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Functional development of gastrointestinal tract

Atanu Adak, Mojibur R Khan
Gut microbiota has evolved along with their hosts and is an integral part of the human body. Microbiota acquired at birth develops in parallel as the host develops and maintains its temporal stability and diversity through adulthood until death. Recent developments in genome sequencing technologies, bioinformatics and culturomics have enabled researchers to explore the microbiota and in particular their functions at more detailed level than before. The accumulated evidences suggest that though a part of the microbiota is conserved, the dynamic members vary along the gastrointestinal tract, from infants to elderly, primitive tribes to modern societies and in different health conditions...
October 13, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Laura Lema Perez, Jose Garcia-Tirado, Carlos Builes-Montaño, Hernan Alvarez
The stomach is a segment of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract which receives food from the esophagus, mixes it, breaks it down, and then passes it on to the small intestine in smaller portions. In the stomach, the main secretory functions and digestion process begin. However, the most critical and important function of the stomach in digestive physiology is perhaps gastric motility. In this way, the functions of the stomach are mainly three: (i) the storage of large quantities of food to be further processed in the duodenum, and lower intestinal tract, (ii) the mixing of this food with gastric secretions to form a semi-fluid mixture, and (iii) to slow down the emptying of that semi-fluid mixture into the small intestine at a rate suitable for proper digestion and absorption...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
E N Burns, M H Bordbari, M J Mienaltowski, V K Affolter, M V Barro, F Gianino, G Gianino, E Giulotto, T S Kalbfleisch, S A Katzman, M Lassaline, T Leeb, M Mack, E J Müller, J N MacLeod, B Ming-Whitfield, C R Alanis, T Raudsepp, E Scott, S Vig, H Zhou, J L Petersen, R R Bellone, C J Finno
The Functional Annotation of Animal Genomes (FAANG) project aims to identify genomic regulatory elements in both sexes across multiple stages of development in domesticated animals. This study represents the first stage of the FAANG project for the horse, Equus caballus. A biobank of 80 tissue samples, two cell lines and six body fluids was created from two adult Thoroughbred mares. Ante-mortem assessments included full physical examinations, lameness, ophthalmologic and neurologic evaluations. Complete blood counts and serum biochemistries were also performed...
October 11, 2018: Animal Genetics
L Anselmi, C Bove, F H Coleman, K Le, M P Subramanian, K Venkiteswaran, T Subramanian, R A Travagli
Increasing evidence suggests that environmental neurotoxicants or misfolded α-synuclein generated by such neurotoxicants are transported from the gastrointestinal tract to the central nervous system via the vagus nerve, triggering degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and causing Parkinson's disease (PD). We tested the hypothesis that gastric co-administration of subthreshold doses of lectins and paraquat can recreate the pathology and behavioral manifestations of PD in rats...
2018: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
Caroline Hoad, Christopher Clarke, Luca Marciani, Martin John Graves, Maura Corsetti
Cine cardiac MRI is generally accepted as the 'gold-standard' for functional myocardial assessment. It only took a few years after the development of commercial MRI systems for functional cardiac imaging to be developed, with ECG gated cine imaging first reported in 1988. The function of the GI tract is more complex to study compared to the heart. However, the idea of having a non-invasive tool to study the GI function that also allows the concurrent assessment of different aspects of this function has become more and more attractive in the gastroenterological field...
October 9, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Camilla Virili, Poupak Fallahi, Alessandro Antonelli, Salvatore Benvenga, Marco Centanni
About two third of the human microbial commensal community, namely the gut microbiota, is hosted by the gastrointestinal tract which represents the largest interface of the organism to the external environment. This microbial community co-evolved in a symbiotic relationship with the human beings. Growing evidence support the notion that the microbiota plays a significant role in maintaining nutritional, metabolic and immunologic homeostasis in the host. Microbiota, beside the expected role in maintaining gastrointestinal homeostasis also exerts metabolic functions in nutrients digestion and absorption, detoxification and vitamins' synthesis...
October 8, 2018: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
I Bure, F Haller, D V Zaletaev
Gastrointestinal stromal tumours are the most common mesenchymal tumours of the gastrointestinal tract. Despite similar mutation pattern of activating mutations in KIT or PDGFRA receptors in 85% of cases, they demonstrate significantly heterogeneous clinical behaviour and pathological characteristics. This heterogeneity opens the question of the role of other factors and mechanisms of regulation in the development of GIST. Additional mutations in downstream effectors of GIST related signalling pathways or aberrant expression of non-coding RNAs may be additional contributing factors, the latter being increasingly recognized in carcinogenesis in general...
October 4, 2018: Current Molecular Medicine
Anke Vater, Johann Maierl
The gastrointestinal tract of the alpaca (Vicugna pacos) is most efficiently adapted to its habitat at high altitudes. Alpacas, just like ruminants, feed on hardly digestible forage. However, it has been demonstrated that the anatomy of the camelid digestive tract has developed independently of ruminants and not in homology to them. Despite a long history of domestication and an increasing number of animals worldwide, little research has been done on the intestinal anatomy of alpacas. The purpose of this study was to describe the anatomical features of the alpaca's intestines and to explain anatomical peculiarities in the context of evolutionary function and morphology...
October 5, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Luke Grundy, Andrea M Harrington, Joel Castro, Sonia Garcia-Caraballo, Annemie Deiteren, Jessica Maddern, Grigori Y Rychkov, Pei Ge, Stefanie Peters, Robert Feil, Paul Miller, Andre Ghetti, Gerhard Hannig, Caroline B Kurtz, Inmaculada Silos-Santiago, Stuart M Brierley
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients suffer from chronic abdominal pain and extraintestinal comorbidities, including overactive bladder (OAB) and interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC-PBS). Mechanistic understanding of the cause and time course of these comorbid symptoms is lacking, as are clinical treatments. Here, we report that colitis triggers hypersensitivity of colonic afferents, neuroplasticity of spinal cord circuits, and chronic abdominal pain, which persists after inflammation. Subsequently, and in the absence of bladder pathology, colonic hypersensitivity induces persistent hypersensitivity of bladder afferent pathways, resulting in bladder-voiding dysfunction, indicative of OAB/IC-PBS...
October 4, 2018: JCI Insight
Wei Li, Yunzhan Li, Zehua Liu, Nattha Kerdsakundee, Ming Zhang, Feng Zhang, Xueyan Liu, Tomás Bauleth-Ramos, Wenhua Lian, Ermei Mäkilä, Marianna Kemell, Yaping Ding, Bruno Sarmento, Ruedeekorn Wiwattanapatapee, Jarno Salonen, Hongbo Zhang, Jouni T Hirvonen, Dongfei Liu, Xianming Deng, Hélder A Santos
Orally administrable drug delivery vehicles are developed to manage incurable inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), however, their therapeutic outcomes are compromised by the side effects of systemic drug exposure. Herein, we use hyaluronic acid functionalized porous silicon nanoparticle to bridge enzyme-responsive hydrogel and pH-responsive polymer, generating a hierarchical structured (nano-in-nano-in-micro) vehicle with programmed properties to fully and sequentially overcome the multiple obstacles for efficiently delivering drugs locally to inflamed sites of intestine...
December 2018: Biomaterials
Sumei Liu
Neurotrophic factors are traditionally recognized for their roles in differentiation, growth, and survival of specific neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system. Some neurotrophic factors are essential for the development and migration of the enteric nervous system along the fetal and post-natal gut. Over the last two decades, several non-developmental functions of neurotrophic factors have been characterized. In the adult gastrointestinal tract, neurotrophic factors regulate gut sensation, motility, epithelial barrier function, and protect enteric neurons and glial cells from damaging insults in the microenvironment of the gut...
October 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Jincheng Yang, Mina Nikanjam, Brookie M Best, Jorge Pinto, Ellen G Chadwick, Eric S Daar, Peter L Havens, Natella Rakhmanina, Edmund V Capparelli
Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) is recommended by the World Health Organization as first-line treatment for HIV-infected infants and young children. We performed a composite population pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis on LPV plasma concentration data from 6 pediatric and adult studies to determine maturation and formulation effects from infancy to adulthood. Intensive PK data were available for infants, children, adolescents, and adults (297 intensive profiles/1662 LPV concentrations). LPV PK data included 1 adult, 1 combined pediatric-adult, and 4 pediatric studies (age 6 weeks to 63 years) with 3 formulations (gel-capsule, liquid, melt-extrusion tablets)...
September 25, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Winfried Neuhuber, Jürgen Wörl
Recent advances in neurogastroenterology have extended and refined our knowledge on the roles monoamines play in physiology and pathophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract. The catecholamine noradrenaline, as the primary transmitter of postganglionic sympathetic neurons, orchestrates motility and secretory reflexes and controls arterial perfusion as well as immune functions. The catecholamine dopamine is produced by a subpopulation of enteric neurons which possibly use it as transmitter. Serotonin, largely produced by enterochromaffin cells and to a small extent by enteric neurons profoundly affects gut motility, enteric neuron development and is also involved in immunomodulation...
September 24, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Z Zhang, N Y Jiang, R Y Guan, Y K Zhu, F Q Jiang, D Piao
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. Imatinib mesylate was considered to be a breakthrough drug in clinical treatment of GIST, but GIST patients showed resistance against it. We aimed to identify critical microRNAs (miRNAs) related to imatinib resistance in imatinib-treated GIST patients. Microarray datasets under the accession number of GSE63159 and GSE45901 were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) that are related to imatinib resistance were identified...
September 19, 2018: Neoplasma
Jiangyan Li, Meng Tang, Yuying Xue
Gut bacteria are involved in regulating several important physiological functions in the host, and intestinal dysbacteriosis plays an important role in several human diseases, including intestinal, metabolic and autoimmune disorders. Although silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are increasingly being incorporated into medical and consumer products due to their unique physicochemical properties, studies have indicated their potential to affect adversely the gut bacteria. In this review, we focus on the biotoxicological effects of AgNPs entering the gastrointestinal tract and the relationship of these effects with important nanoscale properties...
September 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Luis A Rubio
The strong selection in search for a higher growth rate in broilers has resulted in adverse effects such as metabolic disorders, low responsiveness of the immune system, and decreased resistance to pathogens. On the other hand, newly hatched chicks rely mostly on innate immune responses until their gut gets colonized with microbiota. In consequence, early access to active substances or bacteria (pre- and post-hatch) is particularly relevant here because in broilers much of the immune system development occurs early in life...
September 22, 2018: Poultry Science
Alexandria Turner, Martin Veysey, Simon Keely, Christopher Scarlett, Mark Lucock, Emma L Beckett
The type 2 family of taste receptors (T2Rs) detect and respond to bitter tastants. These receptors are expressed throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, with location dependant roles. In the oral cavity, T2Rs are involved in the conscious perception of bitter tastants, while in the lower GI tract they have roles in chemoreception and regulation of GI function. Through these diverse roles, these receptors may be involved in modulating appetite and diet, with consequences for weight regulation and obesity...
September 20, 2018: Nutrients
Bridget E Fomenky, Duy N Do, Guylaine Talbot, Johanne Chiquette, Nathalie Bissonnette, Yvan P Chouinard, Martin Lessard, Eveline M Ibeagha-Awemu
This study investigated the effect of supplementing the diet of calves with two direct fed microbials (DFMs) (Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii CNCM I-1079 (SCB) and Lactobacillus acidophilus BT1386 (LA)), and an antibiotic growth promoter (ATB). Thirty-two dairy calves were fed a control diet (CTL) supplemented with SCB or LA or ATB for 96 days. On day 33 (pre-weaning, n = 16) and day 96 (post-weaning, n = 16), digesta from the rumen, ileum, and colon, and mucosa from the ileum and colon were collected...
September 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lígia A B M Mendonça, Rosângela Dos Santos Ferreira, Rita de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães, Alinne P de Castro, Octávio L Franco, Rosemary Matias, Cristiano M E Carvalho
Colorectal cancer exerts a strong influence on the epidemiological panorama worldwide, and it is directly correlated to etiologic factors that are substantiated by genetic and environmental elements. This complex mixture of factors also has a relationship involving the structural dependence and composition of the gut microbiome, leading to a dysbacteriosis process that may evolve to serious modifications in the intestinal lining, eventually causing the development of a neoplasm. The gastrointestinal tract presents defense strategies and immunological properties that interfere in intestinal permeability, inhibiting the bacterial translocation, thus maintaining the integrity of intestinal homeostasis...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Elizabeth A Klingbeil, Claire B de La Serre
There is accumulating evidence that the gut microbiota and its composition dynamics play a crucial role in regulating the host physiological functions and behavior. Diet composition is the primary modulator of bacterial richness and abundance in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Macronutrient (fat, sugar and protein) and fiber contents are especially important in determining microbiota composition and its effect on health outcomes and behavior. In addition to food composition, time of intake and eating patterns have recently been shown to significantly affect gut bacterial make up...
September 19, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
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