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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176816/a-large-outbreak-of-hepatitis-e-virus-genotype-1-infection-in-an-urban-setting-in-chad-likely-linked-to-household-level-transmission-factors-2016-2017
#1
Alexander Spina, Annick Lenglet, David Beversluis, Marja de Jong, Larissa Vernier, Craig Spencer, Fred Andayi, Charity Kamau, Simone Vollmer, Boris Hogema, Andrea Irwin, Roger Ngueremi Yary, Açyl Mahamat Ali, Ali Moussa, Prince Alfani, Sibylle Sang
BACKGROUND: In September 2016, three acutely jaundiced (AJS) pregnant women were admitted to Am Timan Hospital, eastern Chad. We described the outbreak and conducted a case test-negative study to identify risk factors for this genotype of HEV in an acute outbreak setting. METHODS: Active case finding using a community based surveillance network identified suspected AJS cases. Pregnant or visibly ill AJS cases presenting at hospital were tested with Assure® IgM HEV rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and some with Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in Amsterdam; confirmed cases were RDT-positive and controls were RDT-negative...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159181/living-conditions-and-helicobacter-pylori-in-adults
#2
Odete Amaral, Isabel Fernandes, Nélio Veiga, Carlos Pereira, Claudia Chaves, Paula Nelas, Daniel Silva
Introduction: Infection by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is transmissible and is considered a public health issue which affects people of all ages. The objective of this study was to identify factors (lifestyles, dietary factors, and hygiene conditions) related to the prevalence of H. pylori infection. Methods: We carried out an observational cross-sectional study with a community sample of adults from the municipalities of Viseu and Sátão, Portugal...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128787/enhancing-handwashing-frequency-and-technique-of-primary-caregivers-in-harare-zimbabwe-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial-using-behavioral-and-microbial-outcomes
#3
Max N D Friedrich, Andreas Kappler, Hans-Joachim Mosler
RATIONALE: Consistent hand hygiene prevents diarrheal and respiratory diseases, but it is often not practiced. The disease burden is highest in low-income settings, which need effective interventions to promote domestic handwashing. To date, most handwashing campaigns have focused on promoting frequent handwashing at key times, whereas specifically promoting handwashing techniques proven to be effective in removing microbes has been confined to healthcare settings. METHODS: We used a cluster-randomized, factorial, controlled trial to test the effects of two handwashing interventions on the behavior of primary caregivers in Harare, Zimbabwe...
November 4, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125365/assessing-students-knowledge-of-healthcare-associated-infections-a-global-perspective
#4
Osarhumwese Osaretin Ojo, Omorogieva Ojo
The aim of this review was to explore students' knowledge of healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) from a global perspective. HCAIs may be the result of treatment in or contact with healthcare or social care settings and have been shown to cause an increase in morbidity, mortality and increased length of hospital stay. Student placements may involve interactions between university students, patients and/or health professionals and this may be a source of cross-contamination of the microbial agents that cause HCAIs...
November 9, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124826/comparing-the-behavioral-impact-of-a-nudge-based-handwashing-intervention-to-high-intensity-hygiene-education-a-cluster-randomized-trial-in-rural-bangladesh
#5
Elise Grover, Mohammed Kamal Hossain, Saker Uddin, Mohini Venkatesh, Pavani K Ram, Robert Dreibelbis
OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of environmental nudges on handwashing behaviors among primary school children as compared to a high-intensity hygiene education intervention. METHODS: In a cluster-randomized trial (CRT), we compared the rates of handwashing with soap (HWWS) after a toileting event among primary school students in rural Bangladesh. Eligible schools (government run, on-site sanitation and water, no hygiene interventions in last year, fewer than 450 students) were identified and 20 schools were randomly selected and allocated without blinding to one of four interventions, five schools per group: simultaneous handwashing infrastructure and nudge construction, sequential infrastructure then nudge construction, simultaneous infrastructure and high-intensity hygiene education (HE) and sequential handwashing infrastructure and HE...
November 10, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111195/giardia-duodenalis-infection-among-rural-communities-in-yemen-a-community-based-assessment-of-the-prevalence-and-associated-risk-factors
#6
Hesham M Al-Mekhlafi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of Giardia infection among rural communities among rural communities in Yemen. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 605 stool samples were collected and screened for the presence of Giardia duodenalis (G. duodenalis) cysts and/or trophozoites by using three different diagnostic methods: direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, and trichrome staining. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect information on the demographic, socioeconomic, behavioural and environmental characteristics of the participants...
October 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107947/contributing-to-the-debate-on-categorising-shared-sanitation-facilities-as-unimproved-an-account-based-on-field-researchers-observations-and-householders-opinions-in-three-regions-tanzania
#7
Khalid Massa, Fadhili Kilamile, Emmanuela Safari, Amour Seleman, Anyitike Mwakitalima, Jonas G Balengayabo, Telemu Kassile, Peter E Mangesho, Godfrey M Mubyazi
BACKGROUND: Health risks associated with poor sanitation behaviours continue to be reported mostly from low-income countries (LICs). Reports show that various factors limit many people from accessing and using improved latrines, forcing some to opt for sharing latrines with neighbours, others practicing open defecation. Meanwhile, debate prevails on whether shared latrines should be categorised as unimproved according to WHO/UNICEF-JMP criteria. We contribute to this debate based on results from a study undertaken in three regions, Tanzania...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104124/control-of-endemic-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria-after-removal-of-sinks-and-implementing-a-new-water-safe-policy-in-an-intensive-care-unit
#8
E Shaw, L Gavaldà, J Càmara, R Gasull, S Gallego, F Tubau, R M Granada, P Ciercoles, M A Dominguez, R Mañez, J Carratalà, M Pujol
BACKGROUND: Contaminated handwashing sinks have been identified as reservoirs that can facilitate colonization/infection of patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in intensive care units (ICUs). AIM: To assess the impact of removing patients' sinks and implementing other water-safe strategies on the annual rates of ICU-acquired MDR-GNB. METHODS: This six-year quasi-experimental study was conducted from January 2011 to December 2016...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091726/are-there-synergies-from-combining-hygiene-and-sanitation-promotion-campaigns-evidence-from-a-large-scale-cluster-randomized-trial-in-rural-tanzania
#9
Bertha Briceño, Aidan Coville, Paul Gertler, Sebastian Martinez
SUMMARY: The current evidence on handwashing and sanitation programs suggests limited impacts on health when at-scale interventions have been tested in isolation. However, no published experimental evidence currently exists that tests the interaction effects between sanitation and handwashing. We present the results of two large-scale, government-led handwashing and sanitation promotion campaigns in rural Tanzania, with the objective of tracing the causal chain from hygiene and sanitation promotion to changes in child health outcomes and specifically testing for potential interaction effects of combining handwashing and sanitation interventions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091128/self-care-competence-in-the-administration-of-insulin-in-older-people-aged-70-or-over1
#10
Mayara Sousa Vianna, Patrícia Aparecida Barbosa Silva, Cíntia Vieira do Nascimento, Sônia Maria Soares
OBJECTIVE: to analyze the self-care competence in the administration of insulin performed by older people aged 70 or over. METHOD: cross-sectional study carried out with 148 older people aged 70 or over, who performed self-administration of insulin. Data collection was carried out using a structured questionnaire and an adapted guide for the application of the Scale to Identify Self-Care Competence of Patients with Diabetes, at the participants' home. Data analysis included descriptive and inferential statistical tests, with forward logistic regression...
October 30, 2017: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077198/a-systematic-review-on-hand-hygiene-knowledge-and-compliance-in-student-nurses
#11
REVIEW
L J Labrague, D M McEnroe-Petitte, T van de Mortel, A M A Nasirudeen
BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene competence is one of the critical outcomes in nursing education. Ensuring nursing students recognize the what, when and how of hand hygiene is critical in the light of the increasing rates of healthcare-associated infections. AIM: To systematically appraise and synthesize articles on hand hygiene knowledge and compliance among nursing students. METHODS: This is a systematic review of scientific articles published from 2006 to 2016...
October 27, 2017: International Nursing Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049279/knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-related-to-ebola-virus-disease-at-the-end-of-a-national-epidemic-guinea-august-2015
#12
Mohamed F Jalloh, Susan J Robinson, Jamaica Corker, Wenshu Li, Kathleen Irwin, Alpha M Barry, Paulyne Ngalame Ntuba, Alpha A Diallo, Mohammad B Jalloh, James Nyuma, Musa Sellu, Amanda VanSteelandt, Megan Ramsden, LaRee Tracy, Pratima L Raghunathan, John T Redd, Lise Martel, Barbara Marston, Rebecca Bunnell
Health communication and social mobilization efforts to improve the public's knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding Ebola virus disease (Ebola) were important in controlling the 2014-2016 Ebola epidemic in Guinea (1), which resulted in 3,814 reported Ebola cases and 2,544 deaths.* Most Ebola cases in Guinea resulted from the washing and touching of persons and corpses infected with Ebola without adequate infection control precautions at home, at funerals, and in health facilities (2,3). As the 18-month epidemic waned in August 2015, Ebola KAP were assessed in a survey among residents of Guinea recruited through multistage cluster sampling procedures in the nation's eight administrative regions (Boké, Conakry, Faranah, Kankan, Kindia, Labé, Mamou, and Nzérékoré)...
October 20, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041941/disentangling-the-effects-of-a-multiple-behaviour-change-intervention-for-diarrhoea-control-in-zambia-a-theory-based-process-evaluation
#13
Katie Greenland, Jenala Chipungu, Joyce Chilekwa, Roma Chilengi, Val Curtis
BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea is a leading cause of child death in Zambia. As elsewhere, the disease burden could be greatly reduced through caregiver uptake of existing prevention and treatment strategies. We recently reported the results of the Komboni Housewives intervention which tested a novel strategy employing motives including affiliation and disgust to improve caregiver practice of four diarrhoea control behaviours: exclusive breastfeeding; handwashing with soap; and correct preparation and use of oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc...
October 17, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023434/announcement-global-handwashing-day-october-15-2017
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980942/effects-of-water-sanitation-handwashing-and-nutritional-interventions-on-telomere-length-among-children-in-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial-in-rural-bangladesh
#15
Audrie Lin, Benjamin F Arnold, Andrew N Mertens, Jue Lin, Jade Benjamin-Chung, Shahjahan Ali, Alan E Hubbard, Christine P Stewart, Abul K Shoab, Md Ziaur Rahman, Md Saheen Hossen, Palash Mutsuddi, Syeda L Famida, Salma Akther, Mahbubur Rahman, Leanne Unicomb, Firdaus S Dhabhar, Lia C H Fernald, John M Colford, Stephen P Luby
Background: Shorter childhood telomere length (TL) and more rapid TL attrition are widely regarded as manifestations of stress. However, the potential effects of health interventions on child TL are unknown. We hypothesized that a water, sanitation, handwashing (WSH), and nutritional intervention would slow TL attrition during the first two years of life. Methods: In a trial in rural Bangladesh (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01590095), we randomized geographical clusters of pregnant women into individual water treatment, sanitation, handwashing, nutrition, combined WSH, combined nutrition plus WSH (N + WSH), or control arms...
October 5, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976995/knowledge-of-congenital-cytomegalovirus-ccmv-among-physical-and-occupational-therapists-in-the-united-states
#16
Kathleen M Muldoon, Amy Armstrong-Heimsoth, Jodi Thomas
Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infections cause more children to have permanent disabilities than Down Syndrome, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Spina Bifida, and pediatric HIV/AIDS combined. The risk of infection during pregnancy can be significantly decreased using universal precautions, such as thorough handwashing and cleansing of surfaces and objects that have come into contact with infected body fluids. Children under 3 years of age are commonly asymptomatic excretors of CMV, with the highest viral loads present in saliva...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946934/the-impact-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-on-patients-prevention-behaviors
#17
Frances M Weaver, William E Trick, Charlesnika T Evans, Michael Y Lin, William Adams, Mai T Pho, Susan C Bleasdale, Kathleen M Mullane, Stuart Johnson, Monica K Sikka, Lance R Peterson, Anthony E Solomonides, Dale N Gerding
OBJECTIVE To determine the impact of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI) on patient behaviors following illness. METHODS Using a computer algorithm, we searched the electronic medical records of 7 Chicago-area hospitals to identify patients with RCDI (2 episodes of CDI within 15 to 56 days of each other). RCDI was validated by medical record review. Patients were asked to complete a telephone survey. The survey included questions regarding general health, social isolation, symptom severity, emotional distress, and prevention behaviors...
September 26, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936045/a-comparative-study-for-plaque-removing-efficacy-between-commonly-used-denture-cleansers-in-india
#18
Bhushan Kumar, Prabhdeep Kaur Sandhu, A Navin Kumar, Chetan P Patil
AIM: A comparative study for plaque removing efficacy between toothpaste, liquid handwashing soap, and two chemical-soak denture cleansers (clinsodent denture cleansing powder and fittydent denture cleansing tablet). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 140 healthy complete denture patients were selected and checked for denture cleansing using toothpaste, liquid handwashing soap, and two chemical denture cleansers: Clinsodent powder and fittydent tablets. Cleansing with plain water was kept as control for twenty patients...
July 2017: Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911749/effect-of-participatory-women-s-groups-and-counselling-through-home-visits-on-children-s-linear-growth-in-rural-eastern-india-caring-trial-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#19
Nirmala Nair, Prasanta Tripathy, H S Sachdev, Hemanta Pradhan, Sanghita Bhattacharyya, Rajkumar Gope, Sumitra Gagrai, Shibanand Rath, Suchitra Rath, Rajesh Sinha, Swati Sarbani Roy, Suhas Shewale, Vijay Singh, Aradhana Srivastava, Anthony Costello, Andrew Copas, Jolene Skordis-Worrall, Hassan Haghparast-Bidgoli, Naomi Saville, Audrey Prost
BACKGROUND: Around 30% of the world's stunted children live in India. The Government of India has proposed a new cadre of community-based workers to improve nutrition in 200 districts. We aimed to find out the effect of such a worker carrying out home visits and participatory group meetings on children's linear growth. METHODS: We did a cluster-randomised controlled trial in two adjoining districts of Jharkhand and Odisha, India. 120 clusters (around 1000 people each) were randomly allocated to intervention or control using a lottery...
October 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853016/don-t-be-the-fifth-guy-risk-responsibility-and-the-rhetoric-of-handwashing-campaigns
#20
M M Brown
In recent years, outbreaks such as H1N1 have prompted heightened efforts to manage the risk of infection. These efforts often involve the endorsement of personal responsibility for infection risk, thus reinforcing an individualistic model of public health. Some scholars-for example, Peterson and Lupton (1996)-term this model the "new public health." In this essay, I describe how the focus on personal responsibility for infection risk shapes the promotion of hand hygiene and other forms of illness etiquette...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
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