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Urgent prevention

Samantha L Thomas, Amy Bestman, Hannah Pitt, Rebecca Cassidy, Simone McCarthy, Christian Nyemcsok, Sean Cowlishaw, Mike Daube
BACKGROUND: Research has demonstrated that the promotion of gambling, particularly within sport, may have a significant impact on positively shaping young people's attitudes towards gambling. While some governments have implemented restrictions to limit young people's exposure to gambling advertising, few studies have investigated where young people recall seeing gambling advertising, and whether they perceive that advertising restrictions have gone far enough in reducing exposure to these promotions...
October 19, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Meng-Yang Liu, Qi-Huan Li, Ying-Jie Zhang, Yuan Ma, Yue Liu, Wei Feng, Cheng-Bei Hou, Endawoke Amsalu, Xia Li, Wei Wang, Wei-Min Li, Xiu-Hua Guo
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is still one of the most serious infectious diseases in the mainland of China. So it was urgent for the formulation of more effective measures to prevent and control it. METHODS: The data of reported TB cases in 340 prefectures from the mainland of China were extracted from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention (CISDCP) during January 2005 to December 2015. The Kulldorff's retrospective space-time scan statistics was used to identify the temporal, spatial and spatio-temporal clusters of reported TB in the mainland of China by using the discrete Poisson probability model...
October 20, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Robert Colebunders, Gasim Abd-Elfarag, Jane Y Carter, Peter Claver Olore, Kai Puok, Sonia Menon, Joseph Nelson Fodjo Siewe, Samit Bhattacharyya, Morrish Ojok, Richard Lako, Makoy Yibi Logora
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical manifestations of persons with epilepsy (PWE) in onchocerciasis endemic villages in South Sudan. METHODS: During a survey in Maridi County in May 2018, PWE were interviewed and examined in their households by a clinical officer or medical doctor. Onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy (OAE) was defined as ≥2 seizures without any obvious cause, starting between the ages of 3-18 years in previously healthy persons who had resided for at least 3 years in the onchocerciasis endemic area...
October 5, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Nikki Bozinoff, Kora DeBeck, M-J Milloy, Ekaterina Nosova, Nadia Fairbairn, Evan Wood, Kanna Hayashi
BACKGROUND: Inability to access opioid agonist therapy (OAT) in correctional settings has previously been reported in Vancouver, Canada, and is associated with harms among people with opioid use disorder (OUD), including overdose death. We investigated the prevalence and correlates of OAT utilization within correctional settings among incarcerated persons with OUD in Vancouver. METHODS: Data were derived from three prospective cohorts of people who use drugs in Vancouver between 2005 and 2016...
October 6, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Brenda Allan, Colette Wheler, Wolfgang Köster, Mishal Sarfraz, Andy Potter, Volker Gerdts, Arshud Dar
Omphalitis or yolk sac infection (YSI) and colibacillosis are the most common infectious diseases that lead to high rates of early chick mortalities (ECMs) in young chicks. Out of numerous microbial causes, avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) or extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli infections are considered the most common cause of these conditions. YSI causes deterioration and decomposition of yolk, leading to deficiency of necessary nutrients and maternal antibodies, retarded growth, poor carcass quality, and increased susceptibility to other infections, including omphalitis, colibacillosis, and respiratory tract infection...
September 2018: Avian Diseases
Metin Akay, John Hite, Naze Gul Avci, Yantao Fan, Yasemin Akay, Guangrong Lu, Jay-Jiguang Zhu
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), an extremely invasive and high-grade (grade IV) glioma, is the most common and aggressive form of brain cancer. It has a poor prognosis, with a median overall survival of only 11 months in the general GBM population and 14.6 to 21 months in clinical trial participants with standard GBM therapies, including maximum safe craniotomy, adjuvant radiation, and chemotherapies. Therefore, new approaches for developing effective treatments, such as a tool for assessing tumor cell drug response before drug treatments are administered, are urgently needed to improve patient survival...
October 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tatsuzo Mizukami, Hirofumi Kamachi, Yuki Fujii, Fumihiko Matsuzawa, Takahiro Einama, Futoshi Kawamata, Nozomi Kobayashi, Yutaka Hatanaka, Akinobu Taketomi
Pancreatic cancer often has a very poor prognosis, even after complete resection. The recurrence of hepatic and peritoneal metastases is an important prognostic factor; therefore, the development of improved adjuvant therapy is urgently required. Mesothelin is a cell surface glycoprotein whose expression is restricted to a variety of cancer types, including pancreatic cancer. This expression pattern makes mesothelin an attractive target for cancer therapy, and several agents targeting mesothelin are currently in clinical trials...
September 18, 2018: Oncotarget
Jose Luis Slon Campos, Juthathip Mongkolsapaya, Gavin R Screaton
Arthropod-borne flaviviruses are important human pathogens that cause a diverse range of clinical conditions, including severe hemorrhagic syndromes, neurological complications and congenital malformations. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop safe and effective vaccines, a process requiring better understanding of the immunological mechanisms involved during infection. Decades of research suggest a paradoxical role of the immune response against flaviviruses: although the immune response is crucial for the control, clearance and prevention of infection, poor clinical outcomes are commonly associated with virus-specific immunity and immunopathogenesis...
October 17, 2018: Nature Immunology
Angelita Costanzi Paganin, Mariur Gomes Beghetto, Maria Karolina Feijó, Roselene Matte, Jaquelini Messer Sauer, Eneida Rejane Rabelo-Silva
OBJECTIVE: to analyze vascular complications among patients who underwent endovascular cardiac procedures in the hemodynamic laboratories of three referral centers. METHOD: a multicenter cohort study was conducted in three referral facilities. The sample was composed of 2,696 adult patients who had undergone elective or urgent percutaneous cardiac procedures. The outcomes were vascular complications, such as: hematoma at the site of the arterial puncture; major or minor bleeding; surgical correction for retroperitoneal hemorrhage; pseudoaneurysm; and arteriovenous fistula...
October 11, 2018: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
Cheng-Yong Jiang, Xiao-Yan Qin, Mi-Mi Yuan, Gui-Jiang Lu, Yong Cheng
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a chronic mental disease that adversely affects human mood and cognition. Many first-line antidepressant drugs have high rates of partial responsiveness or nonresponsiveness with side effects, and finding more effective drugs for the treatment of depression is therefore urgently needed. THSG, a main active compound of the traditional Chinese herb Polygonum multiflorum , reportedly acts as a neuroprotective agent. This study aimed to illustrate whether THSG prevents depressive-like behaviors induced by chronic restraint stress (CRS) in an MDD mouse model...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Mariateresa Coppola, Tom Hm Ottenhoff
Every day approximately six thousand people die of Tuberculosis (TB). Its causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is an ancient pathogen that through its evolution developed complex mechanisms to evade immune surveillance and acquire the ability to establish persistent infection in its hosts. Currently, it is estimated that one-fourth of the human population is latently infected with Mtb and among those infected 3-10% are at risk of developing active TB disease during their lifetime. The currently available diagnostics are not able to detect this risk group for prophylactic treatment to prevent transmission...
July 7, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
Cindy Canivet, Sophie Gourgou-Bourgade, Bertrand Napoléon, Laurent Palazzo, Nicolas Flori, Pierre Guibert, Guillaume Piessen, Dominique Farges-Bancel, Jean-François Seitz, Eric Assenat, Véronique Vendrely, Stéphanie Truant, Geoffroy Vanbiervliet, Philippe Berthelémy, Stéphane Garcia, Anne Gomez-Brouchet, Louis Buscail, Barbara Bournet
BACKGROUND: The prognosis for pancreatic cancer remains poor despite diagnostic advances and treatments with new chemotherapeutic regimens. The five year survival rate remains below 3%. Consequently, there is an urgent need for new treatments to significantly improve the prognosis. In addition, there is a big gap in terms of the screening, early diagnosis and prevention of pancreatic cancer the incidence of which is increasing dramatically. METHODS: Design: the BACAP cohort is a prospective multicenter pancreatic cancer cohort (pancreatic ductal carcinoma) with clinical and multiple biological samples; Participating centers: 15 French academic and private hospitals; Study Population: any cytologically and/or histologically proven pancreatic carcinoma regardless of the stage (resectable, borderline, locally advanced or metastatic) or treatment (surgery, palliative chemotherapy, best supportive care)...
October 16, 2018: BMC Cancer
Els Devriendt, Pieter Heeren, Steffen Fieuws, Nathalie I H Wellens, Mieke Deschodt, Johan Flamaing, Marc Sabbe, Koen Milisen
BACKGROUND: International guidelines recommend adapting the classic emergency department (ED) management model to the needs of older adults in order to ameliorate post-ED outcomes among this vulnerable group. To improve the care for older ED patients and especially prevent unplanned ED readmissions, the URGENT care model was developed. METHODS: The URGENT care model is a nurse-led, comprehensive geriatric assessment based care model in the ED with geriatric follow-up after ED discharge...
October 16, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Rebecca Ahlin, Fei Sjöberg, Cecilia Bull, Gunnar Steineck, Maria Hedelin
Preclinical studies indicate that an optimal diet during pelvic radiotherapy may be able to prevent radiation-induced survivorship diseases that diminish cancer survivors' intestinal health. We do not yet know what this optimal diet might be because scientific studies needed to determine what dietary advice might best be given to patients during treatment. Oncology clinics in Sweden were contacted to determine the nature of dietary advice given to gynaecological and prostate cancer patients at each clinic before, during and after radiotherapy...
October 9, 2018: Läkartidningen
Brian E Gress, Frank G Zalom
BACKGROUND: The bioinsecticide, spinosad, is among the most widely used insecticides for managing the spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), and is critical for preventing fruit infestation in organic berry production. Recent reports, however, have raised concerns that efficacy of this material is declining in fields near Watsonville, CA, a major hub of commercial berry production in the U.S. and the first location where D. suzukii was reported in North America. RESULTS: In this study, we performed dose-response analyses on D...
October 16, 2018: Pest Management Science
Mieko Yoshihama, Tomoko Yunomae, Azumi Tsuge, Keiko Ikeda, Reiko Masai
This study reports on 82 unduplicated cases of violence against women and children after the Great East Japan Disaster of March 2011. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire from informants who worked with the disaster-affected populations. In addition to domestic violence, reported cases involved sexual assault and unwanted sexual contact, including quid pro quo assault perpetrated by nonintimates. Perpetrators often exploited a sense of fear, helplessness, and powerlessness and used threats to force compliance with sexual demands in exchange for life-sustaining resources...
October 16, 2018: Violence Against Women
Hanlin Fu, Tiejian Feng, Jiabi Qin, Tingting Wang, Xiaobing Wu, Yumao Cai, Lina Lan, Tubao Yang
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of childhood maltreatment among college students in China by a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: A systematic search of relevant articles in Pubmed, Wanfang Data, Chinese Scientific Journals Fulltext Database (CQVIP), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and China Biology Medicine disc (CBMdisc) was conducted on September 1, 2017. A random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence and sources of heterogeneity were explored using subgroup analyses...
2018: PloS One
Julia Paton-Hough, Simon Tazzyman, Holly Evans, Darren Lath, Jenny M Down, Alanna C Green, John A Snowden, Andrew D Chantry, Michelle A Lawson
Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell malignancy, which develops in the bone marrow and frequently leads to severe bone destruction. Current antiresorptive therapies to treat the bone disease do little to repair damaged bone; therefore, new treatment strategies incorporating bone anabolic therapies are urgently required. We hypothesized that combination therapy using the standard of care antiresorptive zoledronic acid (Zol) with a bone anabolic (anti-TGFβ/1D11) would be more effective at treating myeloma-induced bone disease than Zol therapy alone...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Lovely Gupta, Deepak Khandelwal, Sanjay Kalra
South Asian population is facing rapid changes in dietary pattern with a shift from healthy traditional high fibre diet to calorie-dense low fibre. This has resulted in epidemic of lifestyle disorders including diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease in these populations. High fibre diet has shown to decrease risk of these lifestyle disorders as well as many gastrointestinal disorders including colorectal cancer. There is an urgent need to increase fibre component in the diet of these populations to prevent the lifestyle disorders...
July 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Xiang-Dong Guo, Lei Liu, Han-Yan Xiao
As a major public health concern, colon cancer is one of the most common cancer types, which is also the second cause of cancer death in developed countries and the third most common cancer in other parts of the world. It was reported that patients diagnosed at early stage have a chance to obtain 5-year survival rates at least compared to patients with late stage. Facing the multistep process in intestinal tumorigenesis, there is an urgent need to develop more effective early detection strategies for ameliorating the patient clinical outcome...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
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