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Clinical optics

Rajendran J C Bose, Robert F Mattrey
Stem cell therapies have demonstrated promising preclinical results, but very few applications have reached the clinic owing to safety and efficacy concerns. Translation would benefit greatly if stem cell survival, distribution and function could be assessed in vivo post-transplantation, particularly in patients. Advances in molecular imaging have led to extraordinary progress, with several strategies being deployed to understand the fate of stem cells in vivo, for example using magnetic resonance, scintigraphy, PET, ultrasound and optical imaging...
October 17, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
Olga Volotskova, Xuiqi Fang, Michael Keidar, Hersh Chandarana, Indra J Das
PURPOSE: To correlate the dose response and changes in microscopic structures of the radiochromic films exposed to the clinical magnetic field in the range 1.5-3T with standard and flattening filter-free (FFF) photon beams. METHODS: The radiochromic film was cut into 5x5cm2 sheets/samples from one batch. These samples were exposed to a 1.5 Tesla (T) and/or 3T B-field from an MRI scanner using an abdominal sequence for 7 min before and after irradiation with 6 MV and/or 6 MV FFF beams...
October 20, 2018: Medical Physics
Alejandra Darling, Sergio Aguilera-Albesa, Cristina Aisha Tello, Mercedes Serrano, Miguel Tomás, Rafael Camino-León, Joaquín Fernández-Ramos, Adriano Jiménez-Escrig, Pilar Poó, Mar O'Callaghan, Carlos Ortez, Andrés Nascimento, Ramón Candau Fernández Mesaque, Marcos Madruga, Luisa Arrabal, Susana Roldan, Hilario Gómez-Martín, Cristina Garrido, Teresa Temudo, Cristina Jou-Muñoz, Jordi Muchart, Thierry A G M Huisman, Andrea Poretti, Vincenzo Lupo, Carmen Espinós, Belén Pérez-Dueñas
INTRODUCTION: PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration (PLAN) comprises a continuum of three phenotypes with overlapping clinical and radiologic features. METHODS: Observational clinical study in a cohort of infantile and childhood onset PLAN patients and genetic analysis of the PLA2G6 gene. We analysed chronological evolution in terms of age at onset and disease course through a 66-item questionnaire. We performed qualitative and quantitative assessment of MRI abnormalities and searched for clinical and radiological phenotype and genotype correlations...
October 13, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Étienne Bénard-Séguin, Jason Kwok, Walter Liao, Stephanie Baxter
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether practice using an online fundus photograph program results in a long-term increase in proficiency with direct ophthalmoscopy skills in medical students. DESIGN: This study was a prospective medical education trial. Students were enrolled to participate in a voluntary Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) using 5 patients with ocular findings. Students who matched a minimum of 6 discs 16 months before the study were assigned to the intervention group and were compared with students who did not participate in the exercise...
October 2018: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Steven Lapere, Ezekiel Weis
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the validity and safety of tele-ophthalmology evaluations as a clinical assessment tool when performed by an ophthalmologist to detect lesion growth in patients with low-, medium-, and high-risk choroidal and iris nevi. DESIGN: Retrospective observational pilot study. METHODS: Consecutive patients with low-/medium-/high-risk choroidal or iris nevi who underwent tele-oncology examinations over 5 months. All patients had a dilated fundus or anterior segment photography, A- and B-scan ultrasonography or ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) depending on the nature of their lesion...
October 2018: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Claudia Ferraris, Roberto Nerino, Antonio Chimienti, Giuseppe Pettiti, Nicola Cau, Veronica Cimolin, Corrado Azzaro, Giovanni Albani, Lorenzo Priano, Alessandro Mauro
A home-based, reliable, objective and automated assessment of motor performance of patients affected by Parkinson's Disease (PD) is important in disease management, both to monitor therapy efficacy and to reduce costs and discomforts. In this context, we have developed a self-managed system for the automated assessment of the PD upper limb motor tasks as specified by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). The system is built around a Human Computer Interface (HCI) based on an optical RGB-Depth device and a replicable software...
October 18, 2018: Sensors
Fei Xiong, Bei-Bei Yang, Jie Zhang, Li Li
The distinct pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of enantiopure sulfoxide drugs have stimulated us to systematically investigate their chiral separation, stereochemical assignment, and chiral recognition mechanism. Herein, four clinically widely-used sulfoxide drugs were chosen and optically resolved on various chiral stationary phases (CSPs). Theoretical simulations including electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculation and molecular docking were adopted to assign the stereochemistry and reveal the underlying chiral recognition mechanism...
October 18, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Theresa Tschoner, Katja Voigt, Almuth Falkenau, Nadja Herbach, Melanie Feist
A 10-year-old female llama was presented with a continually growing mass of the left eye. It displayed exophthalmus. The nictitating membrane was hyperemic. The cornea was completely opaque, vascularised, ulcerated and covered with abnormal tissue. Deeper structures of the eye were not visible. The right eye was unaffected. The left eye was removed under general anaesthesia. On histological examination, an amelanotic melanoma was diagnosed. The cornea, sclera, vitreous body and lens could not be differentiated...
October 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
Garry Papayan, Andrey Akopov
BACKGROUND: Visualization of Indocyanine Green (ICG) near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence is a promising technique for biomedical applications because of its deep tissue penetration, low autofluorescence, weak dependence on ambient light, safety for patients and medical staff. METHODS: To apply this technique to animal studies and clinical practice, we developed multispectral NIR fluorescence imaging system FLUM-808, which can be used in experimental studies and clinical practice, in open and endoscopic surgery (fluorescence-guided surgery)...
October 16, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Laryssa A Huryn, Amy Turriff, Laura A Harney, Ann Garrity Carr, Patricia Chevez-Barrios, Dan S Gombos, Radha Ram, Robert B Hufnagel, D Ashley Hill, Wadih M Zein, Kris Ann P Schultz, Rachel Bishop, Douglas R Stewart
PURPOSE: To characterize the ocular phenotype of DICER1 syndrome DESIGN: Prospective, single-center, case-control study SUBJECTS, PARTICIPANTS, AND/OR CONTROLS: One hundred and three patients with an identified germline, pathogenic DICER1 variant (DICER1-carriers) and 69 family control subjects underwent clinical and ophthalmic examination at the National Institutes of Health between 2011 and 2016. METHODS: All participants were evaluated with a comprehensive ophthalmic exam including best corrected visual acuity, slit-lamp biomicroscopy and a dilated fundus examination...
October 16, 2018: Ophthalmology
Blandine Tramunt, Philippe Imbert, Solange Grunenwald, Franck Boutault, Philippe Caron
CONTEXT: Sight-threatening Graves' orbitopathy affects 3 to 5% of patients with Graves' orbitopathy. OBJECTIVES: To describe the management of patients with sight-threatening Graves' orbitopathy seen in a multidisciplinary thyroid-eye outpatient clinic dedicated to Graves' orbitopathy (GO). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We enrolled all patients with sight-threatening GO (dysthyroid optic neuropathy and corneal ulcer as defined in the EUGOGO statement) seen and treated in our GO multidisciplinary thyroid-eye outpatient clinic over the last two decades...
October 19, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
Malvika Arya, Carl B Rebhun, A Yasin Alibhai, Xuejing Chen, Carlos Moreira-Neto, Caroline R Baumal, Elias Reichel, Andre J Witkin, Jay S Duker, SriniVas R Sadda, Nadia K Waheed
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To assess variability in vessel density (VD) measurements across three optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) devices to identify a methodology that offers the least amount of variation in VD, and to assess the effect of averaging of multiple scans on VD variability. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifteen eyes of eight healthy individuals were imaged consecutively on three OCTA devices. Segmentations at the superficial, deep, and full retinal layers were generated...
October 15, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
María Ángeles Bordallo-Cardona, Carlos Sánchez-Carrillo, Patricia Muñoz, Emilio Bouza, Pilar Escribano, Jesús Guinea
We studied the growth kinetic parameters of clinically relevant Candida species to verify the differences between species following the incubation and medium conditions recommended by the EUCAST. We analyzed 705 susceptible Candida spp. from patients with candidemia and Candida glabrata isolates resistant to echinocandins or fluconazole (n = 38) and calculated the average growth rate, maximum peak, time to maximum rate, and lag phase. We also examined inter- and intra-species differences, as well as the percentage of isolates reaching an optical density of 0...
October 18, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Jeffrey M Cochran, David R Busch, Anaïs Leproux, Zheng Zhang, Thomas D O'Sullivan, Albert E Cerussi, Philip M Carpenter, Rita S Mehta, Darren Roblyer, Wei Yang, Keith D Paulsen, Brian Pogue, Shudong Jiang, Peter A Kaufman, So Hyun Chung, Mitchell Schnall, Bradley S Snyder, Nola Hylton, Stefan A Carp, Steven J Isakoff, David Mankoff, Bruce J Tromberg, Arjun G Yodh
Ideally, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) assessment should predict pathologic complete response (pCR), a surrogate clinical endpoint for 5-year survival, as early as possible during typical 3- to 6-month breast cancer treatments. We introduce and demonstrate an approach for predicting pCR within 10 days of initiating NAC. The method uses a bedside diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI) technology and logistic regression modeling. Tumor and normal tissue physiological properties were measured longitudinally throughout the course of NAC in 33 patients enrolled in the American College of Radiology Imaging Network multicenter breast cancer DOSI trial (ACRIN-6691)...
October 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Manuele Michelessi, Ivano Riva, Enrico Martini, Michele Figus, Paolo Frezzotti, Luca Agnifili, Gianluca Manni, Luciano Quaranta, Stefano Miglior, Chiara Posarelli, Stefano Fazio, Francesco Oddone
PURPOSE: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of minimum rim width (MRW), peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (pRNFL) and multilayered macular analysis by Spectralis SD-OCT (Heidelberg Engineering, Germany) in discriminating perimetric glaucoma at different stages of the disease from healthy eyes. METHODS: In this multicentre, prospective, evaluation of diagnostic tests study, multilayered macular analysis and MRW and pRNFL were obtained from one eye of 197 glaucoma (76 early, 68 moderate and 53 advanced) and of 83 healthy controls from the Multicenter Italian Glaucoma Imaging Study (MIGIS)...
October 18, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Adam Wylęgała
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The article reviews the recent findings on the use of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in neurology. RECENT FINDINGS: OCTA is a new addition to the powerful and complementary technology of the OCT. Due to its noninvasiveness, and reproducibility, it is possible to obtain high-resolution 3D images of the vessels of the human eye. As the vessels of the retina with the presence of endothelial cell's tight junctions resemble the brain vessels, it was hypothesized that the imaging of the retinal vessels might bring insight into brain vessels...
October 18, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Sarah Bin Abdulqader, Ziyad Al-Ajlan, Abdulrahman Albakr, Wisam Issawi, Mohammed Al-Bar, Pablo F Recinos, Saad Alsaleh, Abdulrazag Ajlan
PURPOSE: Optic pathway gliomas (OPGs) are low-grade neoplasms that primarily affect children. The management of OPGs remains controversial. Reports on the use of the endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) in OPGs are extremely limited, and no such reports exist on its utility for pediatric OPGs. Here, we report our results and experience with OPGs treated with the EEA. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of OPG patients who were treated surgically via the EEA at our institutions from 2015 to 2017...
October 18, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Rebecca W Pak, Jeeun Kang, Heather Valentine, Leslie M Loew, Daniel L J Thorek, Emad M Boctor, Dean F Wong, Jin U Kang
Optical imaging of brain activity has mostly employed genetically manipulated mice, which cannot be translated to clinical human usage. Observation of brain activity directly is challenging due to the difficulty in delivering dyes and other agents through the blood brain barrier (BBB). Using fluorescence imaging, we have demonstrated the feasibility of delivering the near-infrared voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) IR-780 perchlorate to the brain tissue through pharmacological techniques, via an adenosine agonist (regadenoson)...
August 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
David Cunefare, Christopher S Langlo, Emily J Patterson, Sarah Blau, Alfredo Dubra, Joseph Carroll, Sina Farsiu
Fast and reliable quantification of cone photoreceptors is a bottleneck in the clinical utilization of adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) systems for the study, diagnosis, and prognosis of retinal diseases. To-date, manual grading has been the sole reliable source of AOSLO quantification, as no automatic method has been reliably utilized for cone detection in real-world low-quality images of diseased retina. We present a novel deep learning based approach that combines information from both the confocal and non-confocal split detector AOSLO modalities to detect cones in subjects with achromatopsia...
August 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Colin Veenstra, Wilma Petersen, Ivo M Vellekoop, Wiendelt Steenbergen, Nienke Bosschaart
Spatially confined measurements of bilirubin in tissue can be of great value for noninvasive bilirubin estimations during neonatal jaundice, as well as our understanding of the physiology behind bilirubin extravasation. This work shows the potential of spectroscopic visible-light optical coherence tomography (sOCT) for this purpose. At the bilirubin absorption peak around 460 nm, sOCT suffers from a strong signal decay with depth, which we overcome by optimizing our system sensitivity through a combination of zero-delay acquisition and focus tracking...
August 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
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