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Sugar transportation

Chamari Wijesooriya, Charles Nyamekye, Emily A Smith
Biological membranes serve as the fundamental unit of life, allowing the compartmentalization of cellular contents into subunits with specific functions. The bilayer structure, consisting of lipids, proteins, small molecules and sugars, also serves many other complex functions in addition to maintaining the relative stability of the inner compartments. Signal transduction, regulation of solute exchange, active transport, and energy transduction through ion gradients all take place at biological membranes, primarily with the assistance of membrane proteins...
October 19, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Xia An, Guanrong Jin, Jingyu Zhang, Xiahong Luo, Changli Chen, Wenlue Li, GuangYing Ma, Liang Jin, Lunjin Dai, Xiaohua Shi, Wei Wei, Guanlin Zhu
The molecular mechanisms that underlie drought stress responses in kenaf, an important crop for the production of natural fibers, are poorly understood. To address this issue, we describe here the first iTRAQ-based comparative proteomic analysis of kenaf seedlings. Plants were divided into the following three treatment groups: Group A, watered normally (control); Group B, not watered for 6 days (drought treatment); and Group C, not watered for 5 days and then rewatered for 1 day (recovery treatment). A total of 5014 proteins were detected, including 4932 (i...
October 2018: FEBS Open Bio
Eoin Byrne, Krisztina Kovacs, Ed W J van Niel, Karin Willquist, Sven-Erik Svensson, Emma Kreuger
Background: Current EU directives demand increased use of renewable fuels in the transportation sector but restrict governmental support for production of biofuels produced from crops. The use of intercropped lucerne and wheat may comply with the directives. In the current study, the combination of ensiled lucerne ( Medicago sativa L.) and wheat straw as substrate for hydrogen and methane production was investigated. Steam-pretreated and enzymatically hydrolysed wheat straw [WSH, 76% of total chemical oxygen demand (COD)] and ensiled lucerne (LH, 24% of total COD) were used for sequential hydrogen production through dark fermentation and methane production through anaerobic digestion and directly for anaerobic digestion...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Shao-Fen Jian, Qiong Liao, Hai-Xing Song, Qiang Liu, Joe Eugene Lepo, Chunyun Guan, Jianhua Zhang, Abdelbagi M Ismail, Zhen-Hua Zhang
High concentration of ammonium (NH4+) as sole source of nitrogen in growth media is often toxic to plants. The nitrate transporter NRT1.1 is involved in mediating plant NH4+ toxicity; however, this mechanism remains undefined. In this study, the wild-type Arabidopsis (Col-0) and NRT1.1 mutants (chl1-1 and chl1-5) were grown hydroponically in NH4NO3 and (NH4)2SO4 media to assess the function of NRT1.1 in NH4+ stress responses. All the plants grew normally in mixed N sources, but Col-0 displayed more chlorosis, and lower biomass and photosynthesis than the NRT1...
October 18, 2018: Plant Physiology
Anna Frappaolo, Stefano Sechi, Tadahiro Kumagai, Angela Karimpour-Ghahnavieh, Michael Tiemeyer, Maria Grazia Giansanti
Protein glycosylation, the enzymatic addition of N-linked or O-linked glycans to proteins, serves crucial functions in animal cells and requires the action of glycosyltransferases, glycosidases and nucleotide-sugar transporters, localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation (CDGs) comprise a family of multisystemic diseases caused by mutations in genes encoding proteins involved in glycosylation pathways. CDGs are classified into two large groups. Type I CDGs affect the synthesis of the dolichol-linked Glc3 Man9 GlcNac2 precursor of N-linked glycosylation or its transfer to acceptor proteins...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Olajide E Olaleye, Wei Niu, Fei-Fei Du, Feng-Qing Wang, Fang Xu, Salisa Pintusophon, Jun-Lan Lu, Jun-Ling Yang, Chuan Li
ShenMai, an intravenous injection prepared from steamed Panax ginseng roots (Hongshen) and Ophiopogon japonicus roots (Maidong), is used as an add-on therapy for coronary artery disease and cancer; saponins are its bioactive constituents. Since many saponins inhibit human organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATP)1B, this investigation determined the inhibition potencies of circulating ShenMai saponins on the transporters and the joint potential of these compounds for ShenMai-drug interaction. Circulating saponins and their pharmacokinetics were characterized in rats receiving a 30-min infusion of ShenMai at 10 mL/kg...
October 16, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Jian Guo Cai, Yi Zhang, Ou Wen Sun, Qian Qian Yang
With the continuous drought stress treatment to five Hydrangea macrophylla varieties of different abilities of drought resistance, twenty-five physiological-biochemical indices were mea-sured. We evaluated the drought resistance of different varieties and established the mathematic model. The results showed that leaf mass per area, cell membrane permeability (CMP), the content of malonaldehyde (MDA), the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), soluble sugar content, proline content, intercellular carbon dioxide and non-photochemical quenching coefficient were significantly increased under drought stress for twenty days...
October 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Christian Rinke, Francesco Rubino, Lauren F Messer, Noha Youssef, Donovan H Parks, Maria Chuvochina, Mark Brown, Thomas Jeffries, Gene W Tyson, Justin R Seymour, Philip Hugenholtz
Marine Group II (MGII) archaea represent the most abundant planktonic archaeal group in ocean surface waters, but our understanding of the group has been limited by a lack of cultured representatives and few sequenced genomes. Here, we conducted a comparative phylogenomic analysis of 270 recently available MGII metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) to investigate their evolution and ecology. Based on a rank-normalised genome phylogeny, we propose that MGII is an order-level lineage for which we propose the name Candidatus Poseidoniales (after Gr...
October 15, 2018: ISME Journal
Ebru Alazi, Arthur F J Ram
Filamentous fungi are the most important microorganisms for the industrial production of plant polysaccharide degrading enzymes due to their unique ability to secrete these proteins efficiently. These carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes) are utilized industrially for the hydrolysis of plant biomass for the subsequent production of biofuels and high-value biochemicals. The expression of the genes encoding plant biomass degrading enzymes is tightly controlled. Naturally, large amounts of CAZymes are produced and secreted only in the presence of the plant polysaccharide they specifically act on...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Natália Manuela Strohmayer Lourencetti, Ivan Rodrigo Wolf, Maria Priscila Franco Lacerda, Guilherme Targino Valente, Cleslei Fernando Zanelli, Mariana Marchi Santoni, Maria José Soares Mendes-Giannini, Francisco Javier Enguita, Ana Marisa Fusco-Almeida
The fermentation process is widely used in the industry for bioethanol production. Even though it is widely used, microbial contamination is unpredictable and difficult to control. The problem of reduced productivity is directly linked to competition for nutrients during contamination. Yeasts representing the Candida species are frequently isolated contaminants. Elucidating the behavior of a contaminant during the fermentation cycle is essential for combatting the contamination. Consequently, the aim of the current study was to better understand the functional and transcriptional behavior of a contaminating yeast Candida tropicalis...
October 11, 2018: AMB Express
Bohan Sun, Richard N McCay, Shivam Goswami, Yadong Xu, Cheng Zhang, Yun Ling, Jian Lin, Zheng Yan
Soft on-skin electronics have broad applications in human healthcare, human-machine interface, robotics, and others. However, most current on-skin electronic devices are made of materials with limited gas permeability, which constrain perspiration evaporation, resulting in adverse physiological and psychological effects, limiting their long-term feasibility. In addition, the device fabrication process usually involves e-beam or photolithography, thin-film deposition, etching, and/or other complicated procedures, which are costly and time-consuming, constraining their practical applications...
October 10, 2018: Advanced Materials
Ricky J Milne, Katherine E Dibley, Wendelin Heribert Schnippenkoetter, Martin Mascher, Andy Cw Lui, Lanxiang Wang, Clive Lo, Anthony R Ashton, Peter R Ryan, Evans Lagudah
Fungal pathogens are a major constraint to global crop production; hence, plant genes encoding pathogen resistance are important tools for combating disease. A few resistance genes identified to date provide partial, durable resistance to multiple pathogens and the wheat (Triticum aestivum) Lr67 hexose transporter variant (Lr67res) fits into this category. Two amino acids differ between the wild-type and resistant alleles - G144R and V387L. Exome sequence data from 267 barley (Hordeum vulgare) landraces and wild accessions was screened and neither of the Lr67res mutations was detected...
October 10, 2018: Plant Physiology
Wilfried Konrad, Gabriel Katul, Anita Roth-Nebelsick, Kaare H Jensen
Xylem and phloem are the two main conveyance systems in plants allowing exchanges of water and carbohydrates between roots and leaves. While each system has been studied in isolation for well over a century, the coupling and coordination between them remains the subject of inquiry and active research and frames the scope of the review here. Using a set of balance equations, hazards of bubble formation and their role in shaping xylem pressure and its corollary impact on phloem pressure and sugar transport are featured...
October 9, 2018: Tree Physiology
Kristy L Hentchel, Leila M Reyes Ruiz, Patrick D Curtis, Aretha Fiebig, Maureen L Coleman, Sean Crosson
Bacterial genomes evolve in complex ecosystems and are best understood in this natural context, but replicating such conditions in the lab is challenging. We used transposon sequencing to define the fitness consequences of gene disruption in the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus grown in natural freshwater, compared with axenic growth in common laboratory media. Gene disruptions in amino-acid and nucleotide sugar biosynthesis pathways and in metabolic substrate transport machinery impaired fitness in both lake water and defined minimal medium relative to complex peptone broth...
October 8, 2018: ISME Journal
Mostafa E Elshobary, Michael G Becker, Jenna L Kalichuk, Ainsley C Chan, Mark F Belmonte, Michele D Piercey-Normore
The biosynthesis of two polyketides, atranorin and fumarprotocetraric acid, produced from a lichen-forming fungus, Cladonia rangiferina (L.) F. H. Wigg. was correlated with the expression of eight fungal genes (CrPKS1, CrPKS3, CrPKS16, Catalase (CAT), Sugar Transporter (MFsug), Dioxygenase (YQE1), C2 H2 Transcription factor (C2 H2 ), Transcription Factor PacC (PacC), which are thought to be involved in polyketide biosynthesis, and one algal gene, NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 2 (AsNAD)), using laser microdissection (LMD)...
October 5, 2018: Phytochemistry
Yina Jiang, Qiujin Xie, Wanxiao Wang, Jun Yang, Xiaowei Zhang, Nan Yu, Yun Zhou, Ertao Wang
Most land plants evolve a mutualistic symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi to improve nutrient acquisition from the soil. In return, up to 20% of host plant photosynthate is transferred to the mycorrhizal fungus in the form of lipids and sugar. Nutrient exchange must be regulated by both partners in order to maintain a reliable symbiotic relationship. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of lipid transfer from plant to AM fungus remain elusive. Here, we show that Medicago truncatula AP2/EREBP transcription factor WRI5a, and likely its two homologs WRI5b/Erf1 and WRI5c, are master regulators of AM symbiosis by controlling lipid transfer and periarbuscular membrane formation...
October 4, 2018: Molecular Plant
Sara Crespo-Martínez, Mirosław Sobczak, Elżbieta Różańska, Astrid Forneck, Michaela Griesser
Berry Shrivel (BS) is a post-veraison physiological ripening disorder of grapevine berries. Its symptoms encompass low pH, reduced content of sugars and anthocyanins, and loss of turgor leading to berries shriveling. Evidence for the primary causes of BS is still speculative and anatomical studies are scarce. So far, anatomical studies have determined necrotic cells, degraded primary phloem cells and hardening of secondary phloem cells in the rachis of BS affected grapes. The picture is far from being complete...
September 27, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Shintaro Maeno, Akinobu Kajikawa, Leon Dicks, Akihito Endo
Fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB) are unique in the sense that they prefer D-fructose over D-glucose as main carbon source. If D-glucose is metabolised, electron acceptors are required and significant levels of acetate are produced. These bacteria are found in environments rich in D-fructose, such as flowers, fruits and the gastrointestinal tract of insects feeding on fructose-rich diets. Fructobacillus spp. are representatives of this unique group, and their fructophilic characteristics are well conserved...
October 3, 2018: Research in Microbiology
Mirjam Koch, Matthies Busse, Marcel Naumann, Bálint Jákli, Inga Smit, Ismail Cakmak, Christian Hermans, Elke Pawelzik
Potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) are essential macronutrients for plants; they play crucial roles for photoassimilate production and transport. The knowledge on both individual and interactive effects of K and Mg nutrition in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is limited. We aimed to determine whether K or Mg deficiencies impair photoassimilate production and transport, and consequently the development of tubers which are strong sink organs for photoassimilates. Potato plants were grown in pots using sand culture under various K and Mg supplies...
October 4, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Shaopeng Zhao, A Chen, Chengjie Chen, Chengchen Li, Rui Xia, Xiurong Wang
To elucidate molecular mechanisms controlling differential growth responses to root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi varying in colonization and cooperative behavior, a pot experiment was carried out using two soybean genotypes and three AM inocula. The results showed that inoculation by cooperative Rhizophagus irregularis (Ri) or less-cooperative Glomus aggregatum with high AM colonization (Ga-H) significantly promoted plant growth compared with inoculation by Glomus aggregatum with low AM colonization (Ga-L)...
October 5, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
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