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Charge screening

Carmine Ungaro, Luigi Citrigno, Francesca Trojsi, Teresa Sprovieri, Giulia Gentile, Maria Muglia, Maria Rosaria Monsurrò, Gioacchino Tedeschi, Sebastiano Cavallaro, Francesca Luisa Conforti
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and CHARGE syndrome are complex neurological disorders, which never occurred together in the same family and, to date, no putative correlation between them has been described on PubMed Central. Due to our aim was to evaluate the presence of different genetic variants involved in these pathologies, we reported a clinical and genetic description of two sisters affected by these two different disorders. In the CHARGE patient, molecular analysis of the CHD7 gene revealed the c.8016G >A de novo variant in exon 37...
October 13, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Robert A Harper, Guy H Carpenter, Gordon B Proctor, Richard D Harvey, Robert J Gambogi, Anthony R Geonnotti, Robert Hider, Stuart A Jones
The extracellular polymer substances (EPS) generated by biofilms confers resistance to antimicrobial agents through electrostatic and steric interactions that hinder molecular diffusion. This resistance mechanism is particularly evident for antibacterial nanomaterials, which inherently diffuse more slowly compared to small organic antibacterial agents. The aim of this study was to determine if a biofilm's resistance to antibacterial nanomaterial diffusion could be diminished using electrolytes to screen the EPS's electrostatic interactions...
September 12, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Clemens Jochum, Nataša AdŽić, Emmanuel Stiakakis, Thomas L Derrien, Dan Luo, Gerhard Kahl, Christos N Likos
We present a comprehensive theoretical and experimental study of the solution phase properties of a DNA-based family of nanoparticles - dendrimer-like DNA molecules (DL-DNA). These charged DNA dendrimers are novel macromolecular aggregates, which hold high promise in targeted self-assembly of soft matter systems in the bulk and at interfaces. To describe the behaviour of this family of dendrimers (with generations ranging from G1 to G7), we use a theoretical model in which base-pairs of a single DL-DNA molecule are modeled by charged monomers, whose interactions are chosen to mimic the equilibrium properties of DNA correctly...
October 12, 2018: Nanoscale
Zhe Liu, Ning Li, Min Gao, Jiaxuan Wang, Aining Zhang, Yongjun Liu
This study aimed to enhance aerobic granulation by the integration of hydraulic selection pressure (HSP) and poly aluminum chloride (PAC) regulation. Based on an investigation of sludge characteristics, microbial aggregation and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) secretion, the synergistic mechanisms of HSP and PAC regulation were revealed. For granule formation, HSP primarily improved the cell hydrophobicity and extracellular protein production, while PAC regulation markedly neutralized the surface charge of cells and reduced the interaction energy between them...
February 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Naveen K Singh, Phurpa Dema Thungon, Pedro Estrela, Pranab Goswami
There has been a continuous strive to develop portable, stable, sensitive and low cost detection system for malaria to meet the demand of effective screening actions in developing countries where the disease is most endemic. Herein, we report an aptamer-based field effect transistor (aptaFET) biosensor, developed by using an extended gate field effect transistor with inter-digitated gold microelectrodes (IDµE) for the detection of the malaria biomarker Plasmodium falciparum glutamate dehydrogenase (PfGDH) in serum samples...
September 26, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Hongduo Lu, Sture Nordholm, Clifford E Woodward, Jan Forsman
A new three-parameter (valency, ion size, and charge asymmetry) model, the asymmetric restricted primitive model (ARPM) of ionic liquids, has recently been proposed. Given that ionic liquids generally are composed of monovalent species, the ARPM effectively reduces to a two-parameter model. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations have demonstrated that the ARPM is able to reproduce key properties of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) in bulk and at charged surfaces. The relatively modest complexity of the model raises the possibility, which is explored here, that a classical density functional theory (DFT) could resolve its properties...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Trinidad Mendez-Morales, Mario Burbano, Matthieu Haefele, Benjamin Rotenberg, Mathieu Salanne
When an ionic liquid adsorbs onto a porous electrode, its ionic arrangement is deeply modified due to a screening of the Coulombic interactions by the metallic surface and by the confinement imposed upon it by the electrode's morphology. In particular, ions of the same charge can approach at close contact, leading to the formation of a superionic state. The impact of an electrified surface placed between two liquid phases is much less understood. Here we simulate a full supercapacitor made of the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and nanoporous graphene electrodes, with varying distances between the graphene sheets...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Roland Kjellander
A unified treatment of oscillatory and monotonic exponential decays of interactions in electrolytes is displayed, which highlights the role of dielectric response of the fluid in terms of renormalized (effective) dielectric permittivity and charges. An exact, but physically transparent statistical mechanical formalism is thereby used, which is presented in a systematic, pedagogical manner. Both the oscillatory and monotonic behaviors are given by an equation for the decay length of screened electrostatic interactions that is very similar to the classical expression for the Debye length...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Adam K Sieradzan, Artur Giełdoń, Yanping Yin, Yi He, Harold A Scheraga, Adam Liwo
Based on the coarse-grained UNRES and NARES-2P models of proteins and nucleic acids, respectively, developed in our laboratory, in this work we have developed a coarse-grained model of systems containing proteins and nucleic acids. The UNRES and NARES-2P effective energy functions have been applied to the protein and nucleic-acid components of a system, respectively, while protein-nucleic-acid interactions have been described by the respective coarse-grained potentials developed in our recent work (Yin et al...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Roy Govrin, Shani Tcherner, Tal Obstbaum, Uri Sivan
Many cells synthesize significant quantities of zwitterionic osmolytes to cope with the osmotic stress induced by excess salt. In addition to their primary role in balancing osmotic pressure, these osmolytes also help stabilize protein structure and restore enzymatic activity compromised by high ionic strength. This osmoprotective effect has been studied extensively but its electrostatic aspects have somehow escaped the main stream. Here, we report that despite their overall neutrality, zwitterions may dramatically affect electrostatic interactions in saline solutions of biological relevance...
October 9, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Cheng Zhan, Tuan Anh Pham, Maira R Ceron, Patrick G Campbell, Vedasri Vedharathinam, Minoru Otani, De-En Jiang, Juergen Biener, Brandon C Wood, Monika M Biener
Understanding and controlling the electrical response at a complex electrode-electrolyte interface is key to the development of next-generation supercapacitors and other electrochemical devices. In this work, we apply a theoretical framework based on the Effective Screening Medium and Reference Interaction Site Model to explore the role of electrical double-layer (EDL) formation and its interplay with quantum capacitance in graphene-based supercapacitors. In addition to pristine graphene, we investigate a novel \C60-modified graphene supercapacitor material, which promises higher charge storage capacity...
October 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Narendra Padhan
Immunoblotting has become a routine technique in many laboratories for protein characterization from biological samples. The following protocol provides an alternative strategy, capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF), with many advantages compared to conventional immunoblotting. This is an antibody-based, automated, rapid, and quantitative method in which a complete western blotting procedure takes place inside an ultrathin capillary. This technique does not require a gel to transfer to a membrane, stripping of blots, or x-ray films, which are typically required for conventional immunoblotting...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Sisse Helle Njor, Lennart Friis-Hansen, Berit Andersen, Bo Søndergaard, Dorte Linnemann, Jens Christian Riis Jørgensen, Ole Roikjær, Morten Rasmussen
BACKGROUND: The Danish National Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme was implemented in March 2014 and is offered free of charge to all residents aged 50-74 years. The aim of this study is to compare performance indicators from the Danish National Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme to the recommendations from European Guidelines in order to assure the quality of the programme and to provide findings relevant to other population-based colorectal cancer screening programmes. METHODS: Based on data from the Danish Colorectal Cancer Screening Database, we evaluated all performance indicators for which the European Guidelines provided acceptable level, desirable level or the level from first screening rounds in population-based studies using FIT...
October 4, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
Mohammad Mehdi Ghahremanpour, Paul J van Maaren, Carl Caleman, Geoffrey R Hutchison, David van der Spoel
Gas phase electric properties of molecules can be computed routinely using wave function methods or the density functional theory (DFT). However, these methods remain computationally expensive for high-throughput screening of the vast chemical space of virtual compounds. Therefore, empirical force fields are a more practical choice in many cases, particularly since force field methods allow routinely predicting of physicochemical properties in the condensed phases. This work presents Drude polarizable models, to increase the physical realism in empirical force fields, where the core particle is treated as a point charge and the Drude particle is treated either as a 1s-Gaussian or a ns-Slater (n = 1, 2, 3) charge density...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Ya Ching Chiu, Huan Jang Keh
The quasisteady diffusiophoresis of a charged porous sphere situated at the center of a charged spherical cavity filled with a liquid solution of a symmetric electrolyte is analyzed. The porous particle can represent a solvent-permeable and ion-penetrable polyelectrolyte molecule or floc of nanoparticles, in which fixed charges and frictional segments are uniformly distributed, while the spherical cavity can denote a charged pore involved in microfluidic or drug-delivery systems. The linearized electrokinetic differential equations governing the ionic concentration, electric potential, and fluid velocity distributions in the system are solved by using a perturbation method with the fixed charge density of the particle and the zeta potential of the cavity wall as the small perturbation parameters...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Thomas Kurz, Jurjen Pieter Couperus, Jakob Matthias Krämer, Hao Ding, Stephan Kuschel, Alexander Köhler, Omid Zarini, Dominik Hollatz, David Schinkel, Richard D'Arcy, Jan-Patrick Schwinkendorf, Jens Osterhoff, Arie Irman, Ulrich Schramm, Stefan Karsch
We revise the calibration of scintillating screens commonly used to detect relativistic electron beams with low average current, e.g., from laser-plasma accelerators, based on new and expanded measurements that include higher charge density and different types of screens than previous work [Buck et al. , Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81 , 033301 (2010)]. Electron peak charge densities up to 10 nC/mm2 were provided by focused picosecond-long electron beams delivered by the Electron Linac for beams with high Brilliance and low Emittance (ELBE) at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf...
September 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Francesco Maddalena, Xin Yu Chin, Daniele Cortecchia, Annalisa Bruno, Cesare Soci
Perovskite light-emitting field-effect transistors (PeLEFETs) provide a versatile device architecture to control transport and electroluminescence properties of hybrid perovskites, enabling injection of high charge carrier density and spatial control of the radiative recombination zone. Ionic screening and organic cation polarization effects typical of metal-halide perovskites, however, critically affect PeLEFET efficiency and reliability. In this work, we demonstrate a new device operation mode based on high-frequency modulation of the applied voltages, which allows significant reduction of ionic drift/screening in methylammonium lead iodide light-emitting transistors...
October 2, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Lu Wang, Yali Wang, Lushan Yu, Cuirong Sun, Yu Kang, Zeng Su
A mass spectrometric method is introduced for rapid and accurate chiral quantification by examining a trimeric metal complex into which a chiral reference is incorporated with the analyte. Several metal ions (CuII, NiII, MgII, MnII, CoII, ZnII) were selected as the central metal ion, and chiral drugs ezetimibe (EZM) and ambrisentan (AMB) were used as the reference to each other for isomeric differentiation by using electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Doubly charged trimeric cluster ions instead of the singly charged clusters were applied in this study...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Surovi Saikia, Manobjyoti Bordoloi, Rajeev Sarmah, Bhaskor Kolita
Hit, Lead & Candidate Discovery Plant-based antiviral therapy is the current need for holistic health care management, which can be achieved through screening of phytochemicals and designing of antiviral peptides. There exist certain host's factors which are directly involved for rapid viral replication causing worldwide pandemic. A total of 177 phytochemicals from Ocimum sanctum (L.), Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers, Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl., Allium sativum (L.), Curcuma longa (L.), and Aloe vera (L...
October 1, 2018: Drug Development Research
Johnson Nwabueze Okoro, Chinenye Nnenna Ezeonwuka, Justus Uchenna Onu
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess the level of psychological distress of offenders newly brought into prison custody in a Nigerian prison and investigate the relationship with socio-demographic and penal characteristics. Design/methodology/approach A cross-sectional study involving 236 new prison entrants who were assessed for psychological distress using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Findings A total of 267 prison inmates were newly brought to prison custody over a three-month period...
September 10, 2018: International Journal of Prisoner Health
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