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Marcia Soares, Ekaterina Mirgorodskaya, Hatice Koca, Emilia Viklund, Matthew Richardson, Per M Gustafsson, Anna-Carin Olin, Salman Siddiqui
RATIONALE: Asthma is often characterised by inflammation, damage and dysfunction of the small airways, but no standardised biomarkers are available. 
 Objectives: Using a novel approach -Particles in Exhaled Air (PExA)- we sought to a) sample and analyse abundant protein biomarkers: surfactant protein A (SPA) and albumin in adult asthmatic and healthy patients and b) relate protein concentrations with physiological markers using phenotyping.
 Methods: 83 adult asthmatics and 21 healthy volunteers were recruited from a discovery cohort in Leicester, UK, and 32 adult asthmatics as replication cohort from Sweden...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Mariam Hassan, Machaon M Bonafede, Brendan L Limone, Paul Hodgkins, Gregory S Sawicki
Purpose: To conduct an analysis describing clinical characteristics, pulmonary exacerbation (PEx) events, and health care resource utilization among Medicaid-insured patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Patients and methods: A retrospective analysis of the Truven Health MarketScan® Medicaid Multi-State administrative claims database (2010-2014) was undertaken. Patients aged ≥6 years with a CF diagnosis, continuously enrolled for 12 months, were identified. Demographics, comorbidities, PEx events, and health care resource utilization and costs over a 12-month enrollment period were analyzed for all patients and by age groups...
2018: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
Kishore R Kumar, Gautam Wali, Ryan L Davis, Amali C Mallawaarachchi, Elizabeth E Palmer, Velimir Gayevskiy, Andre E Minoche, David Veivers, Marcel E Dinger, Alan Mackay-Sim, Mark J Cowley, Carolyn M Sue
Zellweger syndrome spectrum disorders are caused by mutations in any of at least 12 different PEX genes. This includes PEX16 , an important regulator of peroxisome biogenesis. Using whole genome sequencing, we detected previously unreported, biallelic variants in PEX16 [NM_004813.2:c.658G>A, p.(Ala220Thr) and NM_004813.2:c.830G>A, p.(Arg277Gln)] in an individual with leukodystrophy, spastic paraplegia, cerebellar ataxia, and craniocervical dystonia with normal plasma very long chain fatty acids. Using olfactory-neurosphere derived cells, a population of neural stem cells, we showed patient cells had reduced peroxisome density and increased peroxisome size, replicating previously reported findings in PEX16 cell lines...
September 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
Ragnhild Skulberg, Stefano Cortellini, Daniel L Chan, Giacomo Stanzani, Rosanne E Jepson
Cutaneous and renal glomerular vasculopathy (CRGV) is a rare disease affecting dogs, with a recent apparent increase in prevalence since 2012 in the UK. This disease is characterized by a vasculopathy affecting small vessels of the kidney and skin, leading to thrombotic microangiopathy. The underlying etiology remains unknown although clinicopathological and histological findings resemble features of certain forms of thrombotic microangiopathy in people, for which plasma exchange (PEX) is considered an important component of therapy...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Heba T Ebeed, Sean Stevenson, Andrew C Cuming, Alison Baker
Plant peroxisomes are important components of cellular antioxidant networks, dealing with ROS generated by multiple metabolic pathways. Peroxisomes respond to environmental and cellular conditions by changing their size, number, and proteomic content. To investigate the role of peroxisomes in response to drought, dehydration and ABA treatment we took an evolutionary and comparative genomics approach. Colonisation of land required evolution of dehydration tolerance in the absence of subsequent anatomical adaptations...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Zhou Chen, Maurice Brookhart
The most ubiquitous polymer, polyethylene (PE), is produced either through a radical-initiated process or, more commonly, through a coordination/insertion process employing early transition metal catalysts, particularly titanium- and chromium-based systems. These oxophilic early metal catalysts are not functional-group-tolerant and thus cannot be used to synthesize copolymers of ethylene and polar vinyl monomers such as alkyl acrylates and vinyl acetate. Such PE copolymers have enhanced properties relative to PE and are made through radical polymerization processes, requiring exceptionally high pressures and temperatures...
July 20, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Wei-Hua Wang, Jie Chen, Bu-Rong Zhang, Shuai-Jun Lu, Feng Wang, Lan Peng, Jin-Hua Dai, Yi-Zhe Sun
OBJECTIVE: Curcumin has been reported to possess anti-tumor effects on multiple cancers, including lung cancer. However, the mechanisms of its anti-tumor effect on lung cancer have not been fully elucidated. Our study attempted to identify the effect of curcumin on A549 cells and further explore the potential mechanism. METHODS: Different concentrations of curcumin were exposed to A549 cells for 24 h and cell viability was measured by CCK-8 assay. The expression of UCA1 was overexpressed in A549 cells by transfection with pEX-UCA1...
July 1, 2018: Die Pharmazie
Wei Yu, Zaigang Lv, Ligong Zhang, Zongen Gao, Xiaohui Chen, Xirui Yang, Mengfei Zhong
BACKGROUND: Astragalus membranaceus has been clinically used in cerebral ischemia treatment in China and its main component, Astragaloside IV (Ast IV) shows anti-hypoxia activity, but the underlying mechanism has not been clearly clarified. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of Ast IV on hypoxia-induced injury in PC-12 cells as well as the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Relative miR-124 expression was detected by qRT-PCR. Hic-5 expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR and Western blot...
June 30, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Yuichi Ishikawa, Tadamichi Kasuya, Junichi Ishikawa, Michio Fujiwara, Yasuhiko Kita
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a central nervous system infection caused by John Cunningham (JC) virus reactivation in an immunocompromised patient. PML has various neurologic symptoms and has very poor prognosis. A 36-year-old man developed transverse myelitis and had a psychiatric disorder at the age of 26. He was diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE), on the basis of leukopenia and presence of anti-DNA and anti-nuclear antibodies. Treatment with glucocorticoid (GC) was started, and remission was introduced...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Michael S Schechter
Cystic Fibrosis (CF) lung disease is characterized by intermittent acute episodes of worsening signs, symptoms, and pulmonary function; these so-called pulmonary exacerbations (PEx) appear to be important drivers of long-term declines in lung function, quality of life, and life expectancy. Surveillance for development of PEx and their treatment is a fundamental component of chronic CF management, and the merits of novel CF therapies are often judged based on their ability to reduce the frequency of PEx. Given the central role that they play, it is surprising how poorly PEx are understood, how thin is the evidence base for their treatment and how often they are left unrecognized and untreated in clinical practice...
July 6, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
Morgan Schellenberg, Kenji Inaba, James M Bardes, Nicholas Orozco, Jessica Chen, Caroline Park, Tarina Kang, Demetrios Demetriades
BACKGROUND: Portable chest x-ray (CXR) and extended focused assessment with sonography for trauma (EFAST) screen patients for thoracic injury in the trauma bay. It is unclear if one test alone is sufficient, if both are required, or if the two investigations are complementary. Study objectives were to define the combined diagnostic yield of EFAST and CXR among stable blunt thoracic trauma patients and to determine if a normal EFAST and CXR might obviate the need for computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest...
July 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Yun-Sang Yu, Jin-Se Kim, Brenda Irene Medina Jiménez, Tae-Wuk Kim, Sung-Jin Cho
The earthworm Perionyx excavatus is a species highly capable of bidirectional regeneration. Pair-rule genes are thought to have an ancestral function in arthropod segmentation. However, orthologs in annelids (i.e. Capitella teleta) do not exhibit segmental expression in the ectoderm or mesoderm. Their role in regeneration is currently unclear. Here, we report the expression profile of primary pair-rule genes (Pex-EvxA, Pex-EvxB, Pex-RuntA, Pex-RuntB, Pex-Hes1A, Pex-Hes1B, Pex-Hes4A, and Pex-Hey) found in P...
July 2018: Genes & Genomics
E Lichar Dillon, Melinda Sheffield-Moore, William J Durham, Lori L Ploutz-Snyder, Jeffrey W Ryder, Christopher P Danesi, Kathleen M Randolph, Charles R Gilkison, Randall J Urban
INTRODUCTION: Prolonged confinement to head-down bed rest (HDBR) results in musculoskeletal losses similar to those observed during long duration space flight. Exercise countermeasures by themselves have not completely prevented the deleterious losses in muscle mass or function in HDBR or space flight. PURPOSE: The objective was to investigate the safety and efficacy of intermittent, low-dose testosterone treatment in conjunction with NASA exercise (SPRINT) countermeasures during 70 days of 6° HDBR...
March 26, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Jordana E Hoppe, Brandie D Wagner, Frank J Accurso, Edith T Zemanick, Scott D Sagel
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary exacerbations (PEx) in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) are frequently treated in the outpatient setting with oral antibiotics. However, little is known about the characteristics of PEx managed on an outpatient basis and the effectiveness of oral antibiotic therapy. We sought to prospectively evaluate clinical and laboratory changes associated with oral antibiotic treatment for PEx. METHODS: Children with CF between 8 and 18 years of age prescribed two weeks of oral antibiotics for a PEx were eligible to enroll...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
Kazuhiro Shirozu, Naoyuki Fujimura, Yuji Karashima, Mizuko Ikeda, Hidehisa Kitada, Yasuhiro Okabe, Kei Kurihara, Tomoko Henzan, Sumio Hoka
BACKGROUND: ABO-incompatible living-donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) requires immunotherapy and plasma exchange therapy (PEX). PEX with albumin replacement fluid reportedly decreases fibrinogen levels. However, no reports have described the effects of PEX with albumin replacement fluid on blood coagulation parameters and blood loss during the perioperative period. Therefore, we investigated the effects of preoperative PEX on blood coagulation parameters and blood loss during the perioperative period in patients undergoing ABO-incompatible LDKT as measured by rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM®)...
June 19, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
Julia Sellin, Christian Wingen, Dominic Gosejacob, Deniz Senyilmaz, Lea Hänschke, Sven Büttner, Katharina Meyer, Daniele Bano, Pierluigi Nicotera, Aurelio A Teleman, Margret H Bülow
Mutations in peroxin (PEX) genes lead to loss of peroxisomes, resulting in the formation of peroxisomal biogenesis disorders (PBDs) and early lethality. Studying PBDs and their animal models has greatly contributed to our current knowledge about peroxisomal functions. Very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) accumulation has long been suggested as a major disease-mediating factor, although the exact pathological consequences are unclear. Here, we show that a Drosophila Pex19 mutant is lethal due to a deficit in medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs)...
June 2018: PLoS Biology
Karla Acosta-Virgen, Bibiana Chávez-Munguía, Daniel Talamás-Lara, Anel Lagunes-Guillén, Aaron Martínez-Higuera, Antonio Lazcano, Adolfo Martínez-Palomo, Martha Espinosa-Cantellano
The protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia has traditionally been reported as lacking peroxisomes, organelles involved in fatty acid metabolism and detoxification of reactive oxygen species. We here report the finding with transmission electron microscopy of an oxidase activity in cytoplasmic vesicles of trophozoites and cysts of G. lamblia. These vesicles were positive to 3,3'-diaminobenzidine and to cerium chloride staining. In addition, using bioinformatic tools, two peroxisomal proteins were identified in the G...
June 18, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Nicole Mayer-Hamblett, George Retsch-Bogart, Margaret Kloster, Frank Accurso, Margaret Rosenfeld, Gary Albers, Philip Black, Perry Brown, AnneMarie Cairns, Stephanie D Davis, Gavin R Graff, Gwendolyn S Kerby, David Orenstein, Rachael Buckingham, Bonnie W Ramsey
RATIONALE: New isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) is generally treated with inhaled antipseudomonal antibiotics such as tobramycin inhalation solution (TIS). A therapeutic approach complementing traditional antimicrobial therapy by reducing the risk of pulmonary exacerbation (PEx) and inflammation may ultimately prolong time to Pa recurrence. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that the addition of azithromycin to TIS in children with CF and early Pa decreases the risk of PEx and prolongs time to Pa recurrence...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Yan Xu, Wenyan Deng, Wei Zhang
BACKGROUND: Lupus nephritis (LN) is a serious complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Long non-coding RNA taurine upregulated gene 1 (lncRNA TUG1) exerted critical regulatory effects on inhibiting cell injury and inflammation. However, its role in LN is still unclear. METHODS: HK-2 cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to simulate cell inflammatory injury. Cell viability and apoptosis, as well as pro-inflammatory factors expression were measured, respectively...
August 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Kareem Soliman, Fabian Göttfert, Hendrik Rosewich, Sven Thoms, Jutta Gärtner
Peroxisomes are ubiquitous cell organelles involved in many metabolic and signaling functions. Their assembly requires peroxins, encoded by PEX genes. Mutations in PEX genes are the cause of Zellweger Syndrome spectrum (ZSS), a heterogeneous group of peroxisomal biogenesis disorders (PBD). The size and morphological features of peroxisomes are below the diffraction limit of light, which makes them attractive for super-resolution imaging. We applied Stimulated Emission Depletion (STED) microscopy to study the morphology of human peroxisomes and peroxisomal protein localization in human controls and ZSS patients...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
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