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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634459/cognitive-correlates-of-different-mentalizing-abilities-in-individuals-with-high-and-low-trait-schizotypy-findings-from-an-extreme-group-design
#1
Krisztina Kocsis-Bogár, Simone Kotulla, Susanne Maier, Martin Voracek, Kristina Hennig-Fast
Mentalizing or Theory of Mind (ToM) deficits in schizophrenia have been studied to great extent, but studies involving samples of trait schizotypy yield ambiguous results. Executive functions like cognitive inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and agency are all prerequisites of mentalizing, and it is assumed that the impairment of these functions contributes to ToM deficits in schizophrenia. Whether these impairments influence the ToM performance of people with high trait schizotypy remains unclear. Although impaired self-agency has repeatedly been identified in people with schizotypy, its role in mentalizing is yet to be investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634365/different-levels-of-blood-pressure-different-benefit-from-dual-antiplatelet-therapy-in-minor-stroke-or-tia-patients
#2
Jie Xu, Yongli Tao, Hao Li, Hongqiu Gu, Xuewei Xie, Xia Meng, Yuming Xu, Yilong Wang, Yongjun Wang
The study aimed to evaluate whether the benefits of dual antiplatelet therapy would be influenced by blood pressure (BP) levels, among acute minor stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). In CHANCE (Clopidogrel in High-Risk Patients with Acute Nondisabling cerebrovascular Events) trail, Patients were stratified by systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) level measured on admission, respectively, using the supine position BP within 24 hours after symptoms onset. The primary efficacy outcome was stroke recurrence, bleeding was the safety outcome...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631177/trail-in-cd8-t-cells-from-patients-with-severe-aplastic-anemia
#3
Chunyan Liu, Mengying Zheng, Tian Zhang, Rong Fu, Huaquan Wang, Ting Wang, Weiwei Qi, Zonghong Shao
Severe aplastic anemia (SAA) is an autoimmune disease caused mainly by activated T lymphocytes. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of TNF family, which can induce apoptosis and play a significant role in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune disorders. In this study, we sought to investigate the role of TRAIL in peripheral CD8+ T cells (CTLs) from SAA patients to clarify the autoimmune mechanisms of bone marrow failure in SAA. The expression of TRAIL and TRAIL-R2 in CTLs from SAA patients and normal controls were determined by flow cytometry, real-time PCR, and western blot...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630377/effects-of-cognitive-reserve-depend-on-executive-and-semantic-demands-of-the-task
#4
R Ryan Darby, Michael Brickhouse, David A Wolk, Bradford C Dickerson
BACKGROUND: Cognitive reserve (CR) is one factor that helps to maintain cognitive function in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Whether the effects of CR depend on the semantic/executive components of the task remains unknown. METHODS: 470 patients (138 with AD, 332 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI)) were selected from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database. Linear regression models were used to determine the effects of CR (years of education) on cognitive performance after controlling for demographic factors and regional cortical atrophy...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629965/%C3%A2-cortical-atrophy-is-associated-with-accelerated-cognitive-decline-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-with-subsyndromal-depression
#5
Mitzi M Gonzales, Philip S Insel, Craig Nelson, Duygu Tosun, Niklas Mattsson, Susanne G Mueller, Simona Sacuiu, David Bickford, Michael W Weiner, R Scott Mackin
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between cognitive decline and cortical atrophy in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and chronic subsyndromal symptoms of depression (SSD) over a 4-year period. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Multicenter, clinic-based. PARTICIPANTS: Within the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative repository, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory was used to identify individuals with MCI and stable endorsement (SSD group N = 32) or no endorsement (non-SSD group N = 69) of depressive symptoms across time points...
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626333/peripheral-circulation-indicators-in-veteran-trail-runners
#6
Alexander Bolotin, Vladislav Bakayev
[Purpose] Competitive sport places strict demands on the cardiovascular systems of veteran trail runners. Our research objective was to evaluate the dynamics of microcirculation parameters of veteran runners in hypoxic and mid-altitude conditions. [Subjects and Methods] Seven male runners from Russia and Italy between the ages of 50 and 60 years were examined whilst competing at mid-altitude (1,500-2,000 m above sea level). The same runners were examined in a simulated mid-altitude hypoxic environment, which was a hypoxic chamber with 16% oxygen concentration, for 720 minutes...
June 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626328/differences-in-attention-hand-dexterity-and-lower-extremity-activities-in-the-presence-or-absence-of-a-time-limit
#7
Hyo-Lyun Roh
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate how a time limit affects day-to-day tasks such as attention, hand dexterity, and sit to standing and sitting activity. The grounds for using a time limit as a method of learning tasks related to daily living are examined based on the results of this investigation. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects consisted of 51 healthy college students (20 males and 31 females). The task performance time for SESSION 1, in which there was no time limit, was measured and the task duration privately recorded...
June 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624529/cyclopamine-sensitizes-trail-resistant-gastric-cancer-cells-to-trail-induced-apoptosis-via-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-mediated-increase-of-death-receptor-5-and-survivin-degradation
#8
Yoo Jin Na, Dae-Hee Lee, Jung Lim Kim, Bo Ram Kim, Seong Hye Park, Min Jee Jo, Soyeon Jeong, Hong Jun Kim, Suk-Young Lee, Yoon A Jeong, Sang Cheul Oh
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is one of the most effective cancer treatments owing to its ability to selectively kill cancer cells, without affecting normal cells. However, it has been reported that several gastric cancer cells show resistance to TRAIL because of a scarcity of death receptor 5 (DR5) expressed on the cell surface. In this study, we show that cyclopamine sensitizes gastric cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by elevating the expression of DR5. Interestingly, survivin hampers the existence of DR5 protein under normal conditions and cyclopamine decreases the expression of survivin, thus acting as a TRAIL sensitizer...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622557/the-executive-profile-of-children-with-benign-epilepsy-of-childhood-with-centrotemporal-spikes-and-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#9
Ellen M Lima, Patricia Rzezak, Catarina A Guimarães, Maria A Montenegro, Marilisa M Guerreiro, Kette D Valente
RATIONALE: Benign Epilepsy of Childhood with Centrotemporal Spikes (BECTS) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) represent two distinct models of focal epilepsy of childhood. In both, there is evidence of executive dysfunction. The purpose of the present study was to identify particular deficits in the executive function that would distinguish children with BECTS from children with TLE. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 19 consecutive children and adolescents with TLE with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) (57...
June 13, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621495/the-spectrum-of-pre-dementia-stages-cognitive-profile-of-motoric-cognitive-risk-syndrome-and-relationship-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#10
H Sekhon, G Allali, C P Launay, J Chabot, O Beauchet
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Motoric cognitive risk (MCR) syndrome is a pre-dementia syndrome. There is little information on the cognitive profile of individuals with MCR syndrome and its overlap with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) syndrome. This study aimed to examine and compare the cognitive performance of non-demented older community dwellers with and without MCR and MCI syndromes. METHODS: A total of 291 non-demented individuals were selected from the Gait and Alzheimer Interactions Tracking study, which is a cross-sectional study...
June 16, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615758/regional-cerebral-glucose-metabolism-and-its-association-with-phenotype-and-cognitive-functioning-in-patients-with-autism
#11
B N Anil Kumar, Savita Malhotra, Anish Bhattacharya, Sandeep Grover, Y K Batra
INTRODUCTION: In spite of three decades of neuroimaging, we are unable to find consistent and coherent anatomical or pathophysiological basis for autism as changes are subtle and there are no studies from India. AIM: To study the regional cerebral glucose metabolism in children with autism using positron emission tomography (PET) scan and to study the behavior and cognitive functioning among them. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten subjects (8-19 years) meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for autism were evaluated on Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), trail making test (TMT) A and B, Wisconsin card sorting test, Raven's progressive matrices, and PET scan...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615756/neurocognitive-impairments-in-unaffected-first-degree-relatives-of-schizophrenia
#12
Virupaksha Shanmugam Harave, Venkataram Shivakumar, Sunil V Kalmady, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Shivarama Varambally, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian
BACKGROUND: Neurocognitive impairments of attention and executive functioning are trait abnormalities in schizophrenia, and these are considered to be endophenotypes. These deficits have been convincingly linked to prefrontal cortical functioning. In this study, we examined the cognitive performance in the domains of attention and executive functioning among first-degree relatives of Indian people with schizophrenia (high-risk [HR] patients) compared to healthy controls (HC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Siblings of patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia, HR patients (n = 17), were compared with HC (n = 30) (matched as a group for age, sex, years of education, and handedness) using the following neurocognitive tests for attention and executive function - digit span test (DST), trail making test, letter-number sequencing (LNS), and spatial span test...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615725/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-similarities-between-human-blood-cd3-cd56-bright-cells-and-mouse-cd127-innate-lymphoid-cells
#13
David S J Allan, Ana Sofia Cerdeira, Anuisa Ranjan, Christina L Kirkham, Oscar A Aguilar, Miho Tanaka, Richard W Childs, Cynthia E Dunbar, Jack L Strominger, Hernan D Kopcow, James R Carlyle
For many years, human peripheral blood natural killer (NK) cells have been divided into functionally distinct CD3(-) CD56(bright) CD16(-) and CD3(-) CD56(dim) CD16(+) subsets. Recently, several groups of innate lymphoid cells (ILC), distinct from NK cells in development and function, have been defined in mouse. A signature of genes present in mouse ILC except NK cells, defined by Immunological Genome Project studies, is significantly over-represented in human CD56(bright) cells, by gene set enrichment analysis...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614953/forced-air-warming-for-rewarming-and-comfort-following-laparoscopy-a-randomized-controlled-trail
#14
Hsiao-Chi Nieh, Shu-Fen Su
We investigated the efficacy of a forced-air warming (FAW) system on postoperative rewarming and comfort in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. In this randomized controlled trial, a total of 127 participants were randomly divided into the FAW group ( n = 64) and control group ( n = 63). The esophageal temperature was measured every 30 min during surgery, and the tympanic temperature and comfort levels were measured preoperatively and in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). Data analysis used the generalized estimating equation...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614370/the-hemagglutinin-neuramidinase-protein-of-newcastle-disease-virus-upregulates-expression-of-the-trail-gene-in-murine-natural-killer-cells-through-the-activation-of-syk-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#15
Ying Liang, De-Zhi Song, Shuang Liang, Zeng-Feng Zhang, Ling-Xi Gao, Xiao-Hui Fan
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is responsible for tumoricidal activity in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanisms that lead to this activity are unclear. Natural killer cells are able to induce apoptosis of tumor cells through multiple pathways, including the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-death receptor pathway. We previously showed that exposure of NK and T cells to NDV resulted in enhanced tumoricidal activity that was mediated by upregulated expression of the TRAIL gene, via an interferon gamma -dependent pathway...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613202/-comparison-of-two-on-line-risk-calculators-versus-the-detection-of-circulating-prostate-cells-for-the-detection-of-high-risk-prostate-cancer-at-first-biopsy
#16
Nigel P Murray, Cynthia Fuentealba, Eduardo Reyes, Omar Jacob
OBJECTIVE: The limitations of total serum PSA values remains problematic; nomograms may improve the prediction of a positive prostate biopsy (PB). We compare in a prospective study of Chilean men with suspicion of prostate cancer due to an elevated total serum PSA and/or abnormal digital rectal examination, the use of two on-line nomograms with the detection of primary malignant circulating prostate cells (CPCs) to predict a positive PB for high risk prostate cancer. METHODS: Consecutive men with suspicion of prostate cancer underwent 12 core TRUS prostate biopsy...
June 2017: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613138/a-neuropsychological-study-of-older-adult-first-time-sex-offenders
#17
Marcelo Rodriguez, Philip Boyce, John Hodges
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The issue of whether sex offenders have cognitive deficits remains controversial. The objective of this study was to compare the neuropsychological function of older adult first time sex-offenders (FTSO), who had not previously been charged with a sexual offence prior to the age of 50, to historical long-term sex offenders (HSO) and non-sex offenders (NSO). The hypotheses were (a) that FTSO would demonstrate greater deficits in executive function, decision-making, and memory compared to non-sex offenders; and (b) the HSOs would present similar neuropsychological deficits to non-sex offenders...
June 14, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610909/rip1-has-a-role-in-cd40-mediated-apoptosis-in-human-follicular-lymphoma-cells
#18
Jemal Adem, Mine Eray, Jonna Eeva, Ulla Nuutinen, Jukka Pelkonen
CD40 is a cell surface receptor which belongs to tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family members. It transmits signals that regulate diverse cellular responses such as proliferation, differentiation, adhesion molecule expression and apoptosis. Unlike other TNFR family members (TRAIL-R, Fas-R and TNFR1), the CD40 cytoplasmic tail lacks death domain. However, CD40 is capable of inducing apoptosis in different types of cancer cells including lymphoma. The apoptotic effect of CD40 is linked to the involvement of Fas, TRAIL or receptor interacting protein 1 (RIP1) kinase...
June 10, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610508/getting-ready-to-take-the-lead-in-neonatal-care
#19
Lynne Pearce
Inspiring others is important to Nicky McCarthy, who works in a trail-blazing role as an advanced neonatal nurse practitioner.
June 14, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609945/-i-gynacantha-i-i-dryadula-i-sp-nov-from-the-guiana-shield-odonata-anisoptera-aeshnidae
#20
Ulisses Gaspar Neiss, Jürg DE Marmels
The new species is described and illustrated on the basis of two reared, subteneral males from Brazil, their larval exuviae, a mature male from French Guiana, a mature female from Venezuela, and a mature female from Surinam. One of the Brazilian males is the holotype (BRAZIL, Amazonas State, Manaus, Reserva Florestal Ducke, BR 174-km 26, trail to Acará creek, 02º55'47"S, 59º58'22"W, 0.7 m elevation, deposited in INPA). The new species (total length 50-54 mm) differs from other small species of same genus by color pattern of thorax, middle and hind tibiae dark with external (dorsal) yellow streak, male cercus with truncated tip lacking apical spine, and male epiproct reaching or slightly surpassing midlength of cercus...
April 20, 2017: Zootaxa
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