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Dorte Bek Folkvardsen, Anders Norman, Åse Bengård Andersen, Erik Michael Rasmussen, Troels Lillebaek, Lars Jelsbak
Denmark, a tuberculosis low burden country, still experiences significant active Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) transmission, especially with one specific genotype named Cluster 2/1112-15 (C2), the most prevalent lineage in Scandinavia. In addition to environmental factors, antibiotic resistance, and human genetics, there is increasing evidence that Mtb strain variation plays a role for the outcome of infection and disease. In this study, we explore the reasons for the success of the C2 genotype by analysing strain specific polymorphisms identified through whole genome sequencing of all C2 isolates identified in Denmark between 1992 and 2014 (n = 952), and the demographic distribution of C2...
August 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gøsta Esping-Andersen, Jorge Cimentada
The recent PIACC data offer us the first ever opportunity to identify the relative salience of abilities versus social origin in comparative social mobility research. Sampling 21 countries, we identify the degree of meritocratic selection by estimating the relative influence of social origin versus individual cognitive and social skills. We pay particular attention to the possibility of skills combinations as regards both upward and downward mobility. Social skills may compensate for weak cognitive abilities, or vice-versa; and what are the added effects of commanding strong skills on both counts? This is, as far as we know, the first time that comparative mobility research has examined such skills-complementarities...
September 2018: Social Science Research
Philip A Kalra, Alexandru Burlacu, Charles J Ferro, Adrian Covic
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Non-valvular atrial fibrillation is common in patients with severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) and historically patients have been treated with vitamin K antagonists (VKA). However, these agents have questionable efficacy and are associated with increased bleeding risk. Non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOAC) have advantages over VKA in early stage CKD. In this review, we sought to establish evidence for best practice in patients with severe CKD (creatinine clearance <30 ml/min including dialysis patients) and nonvalvular atrial fibrillation...
July 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Gert Martin Hald, Mie Dahl Pind, Michael Borre, Theis Lange
INTRODUCTION: Active prostate cancer treatment is often associated with significant adverse physiological and psychological effects including significant sexual problems. Most studied among these sexual problems is erectile dysfunction while related sexual bothers such as overall sexual function and satisfaction with one's sex life are much less studied. AIM: To investigate problems related to erectile functioning, orgasmic ability, sexual function, and satisfaction with one's sex life among a cohort of Scandinavian prostate cancer patients age 40 years and older who were sexually active prior to their diagnosis of prostatic cancer...
July 12, 2018: Sexual Medicine
Mursheda Begum, Grant Lewison, Mark Lawler, Richard Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Cancer research is among the most active biomedical research domains for the European Union (EU). However, little quantitative empirical evidence is available to guide the decisions on the choice of disease site to study, specific research domain focus or allocation of research resources. To inform national/supranational cancer research policy, high-resolution intelligence is needed. METHODS: We performed a bibliometric analysis of European cancer research papers in the Web of Science from 2002 to 2013 to quantify research activity in each of the 28 EU Member States, along with Iceland, Norway and Switzerland (EUR31), which cancer sites/research domains they addressed, and their sources of financial support (2009-2013)...
September 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Asmus Vogel, Jette Stokholm, Rikke Andreasen, Bodil Dahl Henriksen, Vibeke Brønniche, Gry J Madsen, Moa Gustafsson, Susanne Overgaard, Anne-Mette Guldberg, Kasper Jørgensen
Memory assessment is a key element in neuropsychological testing. Gold standard evaluation is based on updated normative data, but in many small countries (e.g. in Scandinavia) such data are sparse. In Denmark, reference data exist for non-verbal memory tests and list-learning tests but there is no normative data for memory tests which capture narrative recall and cued recall. In a nation-wide study, Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT), WMS-III Logical Memory (LM) and a newly developed test Category Cued Memory Test (CCMT-48) were applied in 131 cognitively intact persons (aged 60-96 years)...
July 12, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Mille Nyboe Petersen, Christina Jessen-Winge, Anna Christine Meinertz Møbjerg
REVIEW QUESTION/OBJECTIVE: The objective of the review was to explore the experiences of Scandinavian women with abortions on request, that is, before, during and after the intervention. INTRODUCTION: In Scandinavia, the primary issues surrounding the abortion debate to date have been women's legal rights to an abortion, and, to a lesser extent, how women experience an abortion on request and how society could and should support them. This systematic review investigated Scandinavian women's experiences in relation to this intervention...
July 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Kathrin Sackmann, Thorsten Reemtsma, Magnus Rahmberg, Dirk Bunke
REACH aims at promoting the safe use of chemicals in Europe, inter alia by identification and regulation of substances of very high concern (SVHCs). Once identified, SVHCs need to be substituted by safer alternatives. However, substitutes are frequently not safer than the substances that they replace but rather show similar hazard profiles, resulting in regrettable substitution. This paper investigates the impact of chemicals regulation on substitution of chemicals by analyzing time trends in the industrial use of chemicals from 2000 to 2014 in Scandinavia...
July 7, 2018: Environment International
Filip Moldan, Sara E A-K Jutterström, Jakub Hruška, Richard F Wright
Chronic high deposition of nitrogen (N) to forest ecosystems can lead to increased leaching of inorganic N to surface waters, enhancing acidification and eutrophication. For 26 years nitrogen has been added as ammonium nitrate (NH4 NO3 ) at 40 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to a whole forested catchment ecosystem at Gårdsjön, Sweden, to experimentally simulate the transition from a N-limited to N-rich state. Over the first 10 years of treatment there was an increasing amount of nitrate (NO3 - ) and to a lesser extent ammonium (NH4 + ) lost in runoff, but then N leaching stabilised, and for the subsequent 16 years the fraction of N added lost in runoff remained at 9%...
July 2, 2018: Environmental Pollution
John Thegerström, Viktor Månsson, Kristian Riesbeck, Fredrik Resman
There is consensus that definitive therapy for infections with H. influenzae should include antimicrobial agents with clinical breakpoints against the bacterium. In Scandinavia, benzylpenicillin is the recommended empirical treatment for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) except in very severe cases. However, the effect of benzylpenicillin on H. influenzae infections has been debated. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of patients given benzylpenicillin with patients given wide-spectrum beta-lactams (WSBL) as empirical treatment of lower respiratory tract H...
June 30, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Claire J Mock-Muñoz de Luna, Kathrine Vitus, Mette K Torslev, Allan Krasnik, Signe S Jervelund
AIMS: Adult non-Western immigrants in Scandinavia tend to be worse off in terms of health than native-born populations, which cannot be fully ascribed to their often lower socioeconomic status (SES). This review examines if differences in health status are also present between non-Western immigrant and majority children in Denmark, Norway and Sweden, and if SES explains the differences. METHODS: Following PRISMA guidelines, relevant Scandinavian peer-reviewed quantitative publications since 1990 were identified through a systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science and SveMed...
June 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Sophia Kochalski, Carsten Riepe, Marie Fujitani, Øystein Aas, Robert Arlinghaus
Freshwater biodiversity is rapidly declining worldwide. Public support for biodiversity conservation is shaped by people's values and their knowledge, beliefs and attitudes towards the environmental domain. This study reports the results of the first multi-national, representative survey of the general public´s perceptions of river fish biodiversity in four European countries (France, Germany, Norway, Sweden; 1000 respondents per country). We confirm the expectation of many biodiversity scientists that the public has limited knowledge of freshwater fishes...
June 28, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Robert Ekblom, Birte Brechlin, Jens Persson, Linnéa Smeds, Malin Johansson, Jessica Magnusson, Øystein Flagstad, Hans Ellegren
Genetic approaches have proved valuable to the study and conservation of endangered populations, especially for monitoring programs, and there is potential for further developments in this direction by extending analyses to the genomic level. We assembled the genome of the wolverine (Gulo gulo), a mustelid that in Scandinavia has recently recovered from a significant population decline, and obtained a 2.42 Gb draft sequence representing >85% of the genome and including >21,000 protein-coding genes. We then performed whole-genome re-sequencing of 10 Scandinavian wolverines and found that genetic diversity was among the lowest detected in a red-listed population (mean genome-wide nucleotide diversity of 0...
June 23, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Filippa Nyboe Norsker, Catherine Rechnitzer, Luise Cederkvist, Laufey Tryggvadottir, Laura-Maria Madanat-Harjuoja, Ingrid Øra, Halldora K Thorarinsdottir, Kim Vettenranta, Andrea Bautz, Henrik Schrøder, Henrik Hasle, Jeanette Falck Winther
Because of the rarity of neuroblastoma and poor survival until the 1990s, information on late effects in neuroblastoma survivors is sparse. We comprehensively reviewed the long-term risk for somatic disease in neuroblastoma survivors. We identified 721 5-year survivors of neuroblastoma in Nordic population-based cancer registries and identified late effects in national hospital registries covering the period 1977-2012. Detailed treatment information was available for 46% of the survivors. The disease-specific rates of hospitalization of survivors and of 152,231 randomly selected population comparisons were used to calculate standardized hospitalization rate ratios (SHRRs) and absolute excess risks (AERs)...
June 21, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Jing Wang, Jihua Ding, Biyue Tan, Kathryn M Robinson, Ingrid H Michelson, Anna Johansson, Björn Nystedt, Douglas G Scofield, Ove Nilsson, Stefan Jansson, Nathaniel R Street, Pär K Ingvarsson
BACKGROUND: The initiation of growth cessation and dormancy represent critical life-history trade-offs between survival and growth and have important fitness effects in perennial plants. Such adaptive life-history traits often show strong local adaptation along environmental gradients but, despite their importance, the genetic architecture of these traits remains poorly understood. RESULTS: We integrate whole genome re-sequencing with environmental and phenotypic data from common garden experiments to investigate the genomic basis of local adaptation across a latitudinal gradient in European aspen (Populus tremula)...
June 4, 2018: Genome Biology
P Arvers, G Mathern, B Dautzenberg
Tobacco use is not just about manufactured cigarettes. Rolling tobacco, highly prized in the wake of price increases, is estimated to carry more toxic agents than its counterpart. This study shows that the use of cigar, pipe, cigarillos and narghile also leads to a cohort of pathologies similar to or more than what is known for smoking single cigarettes. Exotic, liquid or heated forms do just as much. The non-smoked tobacco, often fallen into disuse in France is very used in the United States and especially in Scandinavia...
June 2018: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
Paulina Sockolow, Ragnhild Hellesø, Mirjam Ekstedt
For older people who transition from hospital to home, home care is an increasingly important and effective way of managing chronic illness with skilled nursing care in the home. Communication between clinicians across care settings is fundamental for continuity of care. Poor communication of patient information is acknowledged to be a root cause of sentinel events. In Scandinavia and the United States, researchers study the communication of patient information from hospital to home care. The health care systems of these two countries differ...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Line Kenborg, Jeanette Falck Winther, Karen Markussen Linnet, Anja Krøyer, Vanna Albieri, Anna Sällfors Holmqvist, Laufey Tryggvadottir, Laura Maria Madanat-Harjuoja, Marilyn Stovall, Henrik Hasle, Jørgen H Olsen
Backgorund: A comprehensive overview of neurologic complications among survivors of central nervous system (CNS) tumors in childhood is lacking. We aimed to investigate the risk for these disorders in a large, population-based study with outcome measures from nationwide hospital registries. Methods: We identified 4,858 five-year survivors diagnosed with a CNS tumor in childhood in Denmark, Iceland, Finland, and Sweden in 1943-2007, and 166,658 matched population comparison subjects...
May 30, 2018: Neuro-oncology
C Miller, R Prenn, J Ausserer, P Hamm, S Neururer, P Paal
BACKGROUND: This study assessed the contribution made to research by Scandinavian university Departments of Anaesthesiology and their distribution among those departments. METHODS: We committed a PubMed search for all publications originating from Scandinavian university Departments of Anaesthesiology between 2001 and 2015. Articles were assigned to their author's affiliated university department and to 3 time periods 2001-2005, 2006-2010 and 2011-2015. The number of publications, original articles and citations were analysed...
May 29, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Yana Richens, Debbie M Smith, Dame Tina Lavender
To identify measurement tools which screen for the presence of fear of birth (FOB) and to determine the most effective tool/s for use in clinical practice. Fear or birth (FOB) is internationally recognised as a cause for increasing concern, despite a lack of consensus on a definition or optimal measure of assessment. There is a wide array of FOB measurement tools, however little clarity on which tool should be used to screen for FOB in clinical practice. This review explores the use of tools that are used to screen for FOB and discusses the perceived effectiveness of such tools...
June 2018: Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare: Official Journal of the Swedish Association of Midwives
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