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Clinical optics

Turgay Saritas, Victor G Puelles, Xiao-Tong Su, James A McCormick, Paul A Welling, David H Ellison
Distal nephron remodeling contributes to the pathophysiology of many clinically relevant scenarios, including diuretic resistance and certain Mendelian disorders of blood pressure. However, constitutive genetic disruptions are likely to have substantial developmental effects in this segment, and whether tubule remodeling upon physiological stimuli is a normal homeostatic mechanism is not known. Since the distal nephron acts as a potassium sensor, we assessed proliferation and tubule length in three dimensions upon dietary or inducible genetic manipulation by using optical clearing of adult mouse kidneys, whole-mount immunolabeling, and advanced light microscopy...
December 4, 2018: Cell Reports
Leonardo Seidi Shigueoka, José Paulo Cabral de Vasconcellos, Rui Barroso Schimiti, Alexandre Soares Castro Reis, Gabriel Ozeas de Oliveira, Edson Satoshi Gomi, Jayme Augusto Rocha Vianna, Renato Dichetti Dos Reis Lisboa, Felipe Andrade Medeiros, Vital Paulino Costa
PURPOSE: To test the ability of machine learning classifiers (MLCs) using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and standard automated perimetry (SAP) parameters to discriminate between healthy and glaucomatous individuals, and to compare it to the diagnostic ability of the combined structure-function index (CSFI), general ophthalmologists and glaucoma specialists. DESIGN: Cross-sectional prospective study. METHODS: Fifty eight eyes of 58 patients with early to moderate glaucoma (median value of the mean deviation = -3...
2018: PloS One
H Schneider, A S Steigerwald-Otremba, M Häfer, F Krause, M Scholz, R Haak
OBJECTIVE: Margin analysis of Class III and IV composite restorations in vitro and in vivo occurred by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). The results were compared and related to clinical evaluation. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eight Class III composite restorations were imaged in vitro using OCT and SEM. The margins were analyzed quantitatively. OCT signals were verified by assignment to the criteria perfect margin, gap, and positive/negative ledge...
October 10, 2018: Operative Dentistry
Ferdinand F E Kohle, Joshua A Hinckley, Songying Li, Nikhil Dhawan, William P Katt, Jacob A Erstling, Ulrike Werner-Zwanziger, Josef Zwanziger, Richard A Cerione, Ulrich B Wiesner
In quantum materials, macroscopic behavior is governed in nontrivial ways by quantum phenomena. This is usually achieved by exquisite control over atomic positions in crystalline solids. Here, it is demonstrated that the use of disordered glassy materials provides unique opportunities to tailor quantum material properties. By borrowing ideas from single-molecule spectroscopy, single delocalized π-electron dye systems are isolated in relatively rigid ultrasmall (<10 nm diameter) amorphous silica nanoparticles...
December 5, 2018: Advanced Materials
Alexander Sumaroka, Alexandra V Garafalo, Artur V Cideciyan, Jason Charng, Alejandro J Roman, Windy Choi, Supna Saxena, Valeryia Aksianiuk, Susanne Kohl, Bernd Wissinger, Samuel G Jacobson
Purpose: To compare the phenotype of blue cone monochromacy (BCM) caused by large deletion mutations with those having the C203R missense mutation. Methods: BCM patients with large deletion mutations (n = 21; age range, 5-60 years), and with the C203R missense mutation (n = 13; age range, 5-70 years), were studied with optical coherence tomography, visual acuity, and perimetric sensitivity in a retrospective observational case series. Perceptual estimates of spatial resolution driven by rods, S-cones, and L/M-cones were obtained by the choice of chromatic gratings presented on varied adapting conditions with a modified microperimeter...
December 3, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Neringa Jurkute, Joshua Harvey, Patrick Yu-Wai-Man
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is the most common primary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) disorder in the population and it carries a poor visual prognosis. In this article, we review the development of treatment strategies for LHON, the evidence base and the areas of unmet clinical need. RECENT FINDINGS: There is accumulating evidence that increasing mitochondrial biogenesis could be an effective strategy for protecting retinal ganglion cells in LHON...
November 30, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Stefanie J Rodenbeck, Devin D Mackay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The funduscopic examination can be a technically difficult, and often omitted, portion of the neurologic examination, despite its great potential to influence patient care. RECENT FINDINGS: Medical practitioners are often first taught to examine the ocular fundus using a direct ophthalmoscope, however, this skill requires frequent practice. Nonmydriatic tabletop and portable fundus photography and even smartphone-based photography offer alternative and practical means for approaching examination of the ocular fundus...
December 3, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
M Toscano, G Spadetta, P Pulitano, M Rocco, V Di Piero, O Mecarelli, E Vicenzini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: BioMed Research International
Hongjuan Liu, Huanfen Zhou, Junqing Wang, Quangang Xu, Shihui Wei
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To evaluate the status of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-IgG) in chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuropathy (CRION) and investigate its different clinical characteristics and prognosis. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with CRION were recruited by the Neuro-ophthalmology Department of the Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital from December 2015 to April 2017. Based on antibody status, they were assigned to either the MOG-CRION or seronegative-CRION groups...
December 4, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Chonglin Chen, Chengxi Liu, Zhirong Wang, Limei Sun, Xiujuan Zhao, Songshan Li, Xiaoling Luo, Aiyuan Zhang, Victor Chong, Lin Lu, Xiaoyan Ding
Purpose: To evaluate the microstructure of the fovea in patients with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) compared to healthy controls using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: In this consecutive, cross-sectional, observational case series, 41 eyes of 41 patients diagnosed as FEVR and 37 eyes in 37 control subjects were studied. OCTA was utilized to automatically measure the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and the vessel density (VD). Inner retinal thicknesses (IRT) and central retinal thickness (CRT) were measured with the instrument caliper...
December 3, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Su-Hyun Kim, Jae-Won Hyun, Ho Jin Kim
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system characterized by severe attacks of optic neuritis (ON), longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM), and area postrema syndrome. The majority of patients with NMOSD are seropositive for autoantibodies against the astrocyte water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4). As convergent clinical and laboratory-based investigations have indicated that B cells play a fundamental role in NMO immunopathology, B cells have become an attractive therapeutic target...
December 1, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Maria Soler, Cesar S Huertas, Laura M Lechuga
Optical biosensors and particularly those based on nanoplasmonics technology have emerged in recent decades as a potential solution for disease diagnostics and therapy follow-up at the point-of-care. These biosensor platforms could overcome some of the challenges faced in conventional diagnosis techniques offering label-free assays with immediate results and employing small and user-friendly devices. Areas covered: In this review, we will provide a critical overview of the recent advances in the development of nanoplasmonic biosensors for point-of-care diagnostics...
December 4, 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Sandra Aurell, Kersti Sjövall, Anna Paul, Åsa Morén, Elisabet Granstam
PURPOSE: To evaluate treatment outcome at 12 months in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) treated with antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injections according to either pro re nata (PRN)- or treat-and-extend (TE)-regimen in one clinical setting in Sweden. METHODS: Data were obtained retrospectively from the Swedish Macula Register, optical coherence tomography-database and electronic patient charts. The study included 443 eyes; 223 PRN- and 220 TE-treated eyes...
December 3, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Duncan Berry, Akshay S Thomas, Sharon Fekrat, Dilraj S Grewal
Purpose: To determine whether disorganization of retinal inner layers (DRIL) on optical coherence tomography (OCT) is associated with ischemia on ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography (UWFFA) and with visual outcomes in eyes with acute, treatment-naïve central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Design: Retrospective, single-institution, longitudinal cohort study. Participants: Twenty-five consecutive patients with treatment-naïve CRVO and ≥ 1 year follow-up...
November 2018: Ophthalmology Retina
Irving Enrique Carral-Santander, Abril Santos-Palacios, Blanca Elizabeth Martínez-Baez, Linda Cernichiaro-Espinosa, Juan Manuel Elizondo-Camacho, Carlos Andrés Valdés-Lara, Virgilio Morales-Cantón, Raul Velez-Montoya
Purpose: To report a case of occlusive retinal vasculopathy, secondary to hyperhomocysteinemia. Observations: A 43-year-old male was examined at the retina outpatient clinic due to complaints of bilateral decrease in visual acuity. The patient underwent a comprehensive ophthalmological examination, wide-field fundus photographs and fluorescein angiography, as well as spectral domain optical coherence tomography with enhanced-deep imaging. The patient had a significant medical history of chronic kidney disease and progressive bilateral vision loss over the last two years, which worsened in the left eye during the past 3 months...
March 2019: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Sohji Nishina, Akira Yamauchi, Takumi Kawaguchi, Kohei Kaku, Moritaka Goto, Kyo Sasaki, Yuichi Hara, Yasuyuki Tomiyama, Futoshi Kuribayashi, Takuji Torimura, Keisuke Hino
Background & Aims: CD26, a multifunctional transmembrane glycoprotein, is expressed in various cancers and functions as dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4). We investigated whether CD26 expression is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression and whether DPP4 inhibitors exert antitumor effects against HCC. Methods: CD26 expression was examined in 41 surgically resected HCC specimens. The effects of DPP4 inhibitors on HCC were examined by using HCC cell lines (Huh-7 and Li-7), xenograft tumors in nude mice, and a nonalcoholic steatohepatitis-related HCC mouse model...
2019: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Ngu Dau Bing Michael, Tengku Norina Tuan Jaffar, Adil Hussein, Wan-Hazabbah Wan Hitam
Vaccination-induced optic neuritis is not common. The development of optic neuritis following various vaccinations have been reported, suggesting a possible association between optic neuritis and vaccination. Of those reported cases, influenza vaccines have been the most common. Although rare, those patients who developed optic neuritis following HPV vaccination also presented with other central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating syndromes, especially following a booster dose. We present a rare case of simultaneous isolated bilateral optic neuritis following the first dose of an HPV vaccination in a young child...
September 24, 2018: Curēus
Linda Yi-Chieh Poon, Hussein Antar, Edem Tsikata, Rong Guo, Georgia Papadogeorgou, Madeline Freeman, Ziad Khoueir, Ramon Lee, Eric Shieh, Huseyin Simavli, Christian John Que, Johannes F de Boer, Teresa C Chen
Purpose: To evaluate the effects of age, race, and ethnicity on the optic nerve and peripapillary retina using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) three-dimensional (3D) volume scans in normal subjects. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study performed at a single institution in Boston. All patients received retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) scans and an optic nerve 3D volume scan. The SD-OCT software calculated peripapillary RNFL thickness, retinal thickness (RT), and retinal volume (RV)...
November 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Mohammad Reeaze Khurwolah, Hao-Yu Meng, Yong-Sheng Wang, Lian-Sheng Wang, Xiang-Qing Kong
AIM: To establish whether frequency-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) is safe and effective in the evaluation and treatment of angiographically-intermediate coronary lesions (ICL). METHODS: Sixty-four patients with 2-dimensional quantitative coronary angiography (2D-QCA) demonstrating ICL were included. OCT imaging was performed. According to predetermined OCT criteria, patients were assigned to either of 2 groups: OCT-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or OCT-guided optimal medical therapy (OMT)...
November 26, 2018: World Journal of Cardiology
Ian A Thompson, Alia K Durrani, Shriji Patel
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to measure optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA)-defined retinal vascular and choriocapillaris parameters in diabetic patients without clinically evident diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: Retrospective case series of eyes in patients with a documented history of either type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus without any clinical signs of diabetic retinopathy seen at the Vanderbilt Eye Institute. All eyes underwent dilated funduscopic examination along with OCTA...
December 3, 2018: Eye
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