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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30553968/the-change-in-microstructure-of-petioles-and-peduncles-and-transporter-gene-expression-by-potassium-influences-the-distribution-of-nutrients-and-sugars-in-pear-leaves-and-fruit
#1
Changwei Shen, Xiaoqian Shi, Changyan Xie, Yan Li, Han Yang, Xinlan Mei, Yangchun Xu, Caixia Dong
Potassium (K) is one of the most important mineral nutrients required for fruit growth and development and is known as a 'quality element'. To investigate the role of K in more detail, we performed experiments in which seven-year-old pot-grown 'Huangguan' pear trees were treated with three levels of K (0, 0.4, or 0.8 g K2 O kg-1 soil). K supply improved the development of vascular bundles in pear petioles and fruit peduncles and enhanced expression of genes involved in nutrients and sugar transport. Different from K and calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) concentrations in the leaves, petioles, and fruit peduncles were significantly higher under low K but lower under high K...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30543430/insight-into-the-dynamics-of-different-fluorophores-in-the-interior-of-aerosol-ot-lamellar-structures-in-presence-of-sugars-from-picosecond-to-femtosecond-study
#2
Rupam Dutta, Meghna Ghosh, Arghajit Pyne, Nilmoni Sarkar
It is well reported that sugar molecules provide different types of stabilization to the biomembranes both in vitro as well as in vivo. In the present article, our focus is to investigate the interactions of two sugar molecules (sucrose and sucralose) with the lamellar structures of aerosol OT (AOT). We have attempted the structural characterization of the lamellae in presence and absence of the sugars with the aid of dynamic light scattering (DLS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), polarized optical microscopy (POM) and cryogenic-transmission electron microscopic (Cryo-TEM) techniques...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30542607/the-effect-of-oxidative-stress-upon-intestinal-sugar-transport-an-in-vitro-study-using-human-intestinal-epithelial-caco-2-cells
#3
Nelson Andrade, Cláudia Silva, Fátima Martel
The pathogenesis of various gastrointestinal diseases, including gastrointestinal cancers and inflammatory bowel disease, is associated with increased oxidative stress levels. We aimed to investigate the effect of oxidative stress induced by tert -butylhydroperoxide (TBH) on the uptake of 3 H-deoxy-d-glucose (3 H-DG) and 14 C-fructose by the human intestinal Caco-2 cell line. TBH (500 μM; 24 h) increased lipid peroxidation (TBARS) levels and was not cytotoxic. TBH (500 μM; 24 h) increased uptake of both low (SGLT1-mediated) and high concentrations (SGLT1- and GLUT2-mediated) of 3 H-DG, but did not affect absorption of 14 C-fructose (GLUT2- and GLUT5-mediated)...
November 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30538268/suppression-of-the-coffee-ring-effect-by-sugar-assisted-depinning-of-contact-line
#4
Shunsuke F Shimobayashi, Mikiko Tsudome, Tomo Kurimura
Inkjet printing is of growing interest due to the attractive technologies for surface patterning. During the printing process, the solutes are transported to the droplet periphery and form a ring-like deposit, which disturbs the fabrication of high-resolution patterns. Thus, controlling the uniformity of particle coating is crucial in the advanced and extensive applications. Here, we find that sweet coffee drops above a threshold sugar concentration leave uniform rather than the ring-like pattern. The evaporative deposit changes from a ring-like pattern to a uniform pattern with an increase in sugar concentration...
December 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30537607/metabolomic-and-transcriptional-analyses-reveal-the-mechanism-of-c-n-allocation-from-source-leaf-to-flower-in-tea-plant-camellia-sinensis-l
#5
Kai Fan, Qunfeng Zhang, Meiya Liu, Lifeng Ma, Yuanzhi Shi, Jianyun Ruan
Tea flowering in late autumn competes for a large amount of nitrogen and carbohydrates, potentially undermines the storage of these resources in vegetative organs, and negatively influences the subsequent spring tea yield and quality. The mechanism underlying the re-allocation N and carbohydrate from source leaf to flower in tea plant has not been clearly understood. In this study, 15 N allocation, changes in metabolomics, and gene expression in flower buds, flowers, and adjacent leaves were characterized. Total N content of the adjacent leaves significantly decreased during flowering while such a decrease could be reversed by flower bud removal...
November 10, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30537216/homeostatic-maintenance-of-non-structural-carbohydrates-during-the-2015-2016-el-ni%C3%A3-o-drought-across-a-tropical-forest-precipitation-gradient
#6
L Turin Dickman, Nate G McDowell, Charlotte Grossiord, Adam D Collins, Brett T Wolfe, Matteo Detto, S Joseph Wright, José A Medina-Vega, Devin Goodsman, Alistair Rogers, Shawn P Serbin, Jin Wu, Kim S Ely, Sean T Michaletz, Chonggang Xu, Lara Kueppers, Jeffrey Q Chambers
Non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) are essential for maintenance of plant metabolism, and may be sensitive to both short- and long-term climatic variation. NSC variation in moist tropical forests has rarely been studied, so regulation of NSCs in these systems is poorly understood. We measured foliar and branch NSC content in 23 tree species at three sites located across a large precipitation gradient in Panama during the 2015-2016 El Niño to examine how short- and long-term climatic variation impact carbohydrate dynamics...
December 11, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30537141/vectorizing-agrochemicals-enhancing-bioavailability-via-carrier-mediated-transport
#7
REVIEW
Hanxiang Wu, Hanhong Xu, Cécile Marivingt-Mounir, Jean-Louis Bonnemain, Jean-François Chollet
Systemicity of agrochemicals is an advantageous property for controlling phloem sucking insects, as well as pathogens and pests not accessible to contact products. After the penetration of the cuticle, the plasma membrane constitutes the main barrier to the entry of an agrochemical into the sap flow. The current strategy for developing systemic agrochemicals is to optimize the physicochemical properties of the molecules so that they can cross the plasma membrane by simple diffusion or ion trapping mechanisms...
December 7, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30532032/inhibitor-binding-mode-and-allosteric-regulation-of-na-glucose-symporters
#8
Paola Bisignano, Chiara Ghezzi, Hyunil Jo, Nicholas F Polizzi, Thorsten Althoff, Chakrapani Kalyanaraman, Rosmarie Friemann, Matthew P Jacobson, Ernest M Wright, Michael Grabe
Sodium-dependent glucose transporters (SGLTs) exploit sodium gradients to transport sugars across the plasma membrane. Due to their role in renal sugar reabsorption, SGLTs are targets for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Current therapeutics are phlorizin derivatives that contain a sugar moiety bound to an aromatic aglycon tail. Here, we develop structural models of human SGLT1/2 in complex with inhibitors by combining computational and functional studies. Inhibitors bind with the sugar moiety in the sugar pocket and the aglycon tail in the extracellular vestibule...
December 7, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30522580/needed-improvements-in-diabetes-prevention-and-management-in-brazil
#9
Ana Paula Della Nina de Oliveira, Emanuella Gomes Maia, Flávia Moraes Silva, Ana Paula Bortoletto Martins, Rafael Moreira Claro
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide and its prevalence continues to increase. Adherence to good health behaviors provides better control of the disease. This study analyzed trends in the prevalence of diabetes among Brazilian adults between 2006 and 2016 and compared the frequency of key health behaviors between people with and without diabetes. METHODS: We analyzed data from 572,437 Brazilian adults interviewed between 2006 and 2016 by using the Surveillance System of Risk and Protection Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey (Vigitel)...
December 6, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30516827/acclimation-of-the-photosynthetic-apparatus-and-alterations-in-sugar-metabolism-in-response-to-inoculation-with-endophytic-fungi
#10
P Rozpądek, M Nosek, A Domka, R Ważny, R J Jędrzejczyk, K Tokarz, M Pilarska, E Niewiadomska, K Turnau
The role of an endophytic Zygomycete Mucor sp. in growth promotion and adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus to increased energy demands of its hosts Arabidopsis arenosa and Arabidopsis thaliana was evaluated. Inoculation with the fungus improved the water use efficiency of the plants and allowed for them to utilize incident light for photochemistry more effectively by upregulating the expression of several photosystem I- and II-related genes and their respective proteins, proteins involved in light harvesting in PSII and PSI and carbon assimilation...
December 5, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30512042/genome-wide-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-sugar-transporter-family-genes-in-woodland-strawberry
#11
Songtao Jiu, Muhammad Salman Haider, Mahantesh M Kurjogi, Kekun Zhang, Xudong Zhu, Jinggui Fang
In higher plants, sugars are nutrients and important signal molecules. Sugar transporters (STs) facilitate sugar transport across membranes and are associated with loading and unloading of the conducting complex. Strawberry ( Duchesne ex Rozier) is one of the most economically important and widely cultivated fruit crop and a model plant among fleshy fruits worldwide. In this study, 66 woodland strawberry ( L.) ST (FvST) genes were identified and further classified into eight distinct subfamilies in the woodland strawberry genome based on the phylogenetic analysis...
November 2018: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30510767/sugar-metabolism-and-accumulation-in-the-fruit-of-transgenic-apple-trees-with-decreased-sorbitol-synthesis
#12
Mingjun Li, Pengmin Li, Fengwang Ma, Abhaya M Dandekar, Lailiang Cheng
Both sorbitol and sucrose are synthesized in source leaves and transported to fruit for supporting fruit growth in tree fruit species of the Rosaceae family. In apple ( Malus domestica ), antisense suppression of aldose-6-phosphate reductase , the key enzyme for sorbitol synthesis, significantly decreased the sorbitol concentration but increased the sucrose concentration in leaves, leading to a lower sorbitol but a higher sucrose supply to fruit in these plants. In response to this altered carbon supply, the transgenic fruit had lower concentration of sorbitol and much higher concentration of glucose but similar levels of fructose, sucrose, and starch throughout fruit development relative to the untransformed control...
2018: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30507956/parasitism-sexual-dimorphism-and-effect-of-host-size-on-apocephalus-attophilus-offspring-a-parasitoid-of-the-leaf-cutting-ant-atta-bisphaerica
#13
Cliver Fernandes Farder-Gomes, Verônica Priscila da Silva, Thalles Platiny Lavinscky Pereira, José Eduardo Serrão, Evaldo Martins Pires, Marco Antonio Oliveira
Atta bisphaerica (Forel) is a leaf-cutting ant that specializes on grass and causes productivity losses in sugar cane fields and pastures. Three phorid species, Apocephalus attophilus (Borgmeier), Myrmosicarius grandicornis (Borgmeier) and Eibesfeldtphora bragancai (Brown), have been found parasitizing A. bisphaerica workers. These parasitoids can reduce plant material transported into the nests and ant traffic on the trails. Therefore, phorid flies have been considered potential biological control agents for leaf-cutting ants...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30506685/cotton-fiber-elongation-requires-the-transcription-factor-ghmyb212-to-regulate-sucrose-transportation-into-expanding-fibers
#14
Wenjie Sun, Zhengyin Gao, Jun Wang, Yiqun Huang, Yun Chen, Jianfu Li, Mengli Lv, Jin Wang, Ming Luo, Kaijing Zuo
Cotton is white gold over the globe and composed of fiber cells derived from outer integument of cotton ovules. Fiber elongation uses sucrose as direct carbon source. The molecular mechanism transcriptionally controlling sucrose transport from ovules into elongating fibers remains elusive. It was investigated here that GhMYB212 is involved in the regulation of sucrose transportion into expanding fibers. GhMYB212 RNAi plants (GhMYB212i) accumulated less sucrose and glucose in developing fibers, and had shorter fibers and lower lint index...
December 3, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30502212/protein-analysis-of-moro-blood-orange-pulp-during-storage-at-low-temperatures
#15
L Carmona, B Alquézar, S Tárraga, L Peña
A protein analysis in the pulp of Moro blood oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) at the onset and after 30 days of storage at either 4 or 9 °C was performed. All differential proteins belonged to different functional classes (sugar, amino acid and secondary metabolism, defense, stress response, oxidative process, transport and cellular component biogenesis), displaying a differential accumulation in those Moro oranges kept at 9 versus 4 °C, and in those stored at 4 °C versus onset. Anthocyanin biosynthesis structural proteins chalcone synthases and flavonone 3-hydroxylase and different glutathione S-transferases related with their vacuolar transport were up-accumulated in fruits kept at 9 versus 4 °C and versus the onset...
March 30, 2019: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30500666/molecular-docking-and-in-silico-studies-of-the-physicochemical-properties-of-potential-inhibitors-for-the-phosphotransferase-system-of-streptococcus-mutans
#16
Wbeimar Andrey Rivera-Pérez, Andrés Felipe Yépes-Pérez, Maria Cecilia Martínez-Pabón
This study identified potential inhibitory compounds of the phosphoenolpyruvate-sugar. Phosphotransferase system of S. mutans, specifically enzyme II mannose transporter (EIIMan ) in its subunits IIA, IIB and IIC by means of a selection protocol and in silico molecular analysis. Intervening the phosphotransferase system would compromise the physiological behavior and the pathogenic expression of S. mutans, and possibly other acidogenic bacteria that use phosphotransferases in their metabolism-making the phosphotransferase system a therapeutic target for the selective control of acidogenic microorganisms in caries control...
November 22, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30498977/evolutionary-engineered-candida-intermedia-exhibits-improved-xylose-utilization-and-robustness-to-lignocellulose-derived-inhibitors-and-ethanol
#17
Antonio D Moreno, Antonella Carbone, Rosita Pavone, Lisbeth Olsson, Cecilia Geijer
The development of robust microorganisms that can efficiently ferment both glucose and xylose represents one of the major challenges in achieving a cost-effective lignocellulosic bioethanol production. Candida intermedia is a non-conventional, xylose-utilizing yeast species with a high-capacity xylose transport system. The natural ability of C. intermedia to produce ethanol from xylose makes it attractive as a non-GMO alternative for lignocellulosic biomass conversion in biorefineries. We have evaluated the fermentation capacity and the tolerance to lignocellulose-derived inhibitors and the end product, ethanol, of the C...
November 29, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30498222/engineering-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-for-co-utilization-of-d-galacturonic-acid-and-d-glucose-from-citrus-peel-waste
#18
Ryan J Protzko, Luke N Latimer, Ze Martinho, Elise de Reus, Tanja Seibert, J Philipp Benz, John E Dueber
Pectin-rich biomasses, such as citrus peel and sugar beet pulp, hold promise as inexpensive feedstocks for microbial fermentations as enzymatic hydrolysis of their component polysaccharides can be accomplished inexpensively to yield high concentrations of fermentable sugars and D-galacturonic acid (D-galUA). In this study, we tackle a number of challenges associated with engineering a microbial strain to convert pectin-rich hydrolysates into commodity and specialty chemicals. First, we engineer D-galUA utilization into yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
November 29, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30497809/elevation-of-blood-lipids-in-hepatocyte-specific-fatty-acid-transport-4-deficient-mice-fed-with-high-glucose-diets
#19
Stephan Döring, Jessica Seeßle, Hongying Gan-Schreier, Bahador Javaheri, Li Jiao, Yuting Cheng, Sabine Tuma-Kellner, Gerhard Liebisch, Thomas Herrmann, Wolfgang Stremmel, Walee Chamulitrat
Fatty acid transport protein4 (FATP4) is upregulated in acquired and central obesity and its polymorphisms are associated with blood lipids and insulin resistance. Patients with FATP4 mutations and mice with global FATP4 deletion exhibit skin abnormalities characterized as ischthyosis prematurity syndrome (IPS). Cumulating data have shown that an absence of FATP4 increases the levels of cellular triglycerides (TG). However, FATP4 role and consequent lipid and TG metabolism in the hepatocyte is still elusive...
November 23, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30488772/sugar-transporter-protein-1-stp1-contributes-to-regulation-of-the-genes-involved-in-shoot-branching-via-carbon-partitioning-in-arabidopsis
#20
Kumi Otori, Noriaki Tanabe, Masahiro Tamoi, Shigeru Shigeoka
We previously demonstrated that alterations in sugar partitioning affect the expression of genes involved in hormone biosynthesis and responses, including BRANCHED1 (BRC1), resulting in enhanced shoot branching in transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing cyanobacterial fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase-II in the cytosol (AcF). The exogenous treatment of wild-type Arabidopsis plants with sugars showed the same transcript characteristics, indicating that sugars act as a signal for branching. We also found that the reductions induced in BRC1 expression levels in wild-type plants by the sugar treatments were suppressed in the knockout mutant of sugar transporter 1 (stp1-1)...
November 29, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
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