Bone & Joint Journal
Antonio Pellegrini, Claudio Legnani, Vittorio Macchi, Enzo Meani
INTRODUCTION: Periprosthetic shoulder infections (PSIs) represent a serious complication following shoulder arthroplasty. No consensus exists regarding the optimal option. We conducted a retrospective case-control study to compare the outcomes of 2-stage revision shoulder arthroplasty and those of definitive articulating antibiotic spacer implantation with regards to eradication of the infection, improvement of pain and shoulder function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty patients treated for an infected shoulder arthroplasty were retrospectively reviewed after a mean follow-up of 8 years (range, 2-10 years)...
November 26, 2018: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
Daniel Grace, Mark Gaspar, Rachelle Paquette, Ron Rosenes, Ann N Burchell, Troy Grennan, Irving E Salit
The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBM) living with HIV are disproportionately impacted by HPV-associated anal cancer, with rates about 100-fold that of the general population. Fortunately, HPV vaccination has proven efficacy in preventing both anogenital warts (condyloma) in males and anal pre-cancers (anal intraepithelial neoplasia; AIN) in GBM up to the age of 26. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 25 HIV-positive gay men in Toronto to gain an understanding of their knowledge and experiences related to HPV and the HPV vaccine...
2018: PloS One
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