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Urgent prevention

Tyson Schierholtz, Dustin Carter, Alisha Kane, Olivia Kemp, Camille Gallant, Bilal Sheikh, William Johnston, Aleksandra Zecevic
INTRODUCTION: The aging population in Canada is steadily increasing and is placing greater demand on paramedic services, especially through the growing number of non-emergent lift assist (LA) calls. A LA occurs when a person calls paramedic services and requests assistance to get up or mobilize, usually after experiencing a fall. The patient refuses transport to the emergency department for further medical attention. LA calls are time consuming and are non-reimbursable. The increase in number of this call type, specifically amongst older adults, is placing strain on paramedic services...
August 17, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
Viswanathan Mohan, O Dale Williams, Sundarapandi Chella, Ranjit Unnikrishnan, Ranjit Mohan Anjana, Sudha Vidyasagar, Prasanta Kumar Bhattacharya, Nayanjeet Chaudhury, Anand Krishnan, Stephanie Garcia, Cora E Lewis, Myron Gross, Rajendra Pradeepa
Background.: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs)-a term which includes diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancers, chronic respiratory diseases, and mental illness-are now the major cause of death in India and pose healthcare and economic challenges. There is an urgent need for enhanced clinical research training and capacity building for NCD prevention and control in India. Methods.: We describe a multi-pronged approach funded in part by the US National Institutes of Health Fogarty International Center, which was initiated in 2001, to train Indian present and future scientists/doctors in NCD prevention and control...
November 2017: National Medical Journal of India
Yanming Sun, Zhitao Yao, Zhihua Zhao, Haifeng Xiao, Mengting Xia, Xiaojun Zhu, Xuelu Jiang, Chuntao Sun
Ovarian cancer has the highest mortality rate and is the most common of all gynecologic malignancies. Novel treatments for ovarian cancer are urgently required to improve outcomes and the overall survival of patients. The present study investigated whether immunotherapy with natural killer (NK) cells affected the survival of mice with ovarian cancer. Results analysis identified adjunctive NK cells as a potential therapeutic method in ovarian cancer. Patient-derived ovarian cells were isolated, cultured and subsequently injected subcutaneously into immune deficient BALB/c-nude mice...
August 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Ahlam Alhusaini, Laila Fadda, Iman Hassan, Hanaa M Ali, Njood Alsaadan, Nouf Aldowsari, Azizah Aldosari, Bshayer Alharbi
Background: Copper is an essential element that is used widely in agriculture as fungicides and insecticides; for example, it is used to control schistosomiasis and as an antiseptic and germicide. Copper sulfate (CuSO4 ) induces multiorgan dysfunction through the stimulation of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress. Despite the numerous pharmacological effects of curcumin (CUR), its pharmacokinetic properties are less promising. Hence, there is an urgent need for novel, effective strategies to attenuate heavy metal toxicity and consequently improve the treatment efficiency...
July 2018: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
Sarah Nicolas, Delphine Debayle, Catherine Béchade, Luc Maroteaux, Anne-Sophie Gay, Pascale Bayer, Catherine Heurteaux, Alice Guyon, Joëlle Chabry
Major depression is a psychiatric disorder with complex etiology. About 30% of depressive patients are resistant to antidepressants that are currently available, likely because they only target the monoaminergic systems. Thus, identification of novel antidepressants with a larger action spectrum is urgently required. Epidemiological data indicate high comorbidity between metabolic and psychiatric disorders, particularly obesity and depression. We used a well-characterized anxiety/depressive-like mouse model consisting of continuous input of corticosterone for seven consecutive weeks...
August 16, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Shreya Haldar, Sananda Turner, Mandeep Singh Bindra
An 81-year-old man was taken to Accident & Emergency after a fall. CT brain imaging demonstrated a well-defined, homogenous, hyperdense mass in the posterior segment of the left eye. Reported as vitreous haemorrhage, an urgent ophthalmological assessment was instigated.Detailed history revealed previous vitreoretinal procedures for multiple retinal detachments. Ophthalmological examination confirmed presence of silicone oil in this eye.The appearance of silicone oil in the eye has become an increasingly prevalent finding given its continued use in complex vitreoretinal procedures since 1962...
August 16, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Martha Shawn Morehead, Catherine Scarbrough
Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide phenomenon and a global public health crisis. The inappropriate use of antibiotics in the human, animal, food, and agricultural arenas have contributed to the current dilemma. Both gram-positive and gram-negative resistant bacteria have been deemed serious and urgent threats by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The World Health Organization has created a 5-objective global action plan to address antimicrobial resistance and to coordinate numerous international sectors...
September 2018: Primary Care
Minyoung Jang, Foksouna Sakadi, Nana R Tassiou, Cissé F Abass, Sara J Grundy, Arcer Woga, Bah A Kenda, Condé M Lamine, Balde A Talibé, Hongxiang Qiu, Joseph M Cohen, Marco Carone, Farrah J Mateen
PURPOSE: To characterize people with epilepsy (PWE) presenting to a free neurology consultation and antiepileptic drug (AED) service in the Republic of Guinea. METHODS: Guinea is a low-income country in West Africa that recently experienced an Ebola Virus Disease epidemic. Community-dwelling PWE were seen at a public referral hospital in Conakry, the capital city. During two visits in 2017, an African-U.S. team performed structured interviews and electroencephalograms and provided AEDs...
July 24, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Enrico Maria Marone, Luigi Federico Rinaldi, Domenico Antonio Diaco, Angelo Argenteri
BACKGROUND: Custom-made fenestrated and branched endografts are considered the gold standard devices for thoraco-abdominal repair, with lower peri-operative mortality and morbilities than open surgical repair. Although they are not feasible in urgent and emergent settings, where sandwich techniques are often necessary, custom-made devices can still be used as bail-out options to correct late complications such as high-flow endoleaks, as shown in this case report CASE REPORT: A complex, symptomatic thoraco-abdominal aneurysm, unsuitable for open repair, was treated by sandwich technique on the coeliac trunk despite having a short distal neck...
August 13, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Conor P Kerley
Growing evidence has emerged about the role of dietary patterns and components in heart failure (HF) incidence and severity. The objective here is to provide a comprehensive summary of the current evidence regarding dietary patterns/components and HF. A comprehensive search of online databases was conducted using multiple relevant keywords to identify relevant human studies. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and Mediterranean diets have consistently been associated with decreased HF incidence and severity...
August 16, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
Mohammad Alkhalil
Statins have been a major keystone in the management of patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The benefits of inhibiting HMG CoA reductase, via statins, were translated into reduction in LDL-c (cholesterol) with proportionate decrease in cardiovascular events in response to the magnitude of LDL-c reduction. Despite major advances in pharmacological treatments, including the use of high-dose statins, there are urgent need to further reduce future cardiovascular risk. This is in particularly important since 1 out of 5 high-risk atherosclerotic patients who achieve low LDL-c return with a second cardiovascular event within five years...
August 16, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
Alina L Flores, Kristina Risley, Kenneth Quintana
Thirty percent of federal public health employees were retirement eligible in September 2017. Further, at the state public health level, as indicated in the recent Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS), an estimated 25% of employees are planning to retire before 2020 with an additional 18% intending to leave their organizations within one year. Due to these workforce changes, there is an urgent need for public health organizations to examine how they are ensuring a talent pool from which leaders can emerge...
2018: Preventive medicine and community health
Anneleen Steels, Adriaan Verhelle, Olivier Zwaenepoel, Jan Gettemans
The tumor suppressor p53 is of crucial importance in the prevention of cellular transformation. In the presence of cellular stress signals, the negative feedback loop between p53 and Mdm2, its main negative regulator, is disrupted, which results in the activation and stabilization of p53. Via a complex interplay between both transcription-dependent and - independent functions of p53, the cell will go through transient cell cycle arrest, cellular senescence or apoptosis. However, it remains difficult to completely fathom the mechanisms behind p53 regulation and its responses, considering the presence of multiple layers involved in fine-tuning them...
August 15, 2018: MAbs
Yang Chen, Hongsheng Chen, Zhigang Li
Objective This study aimed to identify the relationship between city-level economic development and smoking behaviour. Methods Using multilevel mixed-effects logistic methods, we examined the relationship between smoking/passive smoking and respondents' lifestyles in the city. Results We found that respondents living in cities with higher per capita gross domestic product (GDP) were less likely to smoke than those living in cities with lower per capita GDP (odds ratio [OR] = 0.977, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0...
August 15, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Nuno Henrique Franco, Peter Sandøe, I Anna S Olsson
Animal use in biomedical research is generally justified by its potential benefits to the health of humans, or other animals, or the environment. However, ethical acceptability also requires scientists to limit harm to animals in their research. Training in laboratory animal science (LAS) helps scientists to do this by promoting best practice and the 3Rs. This study evaluated scientists' awareness and application of the 3Rs, and their approach to other ethical issues in animal research. It was based on an online survey of participants in LAS courses held in eight venues in four European countries: Portugal (Porto, Braga), Germany (Munich, Heidelberg), Switzerland (Basel, Lausanne, Zurich), and Denmark (Copenhagen)...
2018: PloS One
N C Stefanis, V Mavreas, Ι Νimatoudis, F Gourzis, Μ Sarakouri, A Vgontzas, A Douzenis
The disorders of the psychosis spectrum, with the most severe being schizophrenia, are prevalent and have a great impact on the patients' quality of life. The purpose of this article is to highlight the need for a novel national strategic approach to the management of psychotic disorders in accordance with the international principles of early intervention. Even though outpatient treatment is considered adequate, there is an urgent need to adopt an early and more comprehensive and effective intervention strategy for young patients with psychosis and their families whose clinical and personal needs are clearly not met by the existing infrastructure of our mental health services...
April 2018: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
Marelle Heesterbeek, Eddy A Van der Zee, Marieke J G van Heuvelen
BACKGROUND: Dementia affects cognitive functioning, physical functioning, activities of daily living (ADLs), and quality of life (QOL). Pharmacological treatments to manage, cure or prevent dementia remain controversial. Therefore development of non-pharmacological approaches to prevent, or at least delay the onset and progression of dementia is urgently needed. Passive exercise is proposed to be such a non-pharmacological alternative. This study primarily aims to investigate the effects of three different forms of passive exercise on QOL and ADLs of institutionalized patients with dementia...
August 14, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Charlotte Yin, Bi Yi Chen
Background: Tension pneumocephalus from skull base surgery is a rare occurrence that mandates urgent neurosurgical attention. Case Description: We describe a case of tension pneumocephalus secondary to an endoscopic endonasal resection of an adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma and how it was successfully managed at our institution. Conclusion: Our experience reflects that definitive treatment of tension pneumocephalus is required with multilayered dural repair, but temporising measures should be used immediately to prevent neurological deterioration prior to the definitive repair...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Shiho Kawata, Emiko Saito
OBJECTIVE: Health literacy (HL) is one of the most important concepts in women's healthcare. The low cervical cancer screening rate for young Japanese women is an urgent issue. Cervical cancer is preventable, and cervical cancer screening behavior is associated with HL. Therefore, the present study aimed to elucidate the effects of a health education program to improve HL among young female undergraduate students in Japan. Immediately after completing the program, participants evaluated their level of satisfaction with and the level of difficulty of the program, their understanding of the educational materials, and the length of the curriculum...
August 13, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Christina M Marra, Khalil G Ghanem
Despite over a century of clinical experience in diagnosing and managing patients with syphilis, many thorny clinical questions remain unanswered. We focus on several areas of uncertainty for the clinician: the role of serologic tests in diagnosing syphilis and assessing syphilis treatment responses, and the risk of neurosyphilis and ocular syphilis in patients with syphilis. We also address whether clinical approaches should differ in patients who are, and are not, infected with HIV. The current increases in syphilis rates in the United States and elsewhere underscore our urgent need to definitively address these issues...
September 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
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