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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546139/cognitive-testing-in-people-at-increased-risk-of-dementia-using-a-smartphone-app-the-ivitality-proof-of-principle-study
#1
Susan Jongstra, Liselotte Willemijn Wijsman, Ricardo Cachucho, Marieke Peternella Hoevenaar-Blom, Simon Pieter Mooijaart, Edo Richard
BACKGROUND: Smartphone-assisted technologies potentially provide the opportunity for large-scale, long-term, repeated monitoring of cognitive functioning at home. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this proof-of-principle study was to evaluate the feasibility and validity of performing cognitive tests in people at increased risk of dementia using smartphone-based technology during a 6 months follow-up period. METHODS: We used the smartphone-based app iVitality to evaluate five cognitive tests based on conventional neuropsychological tests (Memory-Word, Trail Making, Stroop, Reaction Time, and Letter-N-Back) in healthy adults...
May 25, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545073/the-clinical-efficacy-and-safety-evaluation-of-ticagrelor-for-acute-coronary-syndrome-in-general-acs-patients-and-diabetic-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Qiutong Tan, Xin Jiang, Sichao Huang, Tiantian Zhang, Lin Chen, Siwen Xie, Enpan Mo, Jun Xu, Shaohui Cai
OBJECTIVE: In this study, a systematic evaluation was conducted to estimate the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor for treating acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in general ACS patients and a diabetes mellitus (DM) group. METHODS: A search of PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, CNKI databases was conducted to analyze relevant randomized controlled trails (RCTs) of ticagrelor treating ACS during 2007 to 2015. Article screening, quality accessing and data extracting was independently undertaken by two reviewers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545039/the-perceptual-learning-of-time-compressed-speech-a-comparison-of-training-protocols-with-different-levels-of-difficulty
#3
Yafit Gabay, Avi Karni, Karen Banai
Speech perception can improve substantially with practice (perceptual learning) even in adults. Here we compared the effects of four training protocols that differed in whether and how task difficulty was changed during a training session, in terms of the gains attained and the ability to apply (transfer) these gains to previously un-encountered items (tokens) and to different talkers. Participants trained in judging the semantic plausibility of sentences presented as time-compressed speech and were tested on their ability to reproduce, in writing, the target sentences; trail-by-trial feedback was afforded in all training conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544036/stereospecific-winding-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-into-trinacria-propellers
#4
Dario Mosca, Antoine Stopin, Nicola Demitri, Johan Wouters, Davide Bonifazi
The stereospecific trimerization of enantiomerically-pure binaphthols with hexakis(bromomethyl)benzene gives access in one step to enantiomerically-pure molecular propellers, in which three binaphthyl rings are held together through dioxecine rings. X-Ray diffraction analysis revealed that three out the six naphthyl moieties are folded in a (EF)3-type arrangement held by three intramolecular C-H…π interactions. This slips outward the three remaining naphthyl rings in a blade-like fashion, just like in three-folded propeller components...
May 21, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543994/cognitive-enhancing-effects-of-rtms-administered-to-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-patients-with-depression-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-individual-task-effects
#5
REVIEW
Donel M Martin, Shawn M McClintock, Jane J Forster, Tin Yan Lo, Colleen K Loo
BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an approved therapeutic treatment of major depressive disorder and has increasing clinical use throughout the world. However, it remains unclear whether an rTMS course for depression may also produce cognitive enhancement. In a recent meta-analysis of sham-controlled randomized controlled studies (RCTs) conducted in patients with neuropsychiatric conditions, no evidence was found for generalized cognitive enhancing effects across cognitive domains with active compared to sham rTMS...
May 24, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542280/analysing-human-mobility-patterns-of-hiking-activities-through-complex-network-theory
#6
Isaac Lera, Toni Pérez, Carlos Guerrero, Víctor M Eguíluz, Carlos Juiz
The exploitation of high volume of geolocalized data from social sport tracking applications of outdoor activities can be useful for natural resource planning and to understand the human mobility patterns during leisure activities. This geolocalized data represents the selection of hike activities according to subjective and objective factors such as personal goals, personal abilities, trail conditions or weather conditions. In our approach, human mobility patterns are analysed from trajectories which are generated by hikers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540289/stem-cell-induced-biobridges-as-possible-tools-to-aid-neuroreconstruction-after-cns-injury
#7
REVIEW
Jea Y Lee, Kaya Xu, Hung Nguyen, Vivian A Guedes, Cesar V Borlongan, Sandra A Acosta
Notch-induced mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) mediate a distinct mechanism of repair after brain injury by forming a biobridge that facilitates biodistribution of host cells from a neurogenic niche to the area of injury. We have observed the biobridge in an area between the subventricular zone and the injured cortex using immunohistochemistry and laser capture. Cells in the biobridge express high levels of extracellular matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), specifically MMP-9, which co-localized with a trail of MSCs graft...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539952/executive-dysfunction-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-anterior-cingulate-based-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#8
Je-Yeon Yun, Joon Hwan Jang, Wi Hoon Jung, Na Young Shin, Sung Nyun Kim, Jae Yeon Hwang, Jun Soo Kwon
OBJECTIVE: Executive dysfunction might be an important determinant for response to pharmacotherapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and could be sustained independently of symptom relief. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been indicated as a potential neural correlate of executive functioning in OCD. The present study examined the brain-executive function relationships in OCD from the ACC-based resting state functional connectivity networks (rs-FCNs), which reflect information processing mechanisms during task performance...
May 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539826/improving-on-laboratory-traumatic-brain-injury-models-to-achieve-better-results
#9
REVIEW
Mark Nyanzu, Felix Siaw-Debrah, Haoqi Ni, Zhu Xu, Hua Wang, Xiao Lin, Qichuan Zhuge, Lijie Huang
Experimental modeling of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in animals has identified several potential means and interventions that might have beneficial applications for treating traumatic brain injury clinically. Several of these interventions have been applied and tried with humans that are at different phases of testing (completed, prematurely terminated and others in progress). The promising results achieved in the laboratory with animal models have not been replicated with human trails as expected. This review will highlight some insights and significance attained via laboratory animal modeling of TBI as well as factors that require incorporation into the experimental studies that could help in translating results from laboratory to the bedside...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537784/the-dangerousness-of-mountain-recreation-a-quantitative-overview-of-fatal-and-non-fatal-accidents-in-france
#10
Bastien Soulé, Brice Lefèvre, Eric Boutroy
In France, there is a growing enthusiasm for outdoor sports and recreation. In the meantime, the risk of both severe and frequent injury associated with active pursuits in mountain areas is acknowledged. This paper tackles accidents related to mountain sports, with a focus on three critical activities: hiking, mountaineering and ski touring. The aim consists of estimating the actual number of accidents (whether they entailed deaths or injuries) in the three above-mentioned activities. In order to align the information collected, then provide estimations based on the reasoned crossing of these secondary data, we consulted and summarised all the databases available on the French territory...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537677/targeting-of-mir-20a-against-cflar-to-potentiate-trail-induced-apoptotic-sensitivity-in-hepg2-cells
#11
Y Wang, Y-R Zhao, A-Y Zhang, J Ma, Z-Z Wang, X Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Elevated expression of caspase-8 (CASP8) and Fas-associating protein with a novel death domain (FADD)-like apoptosis regulator (CFLAR) increases sensitivity against tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced cell apoptosis, but with an unclear mechanism. A previous study showed decreased microRNA-20a (miR-20a) expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patient's tumor tissues. Bioinformatics analysis showed potential targeting relationship between the 3-UTR of CFLAR and miR-20a...
May 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536452/exploring-the-trails-less-travelled-trail-in-cancer-biology-and-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Silvia von Karstedt, Antonella Montinaro, Henning Walczak
The discovery that the tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) can induce apoptosis of cancer cells without causing toxicity in mice has led to the in-depth study of pro-apoptotic TRAIL receptor (TRAIL-R) signalling and the development of biotherapeutic drug candidates that activate TRAIL-Rs. The outcome of clinical trials with these TRAIL-R agonists has, however, been disappointing so far. Recent evidence indicates that many cancers, in addition to being TRAIL resistant, use the endogenous TRAIL-TRAIL-R system to their own advantage...
May 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535707/macular-pigment-optical-density-is-positively-associated-with-academic-performance-among-preadolescent-children
#13
Sasha M Barnett, Naiman A Khan, Anne M Walk, Lauren B Raine, Christopher Moulton, Neal J Cohen, Arthur F Kramer, Billy R Hammond, Lisa Renzi-Hammond, Charles H Hillman
OBJECTIVE: Macular pigment optical density (MPOD) - a non-invasive indicator of retinal xanthophylls and correlate of brain lutein - has been associated with superior cognitive function among adult populations. Given that lutein accumulation in the brain occurs in early life, it is possible that the cognitive implications of greater MPOD may be evident in childhood. METHODS: Participants aged 8-9 years (n = 56) completed MPOD measurements via heterochromatic flicker photometry...
May 23, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535277/sensory-impairments-and-cognitive-function-in-middle-aged-adults
#14
Carla R Schubert, Karen J Cruickshanks, Mary E Fischer, Yanjun Chen, Barbara E K Klein, Ronald Klein, A Alex Pinto
Background: Hearing, visual, and olfactory impairments have been associated with cognitive impairment in older adults but less is known about associations with cognitive function in middle-aged adults. Methods: Sensory and cognitive functions were measured on participants in the baseline examination (2005-2008) of the Beaver Dam Offspring Study. Cognitive function was measured with the Trail Making tests A (TMTA) and B (TMTB) and the Grooved Peg Board test. Pure-tone audiometry, Pelli-Robson letter charts, and the San Diego Odor Identification test were used to measure hearing, contrast sensitivity, and olfaction, respectively...
May 23, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534428/clinimetric-validity-of-the-trail-making-test-czech-version-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-normative-data-for-older-adults
#15
Ondrej Bezdicek, Hana Stepankova, Bradley N Axelrod, Tomas Nikolai, Zdenek Sulc, Robert Jech, Evžen Růžička, Miloslav Kopecek
OBJECTIVE: The influence of demographic variables on the Trail Making Test (TMT) performance in older individuals and empirical findings on clinical validity in predementia states, such as Parkinson's disease mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI), are limited. The principal aim of this study was to add normative data for the Czech population of older adults and explore the clinimetric properties between PD-MCI and PD patients with normal cognition (PD-NC). METHOD: The study included 125 PD patients classified as 77 PD-MCI and 48 PD-NC and 528 older individuals (60-74 years, further subdivided for normative tables into 60-64, 65-69 and 70-74 age groups) and very old individuals (aged 75-96, further subdivided into 75-79, 80-84, 85-96) cognitively intact Czech adults...
May 23, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533517/vortioxetine-reduces-bold-signal-during-performance-of-the-n-back-working-memory-task-a-randomised-neuroimaging-trial-in-remitted-depressed-patients-and-healthy-controls
#16
J Smith, M Browning, S Conen, R Smallman, J Buchbjerg, K G Larsen, C K Olsen, S R Christensen, G R Dawson, J F Deakin, P Hawkins, R Morris, G Goodwin, C J Harmer
Cognitive dysfunction is common in depression during both acute episodes and remission. Vortioxetine is a novel multimodal antidepressant that has improved cognitive function including executive function in depressed patients in randomised placebo-controlled clinical trials. However, it is unclear whether vortioxetine is able to target directly the neural circuitry implicated in the cognitive deficits in depression. Remitted depressed (n=48) and healthy volunteers (n=48) were randomised to receive 14 days treatment with 20 mg vortioxetine or placebo in a double-blind design...
May 23, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531132/effects-of-%C3%AE-carotene-and-its-cleavage-products-in-primary-pneumocyte-type-ii-cells
#17
Cornelia Haider, Franziska Ferk, Ekramije Bojaxhi, Giuseppe Martano, Hanno Stutz, Nikolaus Bresgen, Siegfried Knasmüller, Avdulla Alija, Peter M Eckl
β-Carotene has been shown to increase the risk of developing lung cancer in smokers and asbestos workers in two large scale trails, the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET) and the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-carotene Cancer Prevention Trial (ATBC). Based on this observation, it was proposed that genotoxic oxidative breakdown products may cause this effect. In support of this assumption, increased levels of sister chromatid exchanges, micronuclei, and chromosomal aberrations were found in primary hepatocyte cultures treated with a mixture of cleavage products (CPs) and the major product apo-8'carotenal...
May 21, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530483/carotidynia-in-high-altitude-travelers
#18
Andrea Parra, Tamuru Okada, Peter H Lin
Background Carotidynia is characterized by focal pain and tenderness of the carotid artery without associated hemodynamic or structural abnormalities. Carotid artery pathology has also been known to occur in high altitude due to aberrant baroreceptor response in the carotid bulb. Case Presentation We herein report two cases of high altitude-related idiopathic carotidynia. The first patient was a geologist who performed oil reserve survey in the Alaska Mountain, while the second patient was hiking in a mountain trail in Peru...
January 1, 2017: Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529838/large-scale-energy-budget-of-impulsive-magnetic-reconnection-theory-and-simulation
#19
S A Kiehas, N N Volkonskaya, V S Semenov, N V Erkaev, I V Kubyshkin, I V Zaitsev
We evaluate the large-scale energy budget of magnetic reconnection utilizing an analytical time-dependent impulsive reconnection model and a numerical 2-D MHD simulation. With the generalization to compressible plasma, we can investigate changes in the thermal, kinetic, and magnetic energies. We study these changes in three different regions: (a) the region defined by the outflowing plasma (outflow region, OR), (b) the region of compressed magnetic fields above/below the OR (traveling compression region, TCR), and (c) the region trailing the OR and TCR (wake)...
March 2017: Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529641/multifunctional-nucleus-targeting-nanoparticles-with-ultra-high-gene-transfection-efficiency-for-in-vivo-gene-therapy
#20
Ling Li, Xia Li, Yuzhe Wu, Linjiang Song, Xi Yang, Tao He, Ning Wang, Suleixin Yang, Yan Zeng, Qinjie Wu, Zhiyong Qian, Yuquan Wei, Changyang Gong
Cancer stem cell-like cells (CSCL) are responsible for tumor recurrence associated with conventional therapy (e.g. surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy). Here, we developed a novel multifunctional nucleus-targeting nanoparticle-based gene delivery system which is capable of targeting and eradicating CSCL. These nanoparticles can facilitate efficient endosomal escape and spontaneously penetrate into nucleus without additional nuclear localization signal. They also induced extremely high gene transfection efficiency (>95%) even in culture medium containing 30% serum, which significantly surpassed that of some commercial transfection reagents, such as Lipofectamine 2000 and Lipofectamine 3000 etc...
2017: Theranostics
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