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G Benveniste, H Rallo, L Canals Casals, A Merino, B Amante
The market share in electric vehicles (EV) is increasing. This trend is likely to continue due to the increased interest in reducing CO2 emissions. The electric vehicle market evolution depends principally on the evolution of batteries capacity. As a consequence, automobile manufacturers focus their efforts on launching in the market EVs capable to compete with internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV) in both performance and economic aspects. Although EVs are suitable for the day-to-day needs of the typical urban driver, their range is still lower than ICEV, because batteries are not able to store and supply enough energy to the vehicle and provide the same autonomy as ICEV...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Roberta Peres da Silva, Sharon de Toledo Martins, Juliana Rizzo, Flavia C G Dos Reis, Luna S Joffe, Marilene Vainstein, Livia Kmetzsch, Débora L Oliveira, Rosana Puccia, Samuel Goldenberg, Marcio L Rodrigues, Lysangela R Alves
Golgi reassembly and stacking protein (GRASP) is required for polysaccharide secretion and virulence in Cryptococcus neoformans . In fungal species, extracellular vesicles (EVs) participate in the export of polysaccharides, proteins and RNA. In the present work, we investigated if EV-mediated RNA export is functionally connected with GRASP in C. neoformans using a grasp Δ mutant. Since GRASP-mediated unconventional secretion involves autophagosome formation in yeast, we included the atg7 Δ mutant with defective autophagic mechanisms in our analysis...
August 8, 2018: Genes
Sonia R Isaacs, Ki Wook Kim, Junipearl X Cheng, Rowena A Bull, Sacha Stelzer-Braid, Fabio Luciani, William D Rawlinson, Maria E Craig
More than 100 different enterovirus (EV) genotypes infect humans and contribute to substantial morbidity. However, current methods for characterisation of full-length genomes are based on Sanger sequencing of short genomic regions, which are labour-intensive and do not enable comprehensive characterisation of viral populations. Here, we describe a simple and sensitive protocol for the amplification and sequencing of near full-length genomes of human EV species using next generation sequencing. EV genomes were amplified from 89% of samples tested, with Ct values ranging between 15...
August 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Min Hye Kim, Seng Jin Choi, Hyun Il Choi, Jun Pyo Choi, Han Ki Park, Eun Kyoung Kim, Min Jeong Kim, Byoung Seok Moon, Taek Ki Min, Mina Rho, Young Joo Cho, Sanghwa Yang, Yoon Keun Kim, You Young Kim, Bok Yang Pyun
PURPOSE: The microbial environment is an important factor that contributes to the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). Recently, it was revealed that not only bacteria itself but also extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted from bacteria affect the allergic inflammation process. However, almost all research carried out so far was related to local microorganisms, not the systemic microbial distribution. We aimed to compare the bacterial EV composition between AD patients and healthy subjects and to experimentally find out the beneficial effect of some bacterial EV composition...
September 2018: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
Diego Alberti, Cristina Grange, Stefano Porta, Silvio Aime, Lorenzo Tei, Simonetta Geninatti Crich
Recent research results report that extracellular vesicles (EVs) have a central role in both physiological and pathological processes involving intercellular communication. Herein, a simple EVs labeling procedure based on the metabolic labeling of secreting cells (mesenchymal stroma cells, MSCs) with a fluorescein-containing bio-orthogonal dye is described. This procedure was carried out by incubating cells for 72 h with tetraacetylated N -azidoacetyl-d-mannosamine (Ac4 ManNAz), a modified sugar containing an azido group that, upon incorporation on the external surface of the cytoplasmatic cell membrane, is specifically conjugated with cyclooctyne-modified fluorescein isothiocyanate (ADIBO-FITC)...
July 31, 2018: ACS Omega
Shan Li, Pengtao Gong, Lixin Tai, Xin Li, Xiaocen Wang, Chunyan Zhao, Xu Zhang, Zhengtao Yang, Ju Yang, Jianhua Li, Xichen Zhang
Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular parasite, which causes significant economic losses in the cattle industry. However, the immune mechanism of the parasite-host interaction is not yet fully understood. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as a ubiquitous mechanism by which almost all cells, especially immune and tumor cells, participate in intercellular communications. Although studies have indicated that EVs secreted by Toxoplasma gondii or Trypanosoma brucei promote exchanges of biological molecules important for the host-parasite interplay, however, EVs and their biological activities in N...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Thorsten R Doeppner, Mathias Bähr, Bernd Giebel, Dirk M Hermann
Following the implementation of thrombolysis and endovascular recanalization strategies, stroke therapy has profoundly changed in recent years. In spite of these advancements, a considerable proportion of stroke patients still exhibit functional impairment in the long run, increasing the need for adjuvant therapies that promote neurological recovery. Stem cell therapies have initially attracted great interest in the stroke field, since there were hopes that transplanted cells may allow for the replacement of lost cells...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
Jose A Rodriguez, Josune Orbe, Goren Saenz-Pipaon, Gloria Abizanda, Natalia Gebara, Flavia Radulescu, Pedro M Azcarate, Luis Alonso-Perez, David Merino, Felipe Prosper, Jose A Paramo, Carmen Roncal
INTRODUCTION: Wound healing after myocardial infarction (MI) is mediated by different cell types, secreted proteins, components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and, as increasing evidences suggest, extracellular vesicles (EVs). We aim to determine the dynamics of release and origin of EVs after MI, as well as their biological activity on endothelial cells (ECs). METHODS: MI was induced in WT mice and blood and tissues collected at baseline, 3, 15 and 30 days post-ligation for cardiac function (echocardiography) and histological evaluation...
August 1, 2018: Thrombosis Research
Fatemeh Momen-Heravi, Stephen J Getting, Sterghios Athanasios Moschos
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a heterogenous population of vesicles originate from cells. EVs are found in different biofluids and carry different macromolecules, including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, providing a snap shot of the parental cells at the time of release. EVs have the ability to transfer molecular cargoes to other cells and can initiate different physiological and pathological processes. Mounting lines of evidence demonstrated that EVs' cargo and machinery is affected in disease states, positioning EVs as potential sources for the discovery of novel biomarkers...
August 3, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Tingting Wang, Illarion V Turko
Circulating in blood, extracellular vesicles (EVs) and lipoprotein particles (LPs) have diagnostic and prognostic value. To unambiguously define their functions, separation protocols need to be developed. However, because of their similar size and density, traditional approaches to separate EVs and LPs often fail to provide the required resolution. Further development and standardization of affinity-based protocols is necessary and a quantitative method is needed to assess the efficiency of LPs depletion from EVs samples...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Xiaofeng Wu, Li Li, Anton Iliuk, W Andy Tao
Analysis of protein phosphorylation in extracellular vesicles (EVs) offers an unprecedented potential for early-stage disease diagnosis. However, prior to the phosphoproteome analysis step, the isolation of EVs from biofluids remains a challenging issue to overcome due to the low yield and impurity from current isolation methods. Here, we carry out an extensive assessment of several EV isolation methods including a novel rapid isolation method EVTRAP for highly efficient capture of extracellular vesicles from human urine sample...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Frank Gieseler, Corinna Plattfaut, Tabea Quecke, Annika Freund, Hendrik Ungefroren, Fanny Ender
Microvesicles (MVs) represent a subgroup of extracellular vesicles (EVs) emerging from various cells by blebbing of their outer membrane. Therefore, they share features such as membrane composition and antigenicity with their parental cells. Released by many immune and tumor cells, MVs act as intercellular messengers, account for horizontal gene transfer and can activate the coagulation system. With the aim to investigate their relevance for tumor cell biology, we characterized MVs released by human tumor cell lines of various origins in the absence or presence of TNF-α...
August 6, 2018: Cell Biology International
Marcio L Rodrigues, Arturo Casadevall
The biological functions of fungal extracellular vesicles (EVs) or exosomes have been mostly determined on the basis of the assumption that they are vehicles of trans-cell wall transport and molecular export. The possibility that fungal cells can bind to and internalize EVs remained largely unaddressed. Recent studies, however, demonstrated that fungal cells can internalize host-derived and / or fungal EVs through processes that profoundly modify their regular physiology. To illustrate this novel view, we discuss i) the uptake of plant EVs by phytopathogenic fungi culminating in growth defects and virulence attenuation, ii) the influence of EV internalization in prion transmission and biofilm formation in yeast cells, and iii) the EV-mediated transfer of virulence in isolates of Cryptococcus gattii...
August 5, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
F Y Yu, R N Zhu, J Deng, Q W Song, L P Jia, L Y Liu, Y Qian
Objective: To understand the epidemiological and etiological characteristics of enterovirus (EV)-associated diseases among children in Beijing from 2010 to 2016. Methods: This was a repeated cross-sectional study. The throat swabs were collected from children with probable EV-associated diseases at the Children' s Hospital Affiliated to Capital Institute of Pediatrics from 2010 to 2016. The samples were sent for pan-EV, enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) detection by real-time fluorescence reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) ...
August 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Yinpeng Jin, Junyi Wang, Hongchao Li, Shane Gao, Rongfeng Shi, Danjing Yang, Xianli Wang, Xi Wang, Liang Zhu, Xiaojin Wang, Chengwei Chen, Ke Ning, Zhengliang Gao, Jun Xu, Qingchun Fu
It has previously been reported that human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) can promote the regeneration of damaged tissues in rats with liver failure through a 'paracrine effect'. Here we demonstrate a therapeutic effect of hASCs derived Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) on rat models with acute liver failure, as shown by the improvement of the survival rate by >70% compared to controls. Gene sequencing of rat liver revealed an increase in human long-chain non-coding RNA (lncRNA) H19 after hASC-derived EVs transplantation...
August 2, 2018: EBioMedicine
Aida Zulueta, Michela Colombo, Valeria Peli, Monica Falleni, Delfina Tosi, Mario Ricciardi, Alessandro Baisi, Gaetano Bulfamante, Raffaella Chiaramonte, Anna Caretti
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are multi-potent non-hematopoietic stem cells, residing in most tissues including the lung. MSCs have been used in therapy of chronic inflammatory lung diseases such as Cystic Fibrosis (CF), asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but the main beneficial effects reside in the anti-inflammatory potential of the released extracellular vesicles (EVs). Recent reports demonstrate that EVs are effective in animal model of asthma, E...
August 1, 2018: Cellular Signalling
Yilin Zhao, Haihao Zhang, Hongbo Liu, Jie Zhang, Licun He, Hao Sun, Xiaoqin Huang, Zhaoqing Yang, Shaohui Ma
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infectious disease caused by multiple enteroviruses (EVs) in China. To better define the etiologic agents and clinical characteristics of HFMD, we conducted this study in Yunnan, China.In this study, 1280 stool specimens were collected from pediatric patients hospitalized for treatment of HFMD in 2010. EV was detected with nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and directly genotyped by gene sequencing of the viral protein 1 (VP1) region. Phylogenetic analysis was performed based on the VP1 partial gene and the clinical characteristics were analyzed using SPSS Software...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Sharad Kholia, Maria Beatriz Herrera Sanchez, Massimo Cedrino, Elli Papadimitriou, Marta Tapparo, Maria Chiara Deregibus, Maria Felice Brizzi, Ciro Tetta, Giovanni Camussi
With limited therapeutic intervention in preventing the progression to end-stage renal disease, chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains a global health-care burden. Aristolochic acid (AA) induced nephropathy is a model of CKD characterised by inflammation, tubular injury, and interstitial fibrosis. Human liver stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles (HLSC-EVs) have been reported to exhibit therapeutic properties in various disease models including acute kidney injury. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of HLSC-EVs on tubular regeneration and interstitial fibrosis in an AA-induced mouse model of CKD...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Daisy Sproviero, Sabrina La Salvia, Marta Giannini, Valeria Crippa, Stella Gagliardi, Stefano Bernuzzi, Luca Diamanti, Mauro Ceroni, Orietta Pansarasa, Angelo Poletti, Cristina Cereda
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive adult-onset neurodegenerative disease, that affects cortical, bulbar and spinal motor neurons, and it is considered a proteinopathy, in which pathological proteins (SOD1, TDP-43, and FUS) may accumulate and interfere with neuronal functions eventually leading to cell death. These proteins can be released from cells and transported in the body fluids by extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs are spherical vesicles, which are classified mainly in microvesicles (MVs) and exosomes (EXOs) based on their biogenesis, size and surface markers...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
James Jabalee, Rebecca Towle, Cathie Garnis
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a heterogeneous collection of membrane-bound structures that play key roles in intercellular communication. EVs are potent regulators of tumorigenesis and function largely via the shuttling of cargo molecules (RNA, DNA, protein, etc.) among cancer cells and the cells of the tumor stroma. EV-based crosstalk can promote proliferation, shape the tumor microenvironment, enhance metastasis, and allow tumor cells to evade immune destruction. In many cases these functions have been linked to the presence of specific cargo molecules...
August 1, 2018: Cells
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