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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676762/water-treatment-and-handwashing-practices-in-rural-kenyan-health-care-facilities-and-households-six-years-after-the-installation-of-portable-water-stations-and-hygiene-training
#1
Anu Rajasingham, Margaret Leso, Samuel Ombeki, Tracy Ayers, Robert Quick
Many health care facilities (HCFs) and households in low-and-middle-income countries have inadequate access to water for hygiene and consumption. To address these problems, handwashing and drinking water stations were installed in 53 HCFs with prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission of HIV programs in Kenya in 2005, and hygiene education was provided to health workers and clinic clients. To assess this program, we selected a random sample of 30 HCFs, observed the percentage of handwashing and drinking water stations that were functional and in use, and after that interviewed health providers and clients about hygiene and water treatment...
April 2018: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676758/learning-from-water-treatment-and-hygiene-interventions-in-response-to-a-hepatitis-e-outbreak-in-an-open-setting-in-chad
#2
Alexander Spina, David Beversluis, Andrea Irwin, Alexandra Chen, Jean Noel Nassariman, Abdelkhadir Ahamat, Idriss Noh, Jan Oosterloo, Prince Alfani, Sibylle Sang, Annick Lenglet, Dawn Louise Taylor
In September 2016, Médecins Sans Frontières responded to a hepatitis E (HEV) outbreak in Chad by implementing water treatment and hygiene interventions. To evaluate the coverage and use of these interventions, we conducted a cross-sectional study in the community. Our results showed that 99% of households interviewed had received a hygiene kit from us, aimed at improving water handling practice and personal hygiene and almost all respondents had heard messages about preventing jaundice and handwashing. Acceptance of chlorination of drinking water was also very high, although at the time of interview, we were only able to measure a safe free residual chlorine level (free chlorine residual (FRC) ≥0...
April 2018: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669039/effects-of-water-sanitation-handwashing-and-nutritional-interventions-on-child-enteric-protozoan-infections-in-rural-bangladesh-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Audrie Lin, Ayse Ercumen, Jade Benjamin-Chung, Benjamin F Arnold, Shimul Das, Rashidul Haque, Sania Ashraf, Sarker M Parvez, Leanne Unicomb, Mahbubur Rahman, Alan E Hubbard, Christine P Stewart, John M Colford, Stephen P Luby
Background: Enteric protozoan infections are associated with morbidity and mortality worldwide. We evaluated effects of individual and combined water, sanitation, handwashing (WSH), and nutritional interventions on protozoan infections in children. Methods: We randomized geographical clusters of pregnant women in rural Bangladesh into chlorinated drinking water, hygienic sanitation, handwashing, nutrition, combined WSH, combined nutrition plus WSH (N+WSH), or control arms...
April 13, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661109/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-infections-in-custodial-populations-a-systematic-review
#4
Leigh Haysom, Melanie Cross, Rebecca Anastasas, Elizabeth Moore, Stephen Hampton
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in prisons can result in serious morbidity and death. We reviewed rates and risk factors for MRSA infection in custody, searching Medline, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases. Between 1997 and 2015, 17 studies reported MRSA skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), with four case reports of MRSA non-SSTI (necrotizing pneumonias, brain abscess, and epiduritis). Significant associations with MRSA SSTI were found: MRSA colonization, previous skin infection, sharing soap or personal items, SSTI presenting as an abscess or furuncle, younger age, non-Caucasian, overweight, communal laundering, infrequent handwashing, lower hygiene score...
April 2018: Journal of Correctional Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642885/barriers-to-and-motivators-of-handwashing-behavior-among-mothers-of-neonates-in-rural-bangladesh
#5
Shahana Parveen, Sharifa Nasreen, Jelena V Allen, Kelly B Kamm, Shifat Khan, Shirina Akter, Tajnin Marin Lopa, K Zaman, Shams El Arifeen, Stephen P Luby, Pavani K Ram
BACKGROUND: To design a maternal handwashing intervention for the newborn period, this qualitative study explored drivers of handwashing among mothers and other caregivers of neonates and infants in two rural areas of Bangladesh. METHODS: We conducted 40 semi-structured observation sessions to observe handwashing behaviors of primiparous and multiparous mothers of neonates, and to understand the contextual factors that facilitated or hampered those behaviors. We then conducted 64 interviews with mothers of neonates and mothers of infants and 6 group discussions with mothers of infants, other female caregivers and fathers to explore perceptions, beliefs, and practices related to handwashing in the neonatal period...
April 11, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619435/seroprevalence-and-risk-factor-of-toxoplasmosis-in-schizophrenia-patients-referred-to-grhasia-psychiatric-hospital-yogyakarta-indonesia
#6
Nina Difla Muflikhah, Supargiyono, Wayan Tunas Artama
Background: Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by protozoan parasite called Toxoplasma gondii . Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite belong to phylum Apicomplexa, is an obligate parasite in mammals. The active proliferating trophozoites or tachyzoites are usually seen in the acute stage of infection, while the resting bradyzoites formed tissue cysts are primary found in muscle and brain. Human infection occurs mainly by ingesting food or water contaminated with oocyst or eating an undercook meat containing tissue cyst...
2018: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616236/effects-of-water-quality-sanitation-handwashing-and-nutritional-interventions-on-child-development-in-rural-kenya-wash-benefits-kenya-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#7
Christine P Stewart, Patricia Kariger, Lia Fernald, Amy J Pickering, Charles D Arnold, Benjamin F Arnold, Alan E Hubbard, Holly N Dentz, Audrie Lin, Theodora J Meerkerk, Erin Milner, Jenna Swarthout, John M Colford, Clair Null
Background: Poor nutrition and infectious diseases can prevent children from reaching their developmental potential. We aimed to assess the effects of improvements in water, sanitation, handwashing, and nutrition on early child development in rural Kenya. Methods: In this cluster-randomised controlled trial, we enrolled pregnant women in their second or third trimester from three counties (Kakamega, Bungoma, and Vihiga) in Kenya's western region, with an average of 12 households per cluster...
April 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616235/effect-of-water-quality-sanitation-hand-washing-and-nutritional-interventions-on-child-development-in-rural-bangladesh-wash-benefits-bangladesh-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#8
Fahmida Tofail, Lia Ch Fernald, Kishor K Das, Mahbubur Rahman, Tahmeed Ahmed, Kaniz K Jannat, Leanne Unicomb, Benjamin F Arnold, Sania Ashraf, Peter J Winch, Patricia Kariger, Christine P Stewart, John M Colford, Stephen P Luby
Background: Poor nutrition and hygiene make children vulnerable to delays in growth and development. We aimed to assess the effects of water quality, sanitation, handwashing, and nutritional interventions individually or in combination on the cognitive, motor, and language development of children in rural Bangladesh. Methods: In this cluster-randomised controlled trial, we enrolled pregnant women in their first or second trimester from rural villages of Gazipur, Kishoreganj, Mymensingh, and Tangail districts of central Bangladesh, with an average of eight women per cluster...
April 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603886/raccoon-roundworm-baylisascaris-procyonis-as-an-occupational-hazard-2-use-of-personal-protective-equipment-and-infection-control-practices-among-raccoon-rehabilitators
#9
S G H Sapp, B Murray, E R Hoover, G T Green, M J Yabsley
Baylisascaris procyonis, the raccoon roundworm, is a zoonotic ascarid of importance to human and animal health. Wildlife rehabilitators who care for raccoons may be at an increased risk for exposure to the parasite, especially if proper precautions are not taken. In a wider effort to evaluate awareness regarding B. procyonis in the wildlife rehabilitation community, an online survey (38-39 questions) including questions about B. procyonis knowledge and attitudes was developed and administered to wildlife rehabilitators...
March 30, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596644/a-randomized-controlled-trial-to-measure-spillover-effects-of-a-combined-water-sanitation-and-handwashing-intervention-in-rural-bangladesh
#10
Jade Benjamin-Chung, Nuhu Amin, Ayse Ercumen, Benjamin F Arnold, Alan E Hubbard, Leanne Unicomb, Mahbubur Rahman, Stephen P Luby, John M Colford
Water, sanitation, and handwashing interventions may confer spillover effects on neighbors of intervention recipients by interrupting pathogen transmission. We measured geographically local spillovers in WASH Benefits, a cluster-randomized trial in rural Bangladesh, by comparing outcomes among neighbors of intervention vs. control participants. WASH Benefits randomly allocated geographically-defined clusters to a compound-level intervention (chlorinated drinking water, upgraded sanitation, and handwashing promotion) or control...
March 27, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590120/the-associations-between-water-and-sanitation-and-hookworm-infection-using-cross-sectional-data-from-togo-s-national-deworming-program
#11
Julia M Baker, Victoria Trinies, Rachel N Bronzan, Ameyo M Dorkenoo, Joshua V Garn, Sêvi Sognikin, Matthew C Freeman
BACKGROUND: Sustainable control of soil-transmitted helminths requires a combination of chemotherapy treatment and environmental interventions, including access to safe drinking water, sufficient water for hygiene, use of clean sanitation facilities, and handwashing (WASH). We quantified associations between home-, school-, and community-level WASH characteristics and hookworm infection-both prevalence and eggs per gram of stool (intensity)-among Togolese school children in the context of community-based chemotherapy treatments administered in the country from 2010 through 2014...
March 28, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582730/safe-water-and-hygiene-integration-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-antenatal-services-leveraging-opportunities-for-public-health-interventions-and-improved-service-uptake
#12
Janell A Routh, Anagha Loharikar, Elly Chemey, Aulive Msoma, Maureen Ntambo, Richard Mvula, Tracy Ayers, Andrews Gunda, Elizabeth T Russo, Beth Tippett Barr, Siri Wood, Robert Quick
Integrating public health interventions with antenatal clinic (ANC) visits may motivate women to attend ANC, thereby improving maternal and neonatal health, particularly for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons. In 2009, in an integrated ANC/Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission program, we provided free hygiene kits (safe storage containers, WaterGuard water treatment solution, soap, and oral rehydration salts) to women at their first ANC visit and refills at subsequent visits. To increase fathers' participation, we required partners' presence for women to receive hygiene kits...
March 26, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572957/optometric-infection-control-guidelines-assessing-patients-with-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#13
REVIEW
Tammy Labreche, Sarah MacIver, Nadine M Furtado
The purpose of this scoping review was to present the state of research regarding optometric infection control guidelines for the assessment of patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and to identify any areas requiring further research. Twelve articles were carefully chosen for review. Data extracted included information regarding appropriate handwashing methods (five articles), indications for use of personal protective equipment (one article), management of surfaces that come in contact with an MRSA-infected person (three articles), recommendations for patient appointment scheduling/seating (three articles) and suggestions for staff training (three articles)...
March 23, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567660/noninvasive-detection-of-cocaine-and-heroin-use-with-single-fingerprints-determination-of-an-environmental-cutoff
#14
Mahado Ismail, Derek Stevenson, Catia Costa, Roger Webb, Marcel de Puit, Melanie Bailey
BACKGROUND: Recent publications have explored the possibility of using fingerprints to confirm drug use, but none has yet dealt with environmental contamination from fingertips. Here we explored the possibility of establishing an environmental cutoff for drug testing from a single fingerprint. METHODS: Fingerprint samples (n = 100) were collected from the hands of 50 nondrug users before and after handwashing to establish separate environmental cutoff values and testing protocols for cocaine, benzoylecgonine, heroin, and 6-monoacetylmorphine...
March 22, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565302/design-intervention-fidelity-and-behavioral-outcomes-of-a-school-based-water-sanitation-and-hygiene-cluster-randomized-trial-in-laos
#15
Anna N Chard, Matthew C Freeman
Evidence of the impact of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) in schools (WinS) interventions on pupil absence and health is mixed. Few WinS evaluations rigorously report on output and outcome measures that allow for comparisons of effectiveness between interventions to be made, or for an understanding of why programs succeed. The Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene for Health and Education in Laotian Primary Schools (WASH HELPS) study was a randomized controlled trial designed to measure the impact of the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Laos WinS project on child health and education...
March 22, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552099/an-evaluation-of-infection-control-in-private-and-public-sector-intensive-care-units-in-south-africa
#16
Saajida Mahomed, A Willem Sturm, Stephen Knight, Prashini Moodley
Background: Appropriate infection control policies and practices are key to reducing the risk of healthcare-associated infections in patients in intensive care units (ICUs). Objective: To evaluate infection control in ICUs using the Infection Control Assessment Tool (ICAT). Methods: Six public and five private adult ICUs were included. Seven modules from the ICAT were administered including ICU, hand hygiene, and isolation and standard precautions...
March 2018: Journal of Infection Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537671/impact-of-drinking-water-sanitation-and-hand-washing-with-soap-on-childhood-diarrhoeal-disease-updated-meta-analysis-and-regression
#17
REVIEW
Jennyfer Wolf, Paul R Hunter, Matthew C Freeman, Oliver Cumming, Thomas Clasen, Jamie Bartram, Julian P T Higgins, Richard Johnston, Kate Medlicott, Sophie Boisson, Annette Prüss-Ustün
OBJECTIVES: Safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene are protective against diarrhoeal disease; a leading cause of child mortality. The main objective was an updated assessment of the impact of unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) on childhood diarrhoeal disease. METHODS: We undertook a systematic review of articles published between 1970 and February 2016. Study results were combined and analysed using meta-analysis and meta-regression. RESULTS: A total of 135 studies met the inclusion criteria...
March 14, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502882/effect-of-electronic-real-time-prompting-on-hand-hygiene-behaviors-in-health-care-workers
#18
Steven Pong, Pamela Holliday, Geoff Fernie
BACKGROUND: Poor hand hygiene by health care workers is a major cause of nosocomial infections. This research evaluated the ability of an electronic monitoring system with real-time prompting capability to change hand hygiene behaviors. METHODS: Handwashing activity was measured by counting dispenser activations on a single nursing unit before, during, and after installation of the system. The effect of changing the prompt duration on hand hygiene performance was determined by a cluster-randomized trial on 3 nursing units with 1 acting as control...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465054/evaluation-of-the-school-environment-of-public-and-private-schools-in-enugu-to-ensure-child-health-promotion
#19
A I Bisi-Onyemaechi, N A Akani, A N Ikefuna, B N Tagbo, J M Chinawa
Objectives: Poor maintenance of school environment can cause or worsen illnesses among schoolchildren. The objective of this study was to assess the healthfulness of school environments of primary schools in Enugu East, Nigeria, and to compare the difference if any between public and private schools. Study Design: This was a cross-sectional noninterventional study of the school environments in Enugu East, Nigeria. Methods: Multistage sampling method was used to select the sample population...
February 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416998/association-of-personal-hygiene-with-common-morbidities-among-upper-primary-school-children-in-rural-odisha
#20
Kalyan Kumar Paul, Sandeep Kumar Panigrahi, Arun Kiran Soodi Reddy, Trilochan Sahu
Context: In India, children of upper primary school receive less attention from health-care providers. The majority of their health problems are preventable through hygienic practices. Aims: The aim of this study was to find out the association of personal hygiene with common morbidities among upper primary school children. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study conducted in a rural upper primary school of Odisha. Subjects and Methods: A semi-structured schedule based on the Global School Health Survey Questionnaire and necessary instruments for clinical examination were used...
July 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
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