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Nodulation and nitrogen fixation

Sebastian Pfeilmeier, Jeoffrey George, Arry Morel, Sonali Roy, Matthew Smoker, Lena Stransfeld, J Allan Downie, Nemo Peeters, Jacob G Malone, Cyril Zipfel
Interfamily transfer of plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) represents a promising biotechnological approach to engineer broad-spectrum, and potentially durable, disease resistance in crops. It is however unclear whether new recognition specificities to given pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) affect the interaction of the recipient plant with beneficial microbes. To test this in a direct reductionist approach, we transferred the Brassicaceae-specific PRR ELONGATION FACTOR-THERMO UNSTABLE RECEPTOR (EFR), conferring recognition of the bacterial EF-Tu protein, from Arabidopsis thaliana to the legume Medicago truncatula...
August 18, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Matthew G Garneau, Qiumin Tan, Mechthild Tegeder
Legumes fix atmospheric nitrogen through a symbiotic relationship with bacteroids in root nodules. Following fixation in pea (Pisum sativum L.) nodules, nitrogen is reduced to amino acids that are exported via the nodule xylem to the shoot, and in the phloem to roots in support of growth. However, the mechanisms involved in amino acid movement towards the nodule vasculature, and their importance for nodule function and plant nutrition, were unknown. We found that in pea nodules the apoplasmic pathway is an essential route for amino acid partitioning from infected cells to the vascular bundles, and that amino acid permease PsAAP6 is a key-player in nitrogen retrieval from the apoplasm into inner cortex cells for nodule export...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Paulina Estrada-de Los Santos, Marike Palmer, Belén Chávez-Ramírez, Chrizelle Beukes, Emma T Steenkamp, Leah Briscoe, Noor Khan, Marta Maluk, Marcel Lafos, Ethan Humm, Monique Arrabit, Matthew Crook, Eduardo Gross, Marcelo F Simon, Fábio Bueno Dos Reis Junior, William B Whitman, Nicole Shapiro, Philip S Poole, Ann M Hirsch, Stephanus N Venter, Euan K James
Burkholderia sensu lato is a large and complex group, containing pathogenic, phytopathogenic, symbiotic and non-symbiotic strains from a very wide range of environmental (soil, water, plants, fungi) and clinical (animal, human) habitats. Its taxonomy has been evaluated several times through the analysis of 16S rRNA sequences, concantenated 4⁻7 housekeeping gene sequences, and lately by genome sequences. Currently, the division of this group into Burkholderia , Caballeronia, Paraburkholderia , and Robbsia is strongly supported by genome analysis...
August 1, 2018: Genes
Mostafa Abdelrahman, Magdi A El-Sayed, Abeer Hashem, Elsayed Fathi Abd Allah, Abdulaziz A Alqarawi, David J Burritt, Lam-Son Phan Tran
Phosphate (Pi ) deficiency is a critical environmental constraint that affects the growth and development of several legume crops that are usually cultivated in semi-arid regions and marginal areas. Pi deficiency is known to be a significant limitation for symbiotic nitrogen (N2 ) fixation (SNF), and variability in SNF is strongly interlinked with the concentrations of Pi in the nodules. To deal with Pi deficiency, plants trigger various adaptive responses, including the induction and secretion of acid phosphatases, maintenance of Pi homeostasis in nodules and other organs, and improvement of oxygen (O2 ) consumption per unit of nodule mass...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yuhui Chen, Rujin Chen
Medicago truncatula has been selected as a model species for legume molecular genetics and functional genomics studies. With the completion of the Medicago truncatula cv. Jemalong A17 genome sequencing, a major challenge is to determine the function of the large number of genes in the genome. Development of diverse mutant resources is crucial for gene functional studies. In the past years, M2 seeds from over 150,000 Medicago truncatula mutant lines in the Jemalong A17 background have been generated coordinately at the Noble Research Institute, USA, and the John Innes Centre, UK, using fast neutron bombardment (FNB) mutagenesis...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Luis A Cañas, José Pío Beltrán
Many researchers have sought along the last two decades a legume species that could serve as a model system for genetic studies to resolve specific developmental or metabolic processes that cannot be studied in other model plants. Nitrogen fixation, nodulation, compound leaf, inflorescence and plant architecture, floral development, pod formation, secondary metabolite biosynthesis, and other developmental and metabolic aspects are legume-specific or show important differences with those described in Arabidopsis thaliana, the most studied model plant...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
José Pío Beltrán, Luis A Cañas
Humanity faces great challenges with respect to the use of energy, the production of food and feed, and the management of the Earth through sustainable practices. Agriculture can play a key role to give appropriate responses to these challenges. By the end of this century, human population will grow up to around 10,000 million people, meaning we must be able to produce food and feed for more than an additional number of 3300 million people. Legumes together with cereals have been combined to produce healthy food along the history of agriculture in all geographical areas of the planet...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Javier León-Mediavilla, Marta Senovilla, Jesús Montiel, Patricia Gil-Díez, Ángela Saez, Igor S Kryvoruchko, María Reguera, Michael K Udvardi, Juan Imperial, Manuel González-Guerrero
Zinc (Zn) is an essential nutrient for plants that is involved in almost every biological process. This includes symbiotic nitrogen fixation, a process carried out by endosymbiotic bacteria (rhizobia) living within differentiated plant cells of legume root nodules. Zn transport in nodules involves delivery from the root, via the vasculature, release into the apoplast and uptake into nodule cells. Once in the cytosol, Zn can be used directly by cytosolic proteins or delivered into organelles, including symbiosomes of infected cells, by Zn efflux transporters...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ramadoss Dhanushkodi, Cory Matthew, Michael T McManus, Paul P Dijkwel
Drought is a major constraint for legume growth and yield. Senescence of nitrogen-fixing nodules is one of the early drought responses and may cause nutrient stress in addition to water stress in legumes. For nodule senescence to function as part of a drought-survival strategy, we propose that the intrinsically destructive senescence process must be tightly regulated. Medicago truncatula protease inhibitor and iron scavenger-encoding genes, possibly involved in controlling nodule senescence, were identified...
July 5, 2018: New Phytologist
Amaral Machaculeha Chibeba, Stephen Kyei-Boahen, Maria de Fátima Guimarães, Marco Antonio Nogueira, Mariangela Hungria
The soybean- Bradyrhizobium symbiosis can be very effective in fixing nitrogen and supply nearly all plant's demand on this nutrient, obviating the need for N-fertilizers. Brazil has been investing in research and use of inoculants for soybean for decades and with the expansion of the crop in African countries, the feasibility of transference of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) technologies between the continents should be investigated. We evaluated the performance of five strains (four Brazilian and one North American) in the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 crop seasons in Brazil (four sites) and Mozambique (five sites)...
July 1, 2018: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
Manuel A Matamoros, Ahyoung Kim, Maria Peñuelas, Christian Ihling, Eva Griesser, Ralf Hoffmann, Maria Fedorova, Andrej Frolov, Manuel Becana
Nitrogen fixation is an agronomically and environmentally important process catalyzed by bacterial nitrogenase within legume root nodules. These unique symbiotic organs have high metabolic rates and produce large amounts of reactive oxygen species that may modify proteins irreversibly. Here, we examined two types of oxidative posttranslational modifications of nodule proteins: carbonylation, which occurs by direct oxidation of certain amino acids or by interaction with reactive aldehydes arising from cell membrane lipid peroxides; and glycation, which results from the reaction of Lys and Arg residues with reducing sugars or their auto-oxidation products...
July 3, 2018: Plant Physiology
Patricia Gil-Díez, Manuel Tejada-Jiménez, Javier León-Mediavilla, Jiangqi Wen, Kirankumar S Mysore, Juan Imperial, Manuel González-Guerrero
Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legume root nodules requires a steady supply of molybdenum for synthesis of the iron-molybdenum cofactor of nitrogenase. This nutrient has to be provided by the host plant from the soil, crossing several symplastically disconnected compartments through molybdate transporters, including members of the MOT1 family. Medicago truncatula Molybdate Transporter (MtMOT) 1.2 is a Medicago truncatula MOT1 family member located in the endodermal cells in roots and nodules. Immunolocalization of a tagged MtMOT1...
June 25, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Dušan Veličković, Beverly J Agtuca, Sylwia A Stopka, Akos Vertes, David W Koppenaal, Ljiljana Paša-Tolić, Gary Stacey, Christopher R Anderton
In this study, the three-dimensional spatial distributions of a number of metabolites involved in regulating symbiosis and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) within soybean root nodules were revealed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI). While many metabolites exhibited distinct spatial compartmentalization, some metabolites were asymmetrically distributed throughout the nodule (e.g., S-adenosylmethionine). These results establish a more complex metabolic view of plant-bacteria symbiosis (and BNF) within soybean nodules than previously hypothesized...
June 13, 2018: ISME Journal
Ophelia Osei, Robert C Abaidoo, Benjamin D K Ahiabor, Robert M Boddey, Luc F M Rouws
The identification of locally-adapted rhizobia for effective inoculation of grain legumes in Africa's semiarid regions is strategic for developing and optimizing cheap nitrogen fixation technologies for smallholder farmers. This study was aimed at selecting and characterising effective native rhizobia, from Ghanaian soils for groundnut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) inoculation. From surface-disinfected root nodules of cowpea and groundnut plants grown on farmers' fields, 150 bacterial isolates were obtained, 30 of which were eventually found to nodulate groundnut plants...
June 2018: Applied Soil Ecology: a Section of Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
Xin Li, Hao Feng, JiangQi Wen, Jiangli Dong, Tao Wang
Symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) in legume root nodules injects millions of tons of nitrogen into agricultural lands and provides ammonia to non-legume crops under N-deficient conditions. During plant growth and development, environmental stresses, such as drought, salt, cold, and heat stress are unavoidable. This raises an interesting question as to how the legumes cope with the environmental stress along with SNF. Under drought stress, dehydrin proteins are accumulated, which function as protein protector and osmotic substances...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Gilbert Koskey, Simon W Mburu, Jacinta M Kimiti, Omwoyo Ombori, John M Maingi, Ezekiel M Njeru
The increasing interest in the use of rhizobia as biofertilizers in smallholder agricultural farming systems of the Sub-Saharan Africa has prompted the identification of a large number of tropical rhizobia strains and led to studies on their diversity. Inoculants containing diverse strains of rhizobia have been developed for use as biofertilizers to promote soil fertility and symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legumes. In spite of this success, there is paucity of data on rhizobia diversity and genetic variation associated with the newly released and improved mid-altitude climbing (MAC) bean lines ( Phaseolus vulgaris L...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Joel L Sachs, Kenjiro W Quides, Camille E Wendlandt
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. References SUMMARY: The legume-rhizobia association is a powerful model of the limits of host control over microbes. Legumes regulate the formation of root nodules that house nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and adjust investment into nodule development and growth. However, the range of fitness outcomes in these traits reveals intense conflicts of interest between the partners. New work that we review and synthesize here shows that legumes have evolved varied mechanisms of control over symbionts, but that host control is often subverted by rhizobia...
May 30, 2018: New Phytologist
Martina Lardi, Gabriella Pessi
Biological nitrogen fixation gives legumes a pronounced growth advantage in nitrogen-deprived soils and is of considerable ecological and economic interest. In exchange for reduced atmospheric nitrogen, typically given to the plant in the form of amides or ureides, the legume provides nitrogen-fixing rhizobia with nutrients and highly specialised root structures called nodules. To elucidate the molecular basis underlying physiological adaptations on a genome-wide scale, functional genomics approaches, such as transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, have been used...
May 18, 2018: High-throughput
Beate Thal, Hans-Peter Braun, Holger Eubel
Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in root nodules of legumes is a highly important biological process which is only poorly understood. Root nodule metabolism differs from that of roots. Differences in root and nodule metabolism are expressed by altered protein abundances and amenable to quantitative proteome analyses. Differences in the proteomes may either be tissue specific and related to the presence of temporary endosymbionts (the bacteroids) or related to nitrogen fixation activity. An experimental setup including WT bacterial strains and strains not able to conduct symbiotic nitrogen fixation as well as root controls enables identification of tissue and nitrogen fixation specific proteins...
June 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Christina Stonoha-Arther, Dong Wang
The symbiosis formed by nitrogen-fixing bacteria with plant hosts mainly in the legume family involves a very intimate interaction. Within the symbiotic organ (the nodule) the bacteria are fully internalized by the host cell to become an intracellular organelle surrounded by a host-derived membrane. This arrangement is probably necessary for the efficient provision of energy and the sequestration of free oxygen molecules, two conditions required for sustained nitrogen fixation. Recent advances made in model legume species, such as Medicago truncatula, are beginning to uncover the genetic components allowing rhizobia to access the host cytoplasm and establish chronic intracellular infections without overt detrimental effects...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
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