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Marcus O D Sjödin, Antonio Checa, Mingxing Yang, Sven-Erik Dahlén, Åsa M Wheelock, Anders Eklund, Johan Grunewald, Craig E Wheelock
BACKGROUND: Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory multi-organ disease almost always affecting the lungs. The etiology remains unknown, but the hallmark of sarcoidosis is formation of non-caseating epithelioid cells granulomas in involved organs. In Scandinavia, > 30% of sarcoidosis patients have Löfgren's syndrome (LS), an acute disease onset mostly indicating a favorable prognosis. The impact of dysregulation of lipid mediators, which has been investigated in other inflammatory disorders, is still unknown...
December 3, 2018: Respiratory Research
Joaquim Fort, Maria Mercè Pareta, Lasse Sørensen
Using a database of early farming sites in Scandinavia, we estimate that the spread rate of the Neolithic was in the range 0.44-0.66 km yr-1 This is substantially slower (by about 50%) than the rate in continental Europe. We interpret this result in the framework of a new mathematical model that includes horizontal cultural transmission (acculturation), vertical cultural transmission (interbreeding) and demic diffusion (reproduction and dispersal of farmers). To parametrize the model, we estimate reproduction rates of early farmers using archaeological data (sum-calibrated probabilities for the dates of early Neolithic Scandinavian sites) and use them in a wave-of-advance model for the first time...
November 21, 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Anne Pohju, Anne Marie Beck, Kerstin Belqaid, Henrik Højgaard Rasmussen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Time to treat malnutrition during hospital admission is limited due to short hospital stays. Therefore, nutritional care often needs to be continued after discharge from hospital. However, health care professionals' attitudes and discharge routines may not always support continuity of good nutritional practice. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in nutritional discharge routines and related attitudes in Scandinavia (Denmark, Norway, Sweden) over a 10-year period...
December 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Volker Roelcke
The article describes the emergence of research programmes, institutions and activities of the early protagonists in the field of psychiatric genetics: Ernst Rüdin in Munich, Eliot Slater in London, Franz Kallmann in New York and Erik Essen-Möller in Lund. During the 1930s and well into the Nazi period, the last three had been research fellows at the German Research Institute for Psychiatry in Munich. It is documented that there was a continuous mutual exchange of scientific ideas and practices between these actors, and that in all four contexts there were intrinsic relations between eugenic motivations and genetic research, but with specific national adaptations...
November 1, 2018: History of Psychiatry
Åse ÖstholmBalkhed, Maria Tärnberg, Maud Nilsson, Lennart E Nilsson, Håkan Hanberger, Anita Hällgren
BACKGROUND: In a previous study, we found that 30% of individuals travelling outside Scandinavia acquired extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) in their faecal flora. The aim of this study was to determine the duration of travel-associated faecal colonisation with ESBL-PE, to assess risk factors for prolonged colonisation and to detect changes in antibiotic susceptibility during prolonged colonisation. METHODS: Individuals with travel-associated colonisation with ESBL-PE submitted faecal samples every 3rd month over a one-year period...
2018: PloS One
Angharad Jones, Michael John Donald, Jan O Jansen
BACKGROUND: Helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) are a useful means of reducing inequity of access to specialist emergency care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variations in HEMS provision across Europe, in order to inform the further development of emergency care systems. METHODS: This is a survey of primary HEMS in the 32 countries of the European Economic Area and Switzerland. Information was gathered through internet searches (May to September 2016), and by emailing service providers, requesting verification and completion of data (September 2016 to July 2017)...
December 2018: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Donald F Mcalpine, William A Shear
The millipede Craspedosoma raulinsii (Craspedosomatidae) is widespread in Central Europe from Belarus and southern Scandinavia west to Britain and Ireland. Although the species is often not common and rarely encountered (Blower 1985, Hoffman 1999, Lee 2006), Kime (2004) reports C. raulinsii as the third most widespread millipede in Belgium. Shelley (1990) reported C. raulinsii (as C. rawlinsii) for the first time from North America (from Gatineau Park, Quebec, Canada) and noted the occurrence is the first introduction of a representative of the order Chordeumatida in the New World...
August 2, 2018: Zootaxa
Jeanette F Winther, Smita Bhatia, Luise Cederkvist, Thorgerdur Gudmundsdottir, Laura Madanat-Harjuoja, Laufey Tryggvadottir, Finn Wesenberg, Henrik Hasle, Anna Sällfors Holmqvist
BACKGROUND: Childhood cancer survivors have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus. Because diabetes is a potentially modifiable risk factor for CVD in the general population, it is important to understand how diabetes affects the risk of CVD among childhood cancer survivors. METHODS: This study examined the risk of CVD among survivors with diabetes and 142,742 population comparison subjects. From the national cancer registries of the 5 Nordic countries, 29,324 one-year survivors of cancer diagnosed before the age of 20 years between 1968 and 2008 were identified...
November 15, 2018: Cancer
François Vasseur, Kevin Sartori, Etienne Baron, Florian Fort, Elena Kazakou, Jules Segrestin, Eric Garnier, Denis Vile, Cyrille Violle
Background and aims: The CSR classification categorizes plants as stress tolerators (S), ruderals (R) and competitors (C). Initially proposed as a general framework to describe ecological strategies across species, this scheme has recently been used to investigate the variation of strategies within species. For instance, ample variation along the S-R axis was found in Arabidopsis thaliana, with stress-tolerator accessions predominating in hot and dry regions, which was interpreted as a sign of functional adaptation to climate within the species...
September 25, 2018: Annals of Botany
Masami Omae, Magnus Konradsson, Mats Lindblad, Francisco Baldaque-Silva
Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is an established and effective treatment modality for endoscopic resection of premalignant and early-stage malignant gastrointestinal lesions. Compared to endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), ESD is generally associated with higher rates of en bloc, R0, and curative resections and lower rates of local recurrence. As in ESD the whole lesion is resected in one piece, it enables the best possible T-staging based on pathology assessment of the resected lesion. So far, there have been few reports of esophageal ESD in the West and none from Scandinavia...
September 24, 2018: Läkartidningen
Meriam Guellil, Oliver Kersten, Amine Namouchi, Egil L Bauer, Michael Derrick, Anne Ø Jensen, Nils C Stenseth, Barbara Bramanti
Louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) is known to have killed millions of people over the course of European history and remains a major cause of mortality in parts of the world. Its pathogen, Borrelia recurrentis , shares a common vector with global killers such as typhus and plague and is known for its involvement in devastating historical epidemics such as the Irish potato famine. Here, we describe a European and historical genome of B recurrentis , recovered from a 15th century skeleton from Oslo. Our distinct European lineage has a discrete genomic makeup, displaying an ancestral oppA-1 gene and gene loss in antigenic variation sites...
October 9, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jose M Garrido-Perez, Carlos Ordóñez, Ricardo García-Herrera, David Barriopedro
This paper characterizes the spatiotemporal variability of air stagnation over the Euro-Mediterranean area for the 1979-2016 period by using a simplified air stagnation index (ASI) based on daily precipitation as well as near-surface and upper wind speed data. We have also undertaken the first comparison of stagnation as derived from meteorological reanalysis and observations, finding a reasonably good agreement between both datasets. The main differences arise from the surface wind speed, as this field depends on the local setting of the observational sites and imperfect parameterizations within the reanalysis model...
December 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Péter Biró, Bernadette Haase-Kromwijk, Tommy Andersson, Eyjólfur Ingi Ásgeirsson, Tatiana Baltesová, Ioannis Boletis, Catarina Bolotinha, Gregor Bond, Georg Böhmig, Lisa Burnapp, Katarína Cechlárová, Paola Di Ciaccio, Jiri Fronek, Karine Hadaya, Aline Hemke, Christian Jacquelinet, Rachel Johnson, Rafal Kieszek, Dirk Kuypers, Ruthanne Leishman, Marie-Alice Macher, David Manlove, Georgia Menoudakou, Mikko Salonen, Bart Smeulders, Vito Sparacino, Frits Spieksma, María de la Oliva Valentín Muñoz, Nic Wilson, Joris Vd Klundert
BACKGROUND: Considerable differences exist among the living donor Kidney Exchange Programmes (KEPs) that are in use and being built in Europe, contributing to a variation in the number of living donor transplants [6]. Efforts of European KEPs to exchange (best) practices and share approaches to address challenges have, however, been limited. METHODS: Experts from 23 European countries, collaborating on the ENCKEP COST Action, developed a questionnaire to collect detailed information on the functioning of all existing KEPs in Europe, as well as their opportunities and challenges...
September 21, 2018: Transplantation
Kevin P Marks, Nina Madsen Sjö, Philip Wilson
AIM: The aim of this systematic review was to investigate screening practices with the Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) and the Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional (ASQ:SE) in the USA and Scandinavia and to identify practical lessons and research opportunities. METHOD: The review was performed for ASQ- and ASQ:SE-related studies in children from birth to 5 years. From nine databases and 1689 references (published from 1988-2018), 127 articles were included and categorized using Covidence online software...
September 23, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Nina Kmet Lunaček, Mario Poljak, Mojca Matičič
With an estimated 15 million infected persons in Europe, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is still one of the leading causes of chronic liver disease and associated mortality. The HBV infection prevalence in the general population depends on the region and ranges from 0.01% in Scandinavia to 10.3% in Kyrgyzstan. The prevalence of the 10 HBV genotypes (A-J) varies among different parts of the world, with genotypes A and D being most prevalent in Europe. Other HBV genotypes are mainly imported into Europe from other parts of the world and are rarely detected...
September 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Panonica, et Adriatica
K S Tveit, A Duvetorp, M Østergaard, L Skov, K Danielsen, L Iversen, O Seifert
BACKGROUND: There are scarce data in Scandinavia about treatment satisfaction among patients with psoriasis (PsO) and/or psoriatic arthritis (PsA). The number of patients receiving systemic treatment is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To describe patients' experience of treatments for PsO/PsA in Sweden, Denmark and Norway, addressing communication with physicians, satisfaction with treatment and concerns regarding treatment options. METHODS: The NORdic PAtient survey of Psoriasis and Psoriatic arthritis (NORPAPP) asked 22 050 adults (randomly selected from the YouGov panels in Sweden, Denmark and Norway) whether they had PsO/PsA...
September 22, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Carl-Fredrik Flach, Maja Genheden, Jerker Fick, D G Joakim Larsson
There is concern that sewage treatment plants (STPs) serve as hotspots for emergence and selection of antibiotic resistant bacteria. However, field studies investigating resistance selection by comparing bacterial populations in influents and effluents have produced variable and sometimes contradictive results. Also, large taxonomic changes between influents and effluents make interpretation of studies measuring relative gene abundances ambiguous. The aim here was to investigate whether within-species selection occurs by conducting a comprehensive screening of Escherichia coli isolated from composite influent and effluent samples collected at Scandinavia's largest STP, accompanied by analyses of antibiotics residues...
October 2, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Arne K Andreassen, Kaspar Broch, Hans Eiskjær, Kristjan Karason, Einar Gude, Dorte Mølbak, Wenche Stueflotten, Lars Gullestad
BACKGROUND: Systemic hypertension is prevalent in heart transplant recipients, and has been partially attributed to treatment with calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs). The SCHEDULE trial was the first randomized trial to study early withdrawal of CNIs in de novo heart transplant recipients, comparing an everolimus-based immunosuppressive regimen with conventional CNI-based treatment. As a prespecified secondary endpoint, blood pressure was repeatedly compared across treatment arms. METHODS: SCHEDULE was a prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled, parallel-group, open-label trial in de novo adult heart transplant recipients, undertaken at transplant centers in Scandinavia...
September 11, 2018: Transplantation
Mariano R Recio, Barbara Zimmermann, Camilla Wikenros, Andreas Zetterberg, Petter Wabakken, Håkan Sand
This dataset article describes the data and sources used to model risks for the recolonizing wolf ( Canis lupus ) in Sweden and Norway in the article "Integrated spatially-explicit models predict pervasive risks to recolonizing wolves in Scandinavia from human-driven mortality" (Recio et al., 2018). Presences on wolf territories were used to model the potential distribution of the species. Presences of human-driven mortalities including traffic collisions, culling (protective/defensive, and licensed hunting), and illegal killing (i...
October 2018: Data in Brief
Taru Lienemann, Wolfgang Beyer, Kirsti Pelkola, Heidi Rossow, Alexandra Rehn, Markus Antwerpen, Gregor Grass
BACKGROUND: Anthrax, the zoonotic disease caused by the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is nowadays rare in northern parts of Europe including Finland and Scandinavia. Only two minor outbreaks of anthrax in 1988 and in 2004 and one sporadic infection in 2008 have been detected in animals in Finland since the 1970's. Here, we report on two Finnish B. anthracis strains that were isolated from spleen and liver of a diseased calf related to the outbreak in 1988 (strain HKI4363/88) and from a local scrotum and testicle infection of a bull in 2008 (strain BA2968)...
September 3, 2018: BMC Microbiology
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