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Dongyang Wang, Jianjun Zhang, Zengjun Li, Jianjun Han, Yongsheng Gao, Ming Chen, Yanqing Li
Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) promotes tumor growth in various types of cancer, but its function has not been investigated in the context of colorectal adenoma. Here, we report that FGF19 expression was greater in colorectal adenoma than in normal tissues, as measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, quantitative reverse-transcription PCR and immunohistochemistry. FGF19 expression was also elevated in a subset of human colon cancer cell lines. Moreover, FGF receptor 4 (FGFR4), the cognate receptor for FGF19, was upregulated in colorectal adenoma tissues...
December 5, 2018: Digestive Diseases
Andreia M Gomes, Ilia Kurochkin, Betty Chang, Michael Daniel, Kenneth Law, Namita Satija, Alexander Lachmann, Zichen Wang, Lino Ferreira, Avi Ma'ayan, Benjamin K Chen, Dmitri Papatsenko, Ihor R Lemischka, Kateri A Moore, Carlos-Filipe Pereira
During development, hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) arise from specialized endothelial cells by a process termed endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition (EHT). The genetic program driving human HSPC emergence remains largely unknown. We previously reported that the generation of hemogenic precursor cells from mouse fibroblasts recapitulates developmental hematopoiesis. Here, we demonstrate that human fibroblasts can be reprogrammed into hemogenic cells by the same transcription factors. Induced cells display dynamic EHT transcriptional programs, generate hematopoietic progeny, possess HSPC cell surface phenotype, and repopulate immunodeficient mice for 3 months...
December 4, 2018: Cell Reports
Takafumi Kawamura, Masayoshi Yamamoto, Katsunori Suzuki, Yuhi Suzuki, Megumu Kamishima, Mayu Sakata, Kiyotaka Kurachi, Mitsutoshi Setoh, Hiroyuki Konno, Hiroya Takeuchi
Background: Colitis-associated cancer (CAC) is one of the prognostic factors in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and prevention of CAC is a critical concern for patients with IBD. Component cells of the microenvironment, especially myofibroblasts, are known to affect tumor development, but the role of intestinal myofibroblasts (IMFs) in CAC has not been clarified. Here, we explored the role of IMFs in CAC and sought to identify candidate genes as novel therapeutic targets for the prevention of CAC...
December 4, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Sijie Fang, Yazhuo Huang, Ningjian Wang, Shuo Zhang, Sisi Zhong, Yinwei Li, Jing Sun, Xingtong Liu, Yang Wang, Ping Gu, Bin Li, Huifang Zhou, Xianqun Fan
Context: Unique features of local immunity in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) may affect disease progression. Objective: To investigate the association between the orbital immune microenvironment and TAO development. Design/Setting/Participants: TAO and control orbital connective tissues were collected. Main Outcome Measures: Single-cell sequencing examined orbital lymphocytic infiltrates. Multi-color flow cytometry explored the phenotypes of different cell subsets and in vitro models for cell functional studies...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Miriam Zaccaro Scelza, Isleine Portal Caldas, Jhony Medeiros de Mattos, Felipe Oliveira, Waldimir Carvalho, Gutemberg Gomes Alves
This study aimed to compare the cytotoxicity of the Vita AC12, Lava Ultimate, Vita Enamic and InSync indirect restorative materials. Extracts of each material were prepared by incubation for 1, 7 and 40 days, with daily washing. Human gingival fibroblasts were exposed to the extracts, and cell viability was evaluated by sequential assessment of mitochondrial activity (XTT), membrane integrity (NRU) and cell density (CVDE). Extracts of polystyrene beads and latex fragments were used as negative and positive controls, respectively...
September 2018: Brazilian Dental Journal
Karin Cristina da Silva Modena, Adriana Maria Calvo, Carla Renata Sipert, Thiago José Dionísio, Maria Fidela de Lima Navarro, Maria Teresa Atta, Carlos Ferreira Santos
This study evaluated in vitro cell viability and metabolism, nitric oxide release and production of chemokines by cultured human dental pulp fibroblasts (DPF) under contact with HEMA and Single Bond. Cultures of DPF were established by means of an explant technique. Once plated, cells were kept under contact with increasing concentrations of HEMA (10, 100 and 1000 nM) or Single Bond (SB) [10-fold serially diluted in culture medium (10-4, 10-3 and 10-2 v/v)] and also with polymerized SB components. Cytotoxicity was assessed by Trypan Blue exclusion method and MTT [3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay...
September 2018: Brazilian Dental Journal
Zeliha Uğur Aydin, Kerem Engin Akpinar, Ceylan Hepokur, Demet Erdönmez
The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity on human fibroblast cell lines of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chitosan and propolis as root canal irrigating solutions. Human fibroblast cells were exposed to chitosan, propolis and NaOCl for 4 and 24 h. Cell viability was assessed by 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide, and oxidative DNA damage was assessed by determination of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) level with an ELISA kit...
November 29, 2018: Brazilian Oral Research
Maria Yousuf, Nimra Naveed Shaikh, Zaheer Ul-Haq, M Iqbal Choudhary
Identification of hotspot drug-receptor interactions through in-silico prediction methods (Pharmacophore mapping, virtual screening, 3DQSAR, etc), is considered as a key approach in drug designing and development process. In the current design study, advanced in-silico based computational techniques were used for the identification of lead-like molecules against the targeted receptor β-glucuronidase. The binding pattern of a potent inhibitor in the ligand-receptor X-ray co-crystallize complex was used to identify and extract the structure-base Pharmacophore features...
2018: PloS One
Wen Han, Xiao-Juan Bai, Lu-Lu Han, Xue-Feng Sun, Xiang-Mei Chen
OBJECTIVES: Changes in serum protein levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and Klotho resulting from bone metabolism are still controversial. The purpose of this study was to observe the relationship between FGF23 and Klotho serum proteins and lumbar spine bone mineral density (LBMD) in northern Chinese postmenopausal women. METHODS: This was a community-based cross-sectional study carried out in Shenyang, a northern Chinese city. The study included 355 postmenopausal women with an average age of 62...
December 3, 2018: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
O Khukhlina, A Antoniv, L Kanovska, O Mandryk, V Smandych
The article presents a theoretical generalization of the research results the effectiveness of heparisin on the state of the carbohydrate-protein components of the extracellular matrix of connective tissue in liver in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis with obesity I-II degree and chronic kidney disease І-ІІ stage. The purpose of the study is to find out the effectiveness of heparisin (glycyrizine 40 mg, glycine 400 mg, L-cysteine hydrochloride 20 mg) on the state of the carbohydrate-protein components of the extracellular matrix in connective tissue of the liver in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with obesity I-II degree and chronic kidney disease (CKD) І-ІІ stage...
October 2018: Georgian Medical News
Vidyaramanan Ganesan, Stephen D Willis, Kai-Ti Chang, Samuel Beluch, Katrina F Cooper, Randy Strich
Mitochondria exist in an equilibrium between fragmented and fused that shifts heavily toward fission in response to cellular damage. Nuclear to cytoplasmic cyclin C relocalization is essential for dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)-dependent mitochondrial fission in response to oxidative stress. This study finds that cyclin C directly interacts with the Drp1 GTPase domain, increases its affinity to GTP and stimulates GTPase activity in vitro. In addition, the cyclin C domain that binds Drp1 is contained within the non-Cdk binding second cyclin box domain common to all cyclin family members...
December 5, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Masato Furuhashi, Megumi Matsumoto, Takayo Murase, Takashi Nakamura, Yukimura Higashiura, Masayuki Koyama, Marenao Tanaka, Norihito Moniwa, Hirofumi Ohnishi, Shigeyuki Saitoh, Kazuaki Shimamoto, Tetsuji Miura
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), a rate-limiting and catalyzing enzyme of uric acid formation in the purine metabolism, is involved in an increase in reactive oxygen species. Plasma XOR activity has been shown to be associated with obesity, smoking, liver dysfunction, hyperuricemia, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The association between plasma XOR activity measured by using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry and levels of adipokines, including adiponectin, fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), were investigated in 282 subjects (male/female: 126/156) with no medication of the Tanno-Sobetsu Study...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Miao Zhang, Meng-Zhou Zhang, Shu-Heng Wen, Ying-Fu Sun, Peng-Hao Jiang, Lin-Lin Wang, Rui Zhao, Chang-Liang Wang, Shu-Kun Jiang, Da-Wei Guan
HIPK2 is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase and is considered a co-regulator of an increasing number of transcription factors modulating a variety of cellular processes, including inflammation, proliferation and fibrosis. Skeletal muscle injuries repair is an overlapping event between inflammation and tissue repair. There are no reports about HIPK2 expression in skeletal muscles after trauma. A foundational study on distribution and time-dependent expression of HIPK2 was performed by immunohistochemical staining, Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR, which is expected to obtain a preliminary insight into the functions of HIPK2 during the repair of contused skeletal muscle in mice...
December 5, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Wenting Liao, Jiadong Sun, Wenjing Liu, Wenyu Li, Jiaxin Jia, Farong Ou, Kai Su, Youhua Zheng, Zhiguang Zhang, Yangpeng Sun
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are important in chronic inflammation, and inflammatory responses affect synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cell (SMSC) function in temporomandibular joint repair. However, the effect of HDACs on SMSC inflammatory activation remains unclear. In this study, temporomandibular joint fibroblast-like synoviocytes obtained from osteoarthritis patients met the minimal mesenchymal stem cell criteria. Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) upregulated IL-6 and IL-8 expression in SMSCs through nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway activation...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Diana Carranza, Sara Torres-Rusillo, Gloria Ceballos-Pérez, Eva Blanco-Jimenez, Martin Muñoz-López, José L García-Pérez, Ignacio J Molina
Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a complex disease arising from mutations in the ATM gene (Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated), which plays crucial roles in repairing double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs). Heterogeneous immunodeficiency, extreme radiosensitivity, frequent appearance of tumors and neurological degeneration are hallmarks of the disease, which carries high morbidity and mortality because only palliative treatments are currently available. Gene therapy was effective in animal models of the disease, but the large size of the ATM cDNA required the use of HSV-1 or HSV/AAV hybrid amplicon vectors, whose characteristics make them unlikely tools for treating A-T patients...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Xuyan Jin, Tae-Ryong Riew, Hong Lim Kim, Soojin Kim, Mun-Yong Lee
Glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) or BiP, a 78-kDa chaperone protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), has recently been reported to be involved in the neuroglial response to ischemia-induced ER stress. The present study was designed to study the expression patterns of this protein and the cell types involved in the induction of GRP78 expression in rats treated with the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP). GRP78 immunoreactivity was almost exclusively localized to striatal neurons in saline-treated controls, but GRP78 expression was induced in activated glial cells, including reactive astrocytes and activated microglia/macrophages, in the striata of rats treated with 3-NP...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Marc Vervloet
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a hormone with a central role in the regulation of phosphate homeostasis. This regulation is accomplished by the coordinated modulation of renal phosphate handling, vitamin D metabolism and parathyroid hormone secretion. Patients with kidney disease have increased circulating levels of FGF23 and in other patient populations and in healthy individuals, FGF23 levels also rise following an increase in dietary phosphate intake. Maladaptive increases in FGF23 have a detrimental effect on several organs and tissues and, importantly, these pathological changes most likely contribute to increased morbidity and mortality...
December 4, 2018: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
Michael Bartoschek, Nikolay Oskolkov, Matteo Bocci, John Lövrot, Christer Larsson, Mikael Sommarin, Chris D Madsen, David Lindgren, Gyula Pekar, Göran Karlsson, Markus Ringnér, Jonas Bergh, Åsa Björklund, Kristian Pietras
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a major constituent of the tumor microenvironment, although their origin and roles in shaping disease initiation, progression and treatment response remain unclear due to significant heterogeneity. Here, following a negative selection strategy combined with single-cell RNA sequencing of 768 transcriptomes of mesenchymal cells from a genetically engineered mouse model of breast cancer, we define three distinct subpopulations of CAFs. Validation at the transcriptional and protein level in several experimental models of cancer and human tumors reveal spatial separation of the CAF subclasses attributable to different origins, including the peri-vascular niche, the mammary fat pad and the transformed epithelium...
December 4, 2018: Nature Communications
Nicholas D Leigh, Garrett S Dunlap, Kimberly Johnson, Rachelle Mariano, Rachel Oshiro, Alan Y Wong, Donald M Bryant, Bess M Miller, Alex Ratner, Andy Chen, William W Ye, Brian J Haas, Jessica L Whited
Regeneration of complex multi-tissue structures, such as limbs, requires the coordinated effort of multiple cell types. In axolotl limb regeneration, the wound epidermis and blastema have been extensively studied via histology, grafting, and bulk-tissue RNA-sequencing. However, defining the contributions of these tissues is hindered due to limited information regarding the molecular identity of the cell types in regenerating limbs. Here we report unbiased single-cell RNA-sequencing on over 25,000 cells from axolotl limbs and identify a plethora of cellular diversity within epidermal, mesenchymal, and hematopoietic lineages in homeostatic and regenerating limbs...
December 4, 2018: Nature Communications
Xin Kang, Ying Shen, Haixia Zhao, Zhaoge Wang, Wenying Guan, Ruichun Ge, Ruifang Wang, Xue Tai
OBJECTIVE: To study the anti- scarring effect of rapamycin in rabbits receiving glaucoma filtering surgery. METHODS: Ninety-six Chinchilla rabbits were randomized equally into 3 rapamycin treatment groups and one control group. All the rabbits underwent trabeculectomy, after which the rabbits in the 3 rapamycin groups were treated with eye drops containing 1%, 3%, or 5% rapamycin in the operated eyes, and those in the control groups were given castor oil 4 times a day...
November 30, 2018: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
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