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Urgent prevention

Armstrong Dzomba, Andrew Tomita, Kaymarlin Govender, Frank Tanser
While human mobility has been implicated in fueling the HIV epidemic in South Africa, the link between migration and HIV has not been systematically reviewed and quantified. We conducted a systematic review of the role of migration in HIV risk acquisition and sexual behaviour based on 29 studies published between 2000 and 2017. Furthermore, we performed a meta-analysis of the association between migration and HIV risk acquisition in four of the studies that used HIV incidence as an outcome measure. The systematic review results show that HIV acquisition and risky sexual behavior were more prevalent among both male and female migrants compared to their non-migrant counterparts...
December 13, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Sun Young Choi, Moo Hyun Kim, Young-Rak Cho, Jong Sung Park, Kwang Min Lee, Tae-Ho Park, Sung-Cheol Yun
BACKGROUND: Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) helps prevent ischemic events after coronary stenting but comes with an increased risk of bleeding. Several risk scores have been proposed for the management of patients receiving DAPT, but no standardized tool exists for the purpose. We sought to compare the performance of the new PRECISE-DAPT (Predicting Bleeding Complication in Patients Undergoing Stent Implantation and Subsequent Dual Antiplatelet Therapy), CRUSADE (Can Rapid Risk Stratification of Unstable Angina Patients Suppress Adverse Outcomes with Early Implementation of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guidelines), and ACUITY (Acute Catheterization and Urgent Intervention Triage Strategy) scores for the prediction of bleeding in Korean patients receiving DAPT...
December 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions
Peter MacPherson, Emily L Webb, David G Lalloo, Marriott Nliwasa, Hendramoorthy Maheswaran, Elizabeth Joekes, Dama Phiri, Bertie Squire, Madhukar Pai, Elizabeth L Corbett
Background: Adults seeking diagnosis and treatment for tuberculosis (TB) and HIV in low-resource settings face considerable barriers and have high pre-treatment mortality. Efforts to improve access to prompt TB treatment have been hampered by limitations in TB diagnostics, with considerable uncertainty about how available and new tests can best be implemented. Design and methods: The PROSPECT Study is an open, three-arm pragmatic randomised study that will investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of optimised HIV and TB diagnosis and linkage to care interventions in reducing time to TB diagnosis and prevalence of undiagnosed TB and HIV in primary care in Blantyre, Malawi...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
Brendan Smyth, Vlado Perkovic
As the burden of diabetic kidney disease continues to expand, new therapies to preserve renal function or prevent diabetic nephropathy are urgently needed. In the past decade, a number of new hypoglycemic classes have emerged, each with a unique profile of action and benefits. Here we review the impact of glycemic control on renal outcomes and the results of the major clinical trials of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, and sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors...
2018: F1000Research
Augustina Frimpong, Laty Gaye Thiam, Benjamin Arko-Boham, Ewurama Dedea Ampadu Owusu, George O Adjei
BACKGROUND: About 80% of all reported sickle cell disease (SCD) cases in children anually are recorded in Africa. Although malaria is considered a major cause of death in SCD children, there is limited data on the safety and effectiveness of the available antimalarial drugs used for prophylaxis. Also, previous systematic reviews have not provided quantitative measures of preventive effectiveness. The purpose of this research was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available literature to determine the safety and effectiveness of antimalarial chemoprophylaxis used in SCD patients...
December 12, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Lingzhi Zhao
Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects nearly 50 million people worldwide, and currently no disease-modifying treatment is available. With continuous failure of anti-amyloid-beta- or tau-based therapies, identification of new targets has become an urgent necessity for AD prevention and therapy. Recently, conventional genetic approaches and computational strategies have converged on immune-inflammatory pathways as key events in the pathogenesis of AD. A number of genes have been highly linked to the onset and development of late-onset sporadic AD, the most common form of AD...
December 12, 2018: Gerontology
Fany Reffuveille, Jérôme Josse, Frédéric Velard, Fabien Lamret, Jennifer Varin-Simon, Marie Dubus, Evan F Haney, Robert E W Hancock, Céline Mongaret, Sophie C Gangloff
Prosthesis and joint infections are an important threat in public health, especially due to the development of bacterial biofilms and their high resistance to antimicrobials. Biofilm-associated infections increase mortality and morbidity rates as well as hospitalization costs. Prevention is the best strategy for this serious issue, so there is an urgent need to understand the signals that could induce irreversible bacterial adhesion on a prosthesis. In this context, we investigated the influence of the bone environment on surface adhesion by a methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus strain...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mitchell McMaster, Sarang Kim, Linda Clare, Susan J Torres, Catherine D'Este, Kaarin J Anstey
Background: With no cure for dementia and the number of people living with the condition predicted to rapidly rise, there is an urgent need for dementia risk reduction and prevention interventions. Modifiable lifestyle risk factors have been identified as playing a major role in the development of dementia; hence, interventions addressing these risk factors represent a significant opportunity to reduce the number of people developing dementia. Relatively few interventions have been trialed in older participants with cognitive decline (secondary prevention)...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
V Lloro, V Lozano-de Luaces, I Lloro, M C Manzanares
Introduction: Dental emergencies in isolated groups have always been difficult to treat. Especially in people or groups who cannot be evacuated and who need urgent dental assistance: long-term submarine missions, long-term spaceship trips, military or non-governmental organizations deployments in conflict areas, military maneuvers, etc. The dental and evacuation problems could put the success of the mission at risk, with relevant associated economic and strategic costs. Our study summarizes current evidence about dental problems in isolated personnel (submarines and Antarctic missions) compared to other non-isolation conditions (military deployment in conflict area, military maneuvers) with the objective to assess the need for specific dental equipment in special long-term isolation conditions...
December 7, 2018: Military Medicine
Shao-Xin Cai, Fan-De Kong, Shu-Fei Xu, Cui-Luan Yao
Background: Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) is a newly emerged microsporidian parasite that causes retarded shrimp growth in many countries. But there are no effective approaches to control this disease to date. The EHP could be an immune risk factor for increased dissemination of other diseases. Further, EHP infection involves the absence of obvious clinical signs and it is difficult to identify the pathogen through visual examination, increasing the risk of disease dissemination. It is urgent and necessary to develop a specific, rapid and sensitive EHP-infected shrimp diagnostic method to detect this parasite...
2018: PeerJ
John Tam, Therwa Hamza, Bing Ma, Kevin Chen, Greg L Beilhartz, Jacques Ravel, Hanping Feng, Roman A Melnyk
Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea and colitis in the industrialized world. Disruption of the protective gut microbiota by antibiotics enables colonization by multidrug-resistant C. difficile, which secrete up to three different protein toxins that are responsible for the gastrointestinal sequelae. Oral agents that inhibit the damage induced by toxins, without altering the gut microbiota, are urgently needed to prevent primary disease and break the cycle of antibiotic-induced disease recurrence...
December 7, 2018: Nature Communications
Efrat Saraf Lavi, Amit Pal, Drew Bleicher, Kyungmin Kang, Charif Sidani
Spinal emergencies and urgent conditions must be recognized early so that the diagnosis can be quickly confirmed and treatment can be instituted to possibly prevent permanent loss of function. The American College of Radiology provides guidelines for recognition of patients presenting with myelopathy or acute low back pain who require further evaluation for suspicion of more serious problems and contribute to appropriate imaging utilization. Spinal emergencies include spinal cord compression secondary to vertebral fracture or space occupying lesion, spinal infection or abscess, vascular or hematologic damage, severe disc herniation, and spinal stenosis...
December 2018: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
Silvia Sánchez Ramón, Mario Manzanares, Gloria Candelas
An urgent search is currently underway for alternatives to antibiotics to prevent infections, due to the accelerated evolution and increase in antibiotic resistance. This problem is more serious for patients with recurrent infections, since they have to use many cycles of antibiotics per year, so the risk for antibiotic resistance is higher and can be life-threatening. In recent years, the use of prophylactic vaccines via the mucosal route for these patients with recurrent infections has been demonstrated as a potentially beneficial and safe alternative to prevent infections...
December 6, 2018: Reumatología Clinica
David Volbers, Valentin K Stierle, Konstantin J Ditzel, Julian Aschauer, Joachim O Rädler, Madeleine Opitz, Philipp Paulitschke
To support the emerging battle against antimicrobial resistance (AMR), detection methods that allow fast and accurate antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) are urgently needed. The early identification and application of an appropriate antibiotic treatment leads to lower mortality rates, substantial cost savings and prevents the development of resistant pathogens. In this work, we present a diffraction-based method, which is capable of quantitative bacterial growth, mobility and susceptibility measurements...
December 10, 2018: Nano Letters
Zhaozhe Yu, Bingbing Tian, Ying Li, Dianyuan Fan, Daoguo Yang, Guisheng Zhu, Miao Cai, Dongliang Yan
A facile preparation method of a Si-based anode with excellent cycling property is urgently required in the process of preparing lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Here, lithium titanate (LTO) matrix-supported nano-crystalline Si film is prepared by radio frequency (RF) magnetron co-sputtering utilizing LTO and silicon (Si) targets as the sputtering source. LTO supported nano-crystalline Si film electrodes revealed a repeatable specific capacity of 1200 mA h g-1 at 150 mA g-1 with a maintenance of more than 75% even after 800 cycles...
December 10, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Sarah J Dolman, Philippa Brakes
The incidental capture of cetaceans and other protected marine wildlife in fishing gear has significant welfare implications. Many thousands of cetaceans are bycaught in fishing gear in European waters and hundreds of thousands die globally. We can expect many more to survive, but suffer from such interactions. As marine policy focuses on "population level" impact assessments and "sustainability" of fishing to preserve fish populations, the impacts to the bycaught individual, and their wider social group, are often largely underestimated, despite the large numbers affected...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Gaetano Donofrio, Giulia Tebaldi, Stefania Lanzardo, Roberto Ruiu, Elisabetta Bolli, Andrea Ballatore, Valeria Rolih, Francesca Macchi, Laura Conti, Federica Cavallo
Despite marked advancements in its treatment, breast cancer is still the second leading cause of cancer death in women, due to relapses and distal metastases. Breast cancer stem cells (CSCs), are a cellular reservoir for recurrence, metastatic evolution and disease progression, making the development of novel therapeutics that target CSCs, and thereby inhibit metastases, an urgent need. We have previously demonstrated that the cystine-glutamate antiporter xCT (SLC7A11), a protein that was shown to be overexpressed in mammary CSCs and that plays a key role in the maintenance of their redox balance, self-renewal and resistance to chemotherapy, is a potential target for mammary cancer immunotherapy...
2018: Oncoimmunology
Aleksander Hoxha, Sokol Shehu, Rezar Deveja, Thoma Qirjazi
Background: Excessive bleeding impairs outcome after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Clopidogrel in combination with aspirin, given before percutaneous coronary intervention, have become the standard for stent thrombosis prevention. Some premedicated patients, however, are found to need surgical treatment, thus platelet inhibition caused by clopidogrel becomes a concern for post operation major bleeding. Aims: This study was designed to evaluate the impact of preoperative clopidogrel on bleeding and outcomes after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG)...
November 2018: Medical Archives
January Weiner, Jeroen Maertzdorf, Jayne S Sutherland, Fergal J Duffy, Ethan Thompson, Sara Suliman, Gayle McEwen, Bonnie Thiel, Shreemanta K Parida, Joanna Zyla, Willem A Hanekom, Robert P Mohney, W Henry Boom, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, Rawleigh Howe, Hazel M Dockrell, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Thomas J Scriba, Daniel E Zak, Gerhard Walzl, Stefan H E Kaufmann
New biomarkers of tuberculosis (TB) risk and disease are critical for the urgently needed control of the ongoing TB pandemic. In a prospective multisite study across Subsaharan Africa, we analyzed metabolic profiles in serum and plasma from HIV-negative, TB-exposed individuals who either progressed to TB 3-24 months post-exposure (progressors) or remained healthy (controls). We generated a trans-African metabolic biosignature for TB, which identifies future progressors both on blinded test samples and in external data sets and shows a performance of 69% sensitivity at 75% specificity in samples within 5 months of diagnosis...
December 6, 2018: Nature Communications
Mark Feldman, Reem Smoum, Raphael Mechoulam, Doron Steinberg
Infections caused by antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus have reached epidemic proportions globally. Staphylococcal biofilms are associated with increased antimicrobial resistance and are generally less affected by host immune factors. Therefore, there is an urgent need for novel agents that not only aim at multidrug-resistant pathogens, but also ones that will act as anti biofilms. In the present study, we investigated the antimicrobial activity of the endocannabinoid (EC) anandamide (AEA) and the endocannabinoid-like (EC-like), arachidonoyl serine (AraS) against methicillin resistant S...
December 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
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