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Sugar transportation

Feng Tian, Jean-Pierre Wigneron, Philippe Ciais, Jérôme Chave, Jérôme Ogée, Josep Peñuelas, Anders Ræbild, Jean-Christophe Domec, Xiaoye Tong, Martin Brandt, Arnaud Mialon, Nemesio Rodriguez-Fernandez, Torbern Tagesson, Amen Al-Yaari, Yann Kerr, Chi Chen, Ranga B Myneni, Wenmin Zhang, Jonas Ardö, Rasmus Fensholt
Plant water storage is fundamental to the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems by participating in plant metabolism, nutrient and sugar transport, and maintenance of the integrity of the hydraulic system of the plant. However, a global view of the size and dynamics of the water pools stored in plant tissues is still lacking. Here, we report global patterns of seasonal variations in ecosystem-scale plant water storage and their relationship with leaf phenology, based on space-borne measurements of L-band vegetation optical depth...
August 13, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Asen Bagashev, Elena Sotillo, Chih-Hang Anthony Tang, Kathryn L Black, Jessica Perazzelli, Steven H Seeholzer, Yair Argon, David M Barrett, Stephan A Grupp, Chih-Chi Andrew Hu, Andrei Thomas-Tikhonenko
We have previously described a mechanism of acquired resistance of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia to CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CART) immunotherapy. It was based on in-frame insertions in or skipping of CD19 exon 2. To distinguish between epitope loss and defects in surface localization, we used retroviral transduction and genome editing to generate cell lines expressing CD19 exon 2 variants (CD19ex2vs) bearing VSV-G tags. These lines were negative by live-cell flow cytometry with an anti-VSV-G antibody and resistant to killing by VSV-G directed antibody-drug conjugates (ADC), suggestive of a defect in surface localization...
August 13, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Rosa Porcel, Antonio Bustamante, Roc Ros, Ramón Serrano, José Miguel Mulet
Beta vulgaris (sugar beet) is one of the most important industrial crops. Screening of a cDNA library for sugar beet genes able to confer cold tolerance upon overexpression in yeast identified a novel aquaporin, which we named BvCOLD1. The amino acid sequence of BvCOLD1 indicated that is an acidic protein (pI 5,18) similar to TIP aquaporins. RNA expression analysis indicated that BvCOLD1 is expressed in all sugar beet organs. Confocal microscopy of a GFP tagged version localized BvCOLD1 in the endoplasmic reticulum in yeast and in plant cells...
August 13, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Ya Hu, Yan-Fang Zhu, Ai-Xia Guo, Xu-Mei Jia, Li Cheng, Tong Zhao, Yan-Xiu Wang
Iron (Fe) deficiency is a frequent nutritional problem limiting apple production in calcareous soils. The utilization of rootstock that is resistant to Fe deficiency is an effective way to solve this problem. Malus halliana is an Fe deficiency-tolerant rootstock; however, few molecular studies have been conducted on M. halliana. In the present work, a transcriptome analysis was combined with qRT-PCR and sugar measurements to investigate Fe deficiency responses in M. halliana roots at 0 h (T1), 12 h (T2) and 72 h (T3) after Fe deficiency stress...
August 12, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Arup Jyoti Borah, Mayank Agarwal, Arun Goyal, Vijayanand S Moholkar
Invasive weeds ubiquitously found in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems form potential feedstock for lignocellulosic ethanol production. The present study has reported a bioprocess for production of ethanol using mixed feedstock of 8 invasive weeds found in India. The feedstock was subjected to pretreatment comprising dilute acid hydrolysis (for hydrolysis of hemicellulosic fraction), alkaline delignification and enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic fraction. Pentose-rich and hexose-rich hydrolyzates obtained from pretreatment were fermented separately using microbial cultures of S...
August 1, 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Chunmei Zhang, Yuan Bian, Sihao Hou, Xingang Li
Sugar transport, including the symplasmic pathway in plasmodesmata and apoplasmic pathway mediated by sugar transporters, accelerated sugar accumulation in cultivated jujube, while sugar metabolism-related genes played weak roles in jujube domestication. The fruit of Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) is high in sugar concentration. By contrast, wild type-sour jujube (Z. jujuba Mill. var. spinosa Hu) contains markedly less sugar. It is unknown whether sugar transport or sugar metabolism drove sugar accumulation during jujube domestication...
August 9, 2018: Planta
Chiharu Iinuma, Akihiro Saito, Takayuki Ohnuma, Elodie Tenconi, Adeline Rosu, Séverine Colson, Yuuki Mizutani, Feng Liu, Magdalena Świątek-Połatyńska, Gilles van Wezel, Sébastien Rigali, Takeshi Fujii, Kiyotaka Miyashita
In the model species Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), the uptake of chitin-degradation byproducts, mainly N,N'-diacetylchitobiose ([GlcNAc]2 ) and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), is performed by the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter DasABC-MsiK and the sugar-phosphotransferase system (PTS), respectively. Studies on the S. coelicolor chromosome have suggested the occurrence of additional uptake systems of GlcNAc-related compounds, including the SCO6005-7 cluster, which is orthologous to the ABC transporter NgcEFG of S...
August 7, 2018: Microbes and Environments
Matheus T Kuska, Jan Behmann, Dominik K Großkinsky, Thomas Roitsch, Anne-Katrin Mahlein
Molecular marker analysis allow for a rapid and advanced pre-selection and resistance screenings in plant breeding processes. During the phenotyping process, optical sensors have proved their potential to determine and assess the function of the genotype of the breeding material. Thereby, biomarkers for specific disease resistance traits provide valuable information for calibrating optical sensor approaches during early plant-pathogen interactions. In this context, the combination of physiological, metabolic phenotyping and phenomic profiles could establish efficient identification and quantification of relevant genotypes within breeding processes...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Johan Sukweenadhi, Sri R Balusamy, Yeon-Ju Kim, Choong H Lee, Yu-Jin Kim, Sung C Koh, Deok C Yang
Panax ginseng (C.A. Mayer) is a well-known medicinal plant used in traditional medicine in Korea that experiences serious salinity stress related to weather changes or incorrect fertilizer application. In ginseng, the use of Paenibacillus yonginensis DCY84T to improve salt stress tolerance has not been thoroughly explored. Therefore, we studied the role of P. yonginensis DCY84T under short-term and long-term salinity stress conditions in a controlled environment. In vitro testing of DCY84T revealed high indole acetic acid (IAA) production, siderophore formation, phosphate solubilization and anti-bacterial activity...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Guang Chen, Yu Zhang, Banpu Ruan, Longbiao Guo, Dali Zeng, Zhenyu Gao, Li Zhu, Jiang Hu, Deyong Ren, Ling Yu, Guohua Xu, Qian Qian
Plant growth and reproduction are both energy-requiring processes; the necessary energy is supplied by the products of photosynthesis. Both the vegetative growth and reproductive success of rice are compromised by the absence of a functional copy of the gene OsHAK1. Here, a comparison between wild type rice and OsHAK1 knockout mutants not only confirmed the known detrimental effect of the absence of OsHAK1 on root growth, pollen viability and fertility, but also showed that sucrose phosphate synthase activity was lowered, and the sucrose content of the leaves was markedly increased, due to a partial block on the up-loading of sucrose into the phloem...
September 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Chen Liu, Jiangshuo Su, Githeng'u K Stephen, Haibin Wang, Aiping Song, Fadi Chen, Yiyong Zhu, Sumei Chen, Jiafu Jiang
Low availability of phosphorus (P) in the soil is the principal limiting factor for the growth of cut chrysanthemum. Plant phosphate transporters (PTs) facilitate acquisition of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and its homeostasis within the plant. In the present study, CmPht1;2 of the Pht1 family was cloned from chrysanthemum. CmPht1;2 is composed of 12 transmembrane domains and localized to the plasma membrane. Expression of CmPht1;2 in roots was induced by Pi starvation. Chrysanthemum plants with overexpression of CmPht1;2 (Oe) showed higher Pi uptake, as compared to the wild type (WT), both under Pi-starvation and Pi-sufficient conditions, and also showed a higher root biomass compared to WT in the Pi-starvation conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Rita Ferreira, Rita Nogueira-Ferreira, Fábio Trindade, Rui Vitorino, Scott K Powers, Daniel Moreira-Gonçalves
Mammals respond to muscular exercise by increasing cardiac output to meet the increased demand for oxygen in the working muscles and it is well-established that regular bouts of exercise results in myocardial remodeling. Depending on exercise type, intensity and duration, these cardiac adaptations lead to changes in the energetic substrates required to sustain cardiac contractility. In contrast to the failing heart, fatty acids are the preferred substrate in the trained heart, though glucose metabolism is also enhanced to support oxidative phosphorylation...
August 2, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Ryan C Stanfield, Paul J Schulte, Katie E Randolph, Uwe G Hacke
The sugar conducting phloem in angiosperms is a high resistance pathway made up of sieve elements bounded by sieve plates. The high resistance generated by sieve plates may be a trade-off for promoting quick sealing in the event of injury. However, previous modeling efforts have demonstrated a wide variation in the contribution of sieve plates towards total sieve tube resistance. In the current study, we generated high resolution SEM images of sieve plates from balsam poplar and integrated them into a mathematical model using Comsol Multiphysics software...
August 3, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Cintia Garro, Antonio Brun, William H Karasov, Enrique Caviedes-Vidal
In the small intestine transcellular and paracellular pathways are implicated in water-soluble nutrient absorption. In small birds the paracellular pathway is quantitatively important while transcellular pathway is much more important in terrestrial mammals. However, there is not a clear understanding of the mechanistic underpinnings of the differences among taxa. This study was aimed to test the hypothesis that paracellular permeability in perfused intestinal segments is higher in passerine birds than rodents...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Mrinal K Bhattacharjee, Muhammad Anees, Ayrushi Patel
The periodontal pathogen, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is extremely sensitive to even a mildly acidic pH resulting from metabolic acids secreted during growth, losing viability rapidly as the pH goes below 6.0. Cells grown at high glucose concentration grow fast but rapidly lose viability. However, if the cells are grown at low glucose concentration, the pH of the growth medium first decreases slowly for about 24 h and then starts to increase. This increase of pH is indicative of cell death since the spontaneous rise of pH due to the presence of bicarbonate can no longer be opposed by secreted metabolic acids...
July 31, 2018: Current Microbiology
Md Mezanur Rahman, Mohammad Golam Mostofa, Md Abiar Rahman, Md Giashuddin Miah, Satya Ranjan Saha, M Abdul Karim, Sanjida Sultana Keya, Munny Akter, Mohidul Islam, Lam-Son Phan Tran
Sapota (Achras sapota), a fruit tree with nutritional and medicinal properties, is known to thrive in salt-affected areas. However, the underlying mechanisms that allow sapota to adapt to saline environment are yet to be explored. Here, we examined various morphological, physiological, and biochemical features of sapota under a gradient of seawater (0, 4, 8, and 12 dS m-1 ) to study its adaptive responses against salinity. Our results showed that seawater-induced salinity negatively impacted on growth-related attributes, such as plant height, root length, leaf area, and dry biomass in a dose-dependent manner...
July 30, 2018: Protoplasma
Wei Li, Xiao-Jing Qiang, Xiao-Ri Han, Lin-Lin Jiang, Shu-Hui Zhang, Jiao Han, Rui He, Xian-Guo Cheng
Aquaporins play important regulatory roles in the transport of water and small molecules in plants. In this study, a Thellungiella salsuginea TsPIP1;1 aquaporin was transformed into Kitaake rice, and three transgenic lines were evaluated by profiling the changes of the physiological metabolism, osmotic potential, and differentially expressed genes under salt stress. The TsPIP1;1 protein contains six transmembrane domains and is localized in the cytoplasm membrane. Overexpression of the TsPIP1;1 gene not only increased the accumulation of prolines, soluble sugars and chlorophyll, but also lowered the osmotic potential and malondialdehyde content in rice under salt stress, and alleviated the amount of salt damage done to rice organs by regulating the distribution of Na/K ions, thereby promoting photosynthetic rates...
July 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hao-Jiong Zhang, Jinxiu Tian, Xue-Kang Qi, Tong Xiang, Gui-Ping He, Hua Zhang, Xibao Yu, Xiao Zhang, Bingchun Zhao, Qi-Sheng Feng, Ming-Yuan Chen, Mu-Sheng Zeng, Yi-Xin Zeng, Lin Feng
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human cancer-related virus closely associated with lymphoid and epithelial malignancies, and EBV glycoprotein B (gB) plays an essential role in viral entry into both B cells and epithelial cells by promoting cell-cell fusion. EBV gB is exclusively modified with high-mannose-linked N-glycans and primarily localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) with low levels on the plasma membrane (PM). However, the mechanism through which gB is regulated within host cells is largely unknown...
July 27, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Faliang Qin, Wenwen Liu, Nan Wu, Lu Zhang, Zhongkai Zhang, Xueping Zhou, Xifeng Wang
Insect transmission is obligatory for persistently transmitted viruses because the vector insect is the only means of virus spread in nature. The insect midgut is the first major barrier limiting virus acquisition, but the mechanisms by which viruses are able to cross the cell membrane and then infect the midgut epithelial cells of the insect have not been elucidated completely. Here, we found that the outer capsid or nucleocapsid protein (NP) of three viruses can interact and colocalize with sugar transporter 6 that is highly expressed in the midgut of Laodelphax striatellus (LsST6)...
July 27, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Meenakshi B Tellis, Nidhi N Gujar, Rakesh S Joshi
Trehalase catalyzes the breakdown of trehalose into two glucose moieties and is ubiquitous in all organisms. Here, we provide insights into the enigmatic origin and evolution of trehalase in major species. Study of taxonomic distribution, orthology, phylogeny and functional domains indicated that trehalase possibly originates from bacteria and was transmitted to other taxa through horizontal gene transfer. Domain analysis showed that glycosyl hydrolase family 37 is present in most of the sequences and represents dominant activity during evolution...
July 27, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
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