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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416998/association-of-personal-hygiene-with-common-morbidities-among-upper-primary-school-children-in-rural-odisha
#1
Kalyan Kumar Paul, Sandeep Kumar Panigrahi, Arun Kiran Soodi Reddy, Trilochan Sahu
Context: In India, children of upper primary school receive less attention from health-care providers. The majority of their health problems are preventable through hygienic practices. Aims: The aim of this study was to find out the association of personal hygiene with common morbidities among upper primary school children. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study conducted in a rural upper primary school of Odisha. Subjects and Methods: A semi-structured schedule based on the Global School Health Survey Questionnaire and necessary instruments for clinical examination were used...
July 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408061/developing-robust-arsenic-awareness-prediction-models-using-machine-learning-algorithms
#2
Sushant K Singh, Robert W Taylor, Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman, Biswajeet Pradhan
Arsenic awareness plays a vital role in ensuring the sustainability of arsenic mitigation technologies. Thus far, however, few studies have dealt with the sustainability of such technologies and its associated socioeconomic dimensions. As a result, arsenic awareness prediction has not yet been fully conceptualized. Accordingly, this study evaluated arsenic awareness among arsenic-affected communities in rural India, using a structured questionnaire to record socioeconomic, demographic, and other sociobehavioral factors with an eye to assessing their association with and influence on arsenic awareness...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405109/characterizing-potential-risks-of-fecal-oral-microbial-transmission-for-infants-and-young-children-in-rural-zambia
#3
Brie Reid, Jennifer Orgle, Khrist Roy, Catherine Pongolani, Modesta Chileshe, Rebecca Stoltzfus
Undernourished children in low-income contexts often suffer from environmental enteric disorder-damage to the intestines probably caused by chronic exposure to bacterial pathogens from feces. We aimed to identify strategies for reducing infants and young children's (IYC) exposure to human and animal feces in rural farming families by conducting direct observation of 30 caregiver-infant dyads for 143 hours and recording water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH)-related behaviors to identify possible pathways of fecal-oral transmission of bacteria among IYC in rural Zambia...
February 5, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403213/risk-factors-for-intestinal-colonization-with-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-a-prospective-study-in-a-level-iii-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#4
Rajesh Amberpet, Sujatha Sistla, Subhash Chandra Parija, Ramachandran Rameshkumar
PURPOSE: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) emerged as one of the major nosocomial pathogens across the globe. Gut colonization rate with VRE is higher in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) due to the higher antibiotic pressure. VRE colonization increases the risk of developing infection up to 5-10 folds. The aim of this study was to determine the rates of VRE colonization among the patients admitted to pediatric ICU (PICU) and risk factors associated with it. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rectal swabs were collected after 48 h of admission to PICU from 198 patients...
January 2018: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396219/effects-of-water-quality-sanitation-handwashing-and-nutritional-interventions-on-diarrhoea-and-child-growth-in-rural-kenya-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#5
Clair Null, Christine P Stewart, Amy J Pickering, Holly N Dentz, Benjamin F Arnold, Charles D Arnold, Jade Benjamin-Chung, Thomas Clasen, Kathryn G Dewey, Lia C H Fernald, Alan E Hubbard, Patricia Kariger, Audrie Lin, Stephen P Luby, Andrew Mertens, Sammy M Njenga, Geoffrey Nyambane, Pavani K Ram, John M Colford
BACKGROUND: Poor nutrition and exposure to faecal contamination are associated with diarrhoea and growth faltering, both of which have long-term consequences for child health. We aimed to assess whether water, sanitation, handwashing, and nutrition interventions reduced diarrhoea or growth faltering. METHODS: The WASH Benefits cluster-randomised trial enrolled pregnant women from villages in rural Kenya and evaluated outcomes at 1 year and 2 years of follow-up. Geographically-adjacent clusters were block-randomised to active control (household visits to measure mid-upper-arm circumference), passive control (data collection only), or compound-level interventions including household visits to promote target behaviours: drinking chlorinated water (water); safe sanitation consisting of disposing faeces in an improved latrine (sanitation); handwashing with soap (handwashing); combined water, sanitation, and handwashing; counselling on appropriate maternal, infant, and young child feeding plus small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements from 6-24 months (nutrition); and combined water, sanitation, handwashing, and nutrition...
January 29, 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396217/effects-of-water-quality-sanitation-handwashing-and-nutritional-interventions-on-diarrhoea-and-child-growth-in-rural-bangladesh-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#6
Stephen P Luby, Mahbubur Rahman, Benjamin F Arnold, Leanne Unicomb, Sania Ashraf, Peter J Winch, Christine P Stewart, Farzana Begum, Faruqe Hussain, Jade Benjamin-Chung, Elli Leontsini, Abu M Naser, Sarker M Parvez, Alan E Hubbard, Audrie Lin, Fosiul A Nizame, Kaniz Jannat, Ayse Ercumen, Pavani K Ram, Kishor K Das, Jaynal Abedin, Thomas F Clasen, Kathryn G Dewey, Lia C Fernald, Clair Null, Tahmeed Ahmed, John M Colford
BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea and growth faltering in early childhood are associated with subsequent adverse outcomes. We aimed to assess whether water quality, sanitation, and handwashing interventions alone or combined with nutrition interventions reduced diarrhoea or growth faltering. METHODS: The WASH Benefits Bangladesh cluster-randomised trial enrolled pregnant women from villages in rural Bangladesh and evaluated outcomes at 1-year and 2-years' follow-up. Pregnant women in geographically adjacent clusters were block-randomised to one of seven clusters: chlorinated drinking water (water); upgraded sanitation (sanitation); promotion of handwashing with soap (handwashing); combined water, sanitation, and handwashing; counselling on appropriate child nutrition plus lipid-based nutrient supplements (nutrition); combined water, sanitation, handwashing, and nutrition; and control (data collection only)...
January 29, 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364184/oral-contact-events-and-caregiver-hand-hygiene-implications-for-fecal-oral-exposure-to-enteric-pathogens-among-infants-3-9-months-living-in-informal-peri-urban-communities-in-kisumu-kenya
#7
Emily Davis, Oliver Cumming, Rose Evalyne Aseyo, Damaris Nelima Muganda, Kelly K Baker, Jane Mumma, Robert Dreibelbis
Childhood diarrhea is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children under five in low and middle-income countries, second only to respiratory illness. The mouthing behavior that is common in children exposes them to fecal-orally transmitted pathogens that can result in diarrhea; however, there is a need for further evidence on specific exposure routes. This study describes the frequency and diversity of two important routes of enteric pathogen exposure among infants 3-9 months of age: infant oral contact behavior and caregiver handwashing behavior...
January 24, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363444/escherichia-coli-contamination-across-multiple-environmental-compartments-soil-hands-drinking-water-and-handwashing-water-in-urban-harare-correlations-and-risk-factors
#8
Tala Navab-Daneshmand, Max N D Friedrich, Marja Gächter, Maria Camila Montealegre, Linn S Mlambo, Tamuka Nhiwatiwa, Hans-Joachim Mosler, Timothy R Julian
Escherichia coli pathotypes (i.e., enteropathogenic and enterotoxigenic) have been identified among the pathogens most responsible for moderate-to-severe diarrhea in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Pathogenic E. coli are transmitted from infected human or animal feces to new susceptible hosts via environmental reservoirs such as hands, water, and soil. Commensal E. coli, which includes nonpathogenic E. coli strains, are widely used as fecal bacteria indicator, with their presence associated with increased likelihood of enteric pathogens and/or diarrheal disease...
January 22, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352706/environmental-conditions-in-health-care-facilities-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-coverage-and-inequalities
#9
Ryan Cronk, Jamie Bartram
Safe environmental conditions and the availability of standard precaution items are important to prevent and treat infection in health care facilities (HCFs) and to achieve Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets for health and water, sanitation, and hygiene. Baseline coverage estimates for HCFs have yet to be formed for the SDGs; and there is little evidence describing inequalities in coverage. To address this, we produced the first coverage estimates of environmental conditions and standard precaution items in HCFs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); and explored factors associated with low coverage...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336737/handwashing-improvement-project-a-resident-run-success
#10
Lauren Ghee, Gopal C Kowdley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288132/cochrane-systematic-reviews-of-interventions-for-risk-factors-correlate-weakly-with-global-risk-factor-burden-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
David J Roberts, John Cafferkey, Emma Plugge
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Systematic reviews (SRs) are important for health-care decision-makers requiring evidence for interventions that target modifiable risk factors to prevent disease. We investigated whether Cochrane SR output correlated with risk factor burden as assessed by the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. METHODS: We screened and extracted data from Cochrane reviews and protocols published since January 2011 investigating modifiable risk factors as outcomes...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260884/engagement-of-stakeholders-in-the-development-of-a-theory-of-change-for-handwashing-and-sanitation-behaviour-change
#12
Emmy De Buck, Karin Hannes, Margaret Cargo, Hans Van Remoortel, Axel Vande Veegaete, Hans-Joachim Mosler, Thashlin Govender, Philippe Vandekerckhove, Taryn Young
A Theory of Change (ToC) is an approach to map programmes aimed at inducing change in a specific context, with the goal of increasing their impact. We applied this approach to the specific case of handwashing and sanitation practices in low- and middle-income countries and developed a ToC as part of a systematic review exercise. Different existing sources of information were used to inform the initial draft of the ToC. In addition, stakeholder involvement occurred and peer review took place. Our stakeholders included methodological (ToC/quantitative and qualitative research) and content experts (WASH (Water, Sanitation, Hygiene)/behaviour change), as well as end-users/practitioners, policy-makers and donors...
December 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259820/national-survey-of-ebola-related-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-before-the-outbreak-peak-in-sierra-leone-august-2014
#13
Mohamed F Jalloh, Paul Sengeh, Roeland Monasch, Mohammad B Jalloh, Nickolas DeLuca, Meredith Dyson, Sheku Golfa, Yukiko Sakurai, Lansana Conteh, Samuel Sesay, Vance Brown, Wenshu Li, Jonathan Mermin, Rebecca Bunnell
Background: The 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa was the largest ever to occur. In the early phases, little was known about public knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) relating to Ebola virus disease (Ebola). Data were needed to develop evidence-driven strategies to address gaps in knowledge and practice. Methods: In August 2014, we conducted interviews with 1413 randomly selected respondents from 9 out of 14 districts in Sierra Leone using multistage cluster sampling...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176816/a-large-outbreak-of-hepatitis-e-virus-genotype-1-infection-in-an-urban-setting-in-chad-likely-linked-to-household-level-transmission-factors-2016-2017
#14
Alexander Spina, Annick Lenglet, David Beversluis, Marja de Jong, Larissa Vernier, Craig Spencer, Fred Andayi, Charity Kamau, Simone Vollmer, Boris Hogema, Andrea Irwin, Roger Ngueremi Yary, Açyl Mahamat Ali, Ali Moussa, Prince Alfani, Sibylle Sang
BACKGROUND: In September 2016, three acutely jaundiced (AJS) pregnant women were admitted to Am Timan Hospital, eastern Chad. We described the outbreak and conducted a case test-negative study to identify risk factors for this genotype of HEV in an acute outbreak setting. METHODS: Active case finding using a community based surveillance network identified suspected AJS cases. Pregnant or visibly ill AJS cases presenting at hospital were tested with Assure® IgM HEV rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and some with Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in Amsterdam; confirmed cases were RDT-positive and controls were RDT-negative...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159181/living-conditions-and-helicobacter-pylori-in-adults
#15
Odete Amaral, Isabel Fernandes, Nélio Veiga, Carlos Pereira, Claudia Chaves, Paula Nelas, Daniel Silva
Introduction: Infection by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is transmissible and is considered a public health issue which affects people of all ages. The objective of this study was to identify factors (lifestyles, dietary factors, and hygiene conditions) related to the prevalence of H. pylori infection. Methods: We carried out an observational cross-sectional study with a community sample of adults from the municipalities of Viseu and Sátão, Portugal...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128787/enhancing-handwashing-frequency-and-technique-of-primary-caregivers-in-harare-zimbabwe-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial-using-behavioral-and-microbial-outcomes
#16
Max N D Friedrich, Andreas Kappler, Hans-Joachim Mosler
RATIONALE: Consistent hand hygiene prevents diarrheal and respiratory diseases, but it is often not practiced. The disease burden is highest in low-income settings, which need effective interventions to promote domestic handwashing. To date, most handwashing campaigns have focused on promoting frequent handwashing at key times, whereas specifically promoting handwashing techniques proven to be effective in removing microbes has been confined to healthcare settings. METHODS: We used a cluster-randomized, factorial, controlled trial to test the effects of two handwashing interventions on the behavior of primary caregivers in Harare, Zimbabwe...
November 4, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125365/assessing-students-knowledge-of-healthcare-associated-infections-a-global-perspective
#17
Osarhumwese Osaretin Ojo, Omorogieva Ojo
The aim of this review was to explore students' knowledge of healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) from a global perspective. HCAIs may be the result of treatment in or contact with healthcare or social care settings and have been shown to cause an increase in morbidity, mortality and increased length of hospital stay. Student placements may involve interactions between university students, patients and/or health professionals and this may be a source of cross-contamination of the microbial agents that cause HCAIs...
November 9, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124826/comparing-the-behavioral-impact-of-a-nudge-based-handwashing-intervention-to-high-intensity-hygiene-education-a-cluster-randomized-trial-in-rural-bangladesh
#18
Elise Grover, Mohammed Kamal Hossain, Saker Uddin, Mohini Venkatesh, Pavani K Ram, Robert Dreibelbis
OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of environmental nudges on handwashing behaviors among primary school children as compared to a high-intensity hygiene education intervention. METHODS: In a cluster-randomized trial (CRT), we compared the rates of handwashing with soap (HWWS) after a toileting event among primary school students in rural Bangladesh. Eligible schools (government run, on-site sanitation and water, no hygiene interventions in last year, fewer than 450 students) were identified and 20 schools were randomly selected and allocated without blinding to one of four interventions, five schools per group: simultaneous handwashing infrastructure and nudge construction, sequential infrastructure then nudge construction, simultaneous infrastructure and high-intensity hygiene education (HE) and sequential handwashing infrastructure and HE...
November 10, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111195/giardia-duodenalis-infection-among-rural-communities-in-yemen-a-community-based-assessment-of-the-prevalence-and-associated-risk-factors
#19
Hesham M Al-Mekhlafi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of Giardia infection among rural communities among rural communities in Yemen. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 605 stool samples were collected and screened for the presence of Giardia duodenalis (G. duodenalis) cysts and/or trophozoites by using three different diagnostic methods: direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, and trichrome staining. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect information on the demographic, socioeconomic, behavioural and environmental characteristics of the participants...
October 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107947/contributing-to-the-debate-on-categorising-shared-sanitation-facilities-as-unimproved-an-account-based-on-field-researchers-observations-and-householders-opinions-in-three-regions-tanzania
#20
Khalid Massa, Fadhili Kilamile, Emmanuela Safari, Amour Seleman, Anyitike Mwakitalima, Jonas G Balengayabo, Telemu Kassile, Peter E Mangesho, Godfrey M Mubyazi
BACKGROUND: Health risks associated with poor sanitation behaviours continue to be reported mostly from low-income countries (LICs). Reports show that various factors limit many people from accessing and using improved latrines, forcing some to opt for sharing latrines with neighbours, others practicing open defecation. Meanwhile, debate prevails on whether shared latrines should be categorised as unimproved according to WHO/UNICEF-JMP criteria. We contribute to this debate based on results from a study undertaken in three regions, Tanzania...
2017: PloS One
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