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Ricardo Palacios-Aguilar, Oscar Flores-Villela
We present an updated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles for the state of Guerrero, Mexico. This list is based on bibliographic records, the revision of scientific collections and the authors' field notes. The herpetofauna of the state includes 259 species (78 amphibians, 181 reptiles), of which three are introduced. The conservation status of all native species was assessed using three independent systems (NOM-059, IUCN and EVS). Finally, the geographic distribution of amphibians and reptiles is discussed in the context of both the biogeographic provinces within the state and the influence of road location on specimen collection patterns...
May 22, 2018: Zootaxa
Jun-Pyo Choi, Seong Gyu Jeon, Yoon-Keun Kim, You Sook Cho
BACKGROUND: House dust mite (HDM) is the major source of indoor allergens that cause airway disease. Recent evidence suggests that Gram-negative/positive bacteria produce nano-sized extracellular vesicles (EVs) containing diverse components, including various immunostimulatory molecules. However, the association between bacteria-derived EVs and development of airway disease is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To identify and isolate HDM derived EVs and to evaluate their effect on the development of airway inflammation...
October 12, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Qin Mao, Phuong D Nguyen, Rabie M Shanti, Shihong Shi, Pasha Shakoori, Qunzhou Zhang, Anh D Le
A fully functional recovery of peripheral nerve injury remains a major challenge and an unmet clinical need. Recent evidence has reported promising therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) in experimental models of tissue injuries and inflammatory diseases, but less is known about their effects on peripheral nerve regeneration. Here, we investigated the effects of GMSC-derived EVs on peripheral nerve regeneration of crush-injured mice sciatic nerves. In vivo studies mimicking clinical nerve repair showed that locally wrapping gelfoam embedded with GMSC-derived EVs at the crush injury site promoted functional recovery and axonal regeneration, which were comparable to effects conferred by direct transplantation of GMSCs...
October 12, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Aleksandra Leszczynska, Mangesh Kulkarni, Alexander V Ljubimov, Mehrnoosh Saghizadeh
Limbal epithelial stem cells (LESC) maintenance requires communication between stem cells and neighboring stromal keratocytes. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important for intercellular communication in various stem cell niches. We explored the regulatory roles of limbal stromal cell (LSC)-derived exosomes (Exos), an EV sub-population, in limbal epithelial cells (LEC) in normal and diabetic limbal niche and determined differences in Exo cargos from normal and diabetic LSC. Wound healing and proliferation rates in primary normal LEC were significantly enhanced upon treatment by normal Exos (N-Exos), but not by diabetic Exos (DM-Exos)...
October 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Teresa Rodriguez-Calvo
Enteroviruses have been historically associated to type 1 diabetes. Definitive proof for their implication in disease development is lacking but growing evidence suggests that they could be involved in beta cell destruction either directly by killing beta cells or indirectly, by creating an exacerbated inflammatory response in the islets, capable of attracting autoreactive T cells to the "scene of crime". Epidemiological and serological studies have been associated with the appearance of islet autoimmunity and EV RNA has been detected in prospective studies...
October 11, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Kyung Yoo, Ning Li, Vishruti Makani, Ravi Singh, Anthony Atala, Baisong Lu
microRNAs play important roles in physiologic and pathologic regulation, but their delivery for use in therapeutic applications is challenging. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), which are being explored as drug delivery vehicles, are stable in circulation and contain miRNAs. However, using EVs to deliver miRNAs has been limited by the difficulty of loading miRNAs into EVs. Here we describe a method to produce miRNA-enriched EVs in large quantities. We show that overexpressing a miRNA precursor in cells enormously increases the specific miRNA content in EVs...
October 11, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
Arash Latifkar, Richard A Cerione, Marc A Antonyak
Tumor cells interact with each other, and their surroundings, using a variety of mechanisms to promote virtually all aspects of cancer progression. One such form of intercellular communication that has been attracting considerable attention from the cancer community and the pharmaceutical industry in recent years involves the ability of cancer cells to generate multiple distinct types of non-classical secretory vesicles, generally referred to as extracellular vesicles (EVs). Microvesicles (MVs) represent one of the major classes of EVs and are formed as a result of the outward budding and fission of the plasma membrane...
October 8, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
Amankeldi A Salybekov, Ainur K Salybekova, Roberto Pola, Takayuki Asahara
The Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway plays an important role in embryonic and postnatal vascular development and in maintaining the homeostasis of organs. Under physiological conditions, Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), a secreted protein belonging to the HH family, regulates endothelial cell growth, promotes cell migration and stimulates the formation of new blood vessels. The present review highlights recent advances made in the field of SHH signaling in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). The canonical and non-canonical SHH signaling pathways in EPCs and endothelial cells (ECs) related to homeostasis, SHH signal transmission by extracellular vesicles (EVs) or exosomes containing single-strand non-coding miRNAs and impaired SHH signaling in cardiovascular diseases are discussed...
October 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Marina Loguinova, Natalia Pinegina, Valeria Kogan, Murad Vagida, Anush Arakelyan, Alexander Shpektor, Leonid Margolis, Elena Vasilieva
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is associated with activation of various cells, including platelets that form monocyte-platelet complexes (MPCs). Here, we analysed MPC in vivo and in vitro and investigated the abilities of different monocyte subclasses to form MPC, the characteristics of the cells involved in MPC formation and MPC changes in AMI. We identified MPC by co-staining for platelet antigen CD41a and monocyte antigens CD14 and CD16. Platelet activation was evaluated from expression of phosphatidylserine as revealed by annexin V...
October 9, 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
J Solowiej-Wedderburn, D J Smith, S S Lopes, T D Montenegro-Johnson
In certain vertebrate species, the developing embryo breaks left-right symmetry in a transient organising structure: the "Left-Right Organiser" (LRO) known as the "node" in mice, and "Kupffer's vesicle" in fish. Directional cilia-driven flow is integral to this symmetry-breaking process, however the mechanism by which this flow is translated into an asymmetric signal remains contested; the principal theories are either flow transport of vesicles containing morphogens, or flow mechanosensing by cilia...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Robert Zarnowski, Hiram Sanchez, Antonio S Covelli, Eddie Dominguez, Anna Jaromin, Jörg Berhardt, Christian Heiss, Parastoo Azadi, Aaron Mitchell, David R Andes
Cells from all kingdoms of life produce extracellular vesicles (EVs). Their cargo is protected from the environment by the surrounding lipid bilayer. EVs from many organisms have been shown to function in cell-cell communication, relaying signals that impact metazoan development, microbial quorum sensing, and pathogenic host-microbe interactions. Here, we have investigated the production and functional activities of EVs in a surface-associated microbial community or biofilm of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans...
October 8, 2018: PLoS Biology
Rebecca L McCullough, Megan R McMullen, Kyle L Poulsen, Adam Kim, M Edward Medof, Laura E Nagy
Background and aims: Chronic ethanol exposure results in inflammation in adipose tissue; this response is associated with activation of complement as well as the development of alcohol-related liver disease (ALD). Adipose communicates with other organs, including liver, via the release of soluble mediators, such as adipokines and cytokines, characterized as the "adipose secretome." Here we investigated the role of the anaphaylatoxin receptors C3aR and C5aR1 in the development of adipose tissue inflammation and regulation of the adipose secretome in murine ALD (mALD)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Clair Crewe, Nolwenn Joffin, Joseph M Rutkowski, Min Kim, Fang Zhang, Dwight A Towler, Ruth Gordillo, Philipp E Scherer
We have uncovered the existence of extracellular vesicle (EV)-mediated signaling between cell types within the adipose tissue (AT) proper. This phenomenon became evident in our attempts at generating an adipocyte-specific knockout of caveolin 1 (cav1) protein. Although we effectively ablated the CAV1 gene in adipocytes, cav1 protein remained abundant. With the use of newly generated mouse models, we show that neighboring endothelial cells (ECs) transfer cav1-containing EVs to adipocytes in vivo, which reciprocate by releasing EVs to ECs...
October 3, 2018: Cell
Wen Shen, Kaizhu Guo, Gary Brent Adkins, Qiaoshi Jiang, Yang Liu, Sabrina Sedano, Yaokai Duan, Wei Yan, Shizhen Emily Wang, Kristina Bergersen, Danielle Worth, Emma H Wilson, Wenwan Zhong
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) actively participate in intercellular communication and pathological processes. Studying the molecular signatures of EVs is the key to reveal their biological functions and clinical values, which, however, is greatly hindered by their sub-100-nm dimensions, the low quantities of biomolecules each EV carries, and the large population heterogeneity. Here, we report the single-EV Flow Cytometry Analysis technique that realizes single EV counting and phenotyping in a conventional flow cytometer for the first time, enabled by Target-Initiated Engineering (TIE) of DNA nanostructures on each EV...
October 6, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Giulia Cesi, Demetra Philippidou, Ines Kozar, Yeoun Jin Kim, Francois Bernardin, Guillaume Van Niel, Anke Wienecke-Baldacchino, Paul Felten, Elisabeth Letellier, Sonja Dengler, Dorothee Nashan, Claude Haan, Stephanie Kreis
BACKGROUND: Drug resistance remains an unsolved clinical issue in oncology. Despite promising initial responses obtained with BRAF and MEK kinase inhibitors, resistance to treatment develops within months in virtually all melanoma patients. METHODS: Microarray analyses were performed in BRAF inhibitor-sensitive and resistant cell lines to identify changes in the transcriptome that might play a role in resistance. siRNA approaches and kinase inhibitors were used to assess the involvement of the identified Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) in drug resistance...
October 5, 2018: Molecular Cancer
Zubair Nizamudeen, Robert Markus, Rhys Lodge, Christopher Parmenter, Mark Platt, Lisa Chakrabarti, Virginie Sottile
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have prevalent roles in cancer biology and regenerative medicine. Conventional techniques for characterising EVs including electron microscopy (EM), nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and tuneable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS), have been reported to produce high variability in particle count (EM) and poor sensitivity in detecting EVs below 50 nm in size (NTA and TRPS), making accurate and unbiased EV analysis technically challenging. This study introduces direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (d-STORM) as an efficient and reliable characterisation approach for stem cell-derived EVs...
October 2, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular cell research
Jihye Kim, Bum-Ho Bin, Eun-Jeong Choi, Hyun Gee Lee, Tae Ryong Lee, Eun-Gyung Cho
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) represents the most common inflammatory skin disorder in children showing massive infiltration of immune cells. The colonization of AD-afflicted skin by Staphylococcus aureus and S. aureus-derived extracellular vesicles (SEVs) has been associated with AD pathogenesis; however, the molecular mechanism underlying SEV-mediated inflammatory responses remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We investigated how SEVs can mediate inflammatory responses in AD pathogenesis by examining the effect of SEVs on human dermal microvascular endothelia cells (HDMECs)...
October 4, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Gabriel Gustafsson, Camilla Lööv, Emma Persson, Diana F Lázaro, Shuko Takeda, Joakim Bergström, Anna Erlandsson, Dag Sehlin, Leonora Balaj, Bence György, Martin Hallbeck, Tiago F Outeiro, Xandra O Breakefield, Bradley T Hyman, Martin Ingelsson
In Parkinson's disease and other Lewy body disorders, the propagation of pathology has been accredited to the spreading of extracellular α-synuclein (α-syn). Although the pathogenic mechanisms are not fully understood, cell-to-cell transfer of α-syn via exosomes and other extracellular vesicles (EVs) has been reported. Here, we investigated whether altered molecular properties of α-syn can influence the distribution and secretion of α-syn in human neuroblastoma cells. Different α-syn variants, including α-syn:hemi-Venus and disease-causing mutants, were overexpressed and EVs were isolated from the conditioned medium...
October 4, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Daniela Osti, Massimiliano Del Bene, Germana Rappa, Mark Santos, Vittoria Matafora, Cristina Richichi, Stefania Faletti, Galina V Beznoussenko, Alexandre Mironov, Angela Bachi, Lorenzo Fornasari, Daniele Bongetta, Paolo Gaetani, Francesco DiMeco, Aurelio Lorico, Giuliana Pelicci
PURPOSE: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor. The identification of blood biomarkers reflecting the tumor status represents a major unmet need for optimal clinical management of GBM patients. Their high number in body fluids, their stability and the presence of many tumor-associated proteins and RNAs make extracellular vesicles (EVs) potentially optimal biomarkers. Here, we investigated the potential role of plasma EVs from GBM patients for diagnosis and follow-up after treatment and as a prognostic tool...
October 4, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Sandra Jesus, Edna Soares, Maria Teresa Cruz, Olga Borges
Over the past few years, exosomes, a class of extracellular vesicles (EVs), have emerged as key players for inter-cellular communication ultimately modulating the behavior of target cells with countless outcomes. Nevertheless, the potential role of exosomes as vaccine adjuvants remains largely unexplored. Herein, we hypothesized that exosomes derived from immune cells may have an immunostimulatory effect and could constitute a good target towards the development of new fine-tuned vaccine adjuvants. To accomplish this goal, exosomes isolated from lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (LPS)-stimulated human monocytic cell line (THP-1) were characterized and tested for their non-specific immunostimulatory activity when administered subcutaneously to healthy mice; additionally, exosomes' vaccine adjuvant ability was also disclosed after their inclusion in vaccine formulations...
October 1, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
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