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Functional development of gastrointestinal tract

Ninotchska M Delvalle, Christine Dharshika, Wilmarie Morales-Soto, David E Fried, Lukas Gaudette, Brian D Gulbransen
Background & Aims: Tachykinins are involved in physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms in the gastrointestinal tract. The major sources of tachykinins in the gut are intrinsic enteric neurons in the enteric nervous system and extrinsic nerve fibers from the dorsal root and vagal ganglia. Although tachykinins are important mediators in the enteric nervous system, how they contribute to neuroinflammation through effects on neurons and glia is not fully understood. Here, we tested the hypothesis that tachykinins contribute to enteric neuroinflammation through mechanisms that involve intercellular neuron-glia signaling...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Cai-Yun Long, Xiao-Bing Tang, Wei-Lin Wang, Zheng-Wei Yuan, Yu-Zuo Bai
Anorectal malformations (ARMs) are one of the most common congenital malformations of the digestive tract; however, the pathogenesis of this disease remains to be fully elucidated. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important in gastrointestinal development and may be involved in the pathogenesis of ARMs. The present study aimed to profile miRNAs and examine their potential functions in rats with ethylenethiourea (ETU)‑induced ARMs. Pregnant Wistar rats (n=36) were divided randomly into ETU‑treated and control groups...
August 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Pramod Nepal, Shinichiro Mori, Yoshiaki Kita, Kan Tanabe, Kenji Baba, Yasuto Uchikado, Hiroshi Kurahara, Takaaki Arigami, Masahiko Sakoda, Kosei Maemura, Shoji Natsugoe
BACKGROUND: Rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a very rare tumor of gastrointestinal tract. Surgical management of rectal GIST requires special attention for preserving of anal and urinary functions. Transanal minimal invasive surgery (TAMIS) is a well-developed minimally invasive technique for local excision of benign and early malignant rectal tumors; however, the application of TAMIS for rectal GIST is rarely and inadequately reported. We report the novel application of TAMIS for rectal GIST with considerations for anal and urinary functions...
August 11, 2018: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
Chanchan Sun, Rui Liu, Huanjing Sheng, Ruijun Wang, Zesheng Zhang, Jiang Zhao, Min Zhang
Since lipid digestion is an interfacial process, food emulsions are increasingly being seen as a mechanism for controlling lipid uptake. Oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by whey protein (WP) and protein-xanthan gum (XG) mixtures were designed to investigate the influence of interfacial structures on lipid digestion using an in vitro digestion model. The interfacial layers with different structures were designed using microparticulated whey protein (MWP) and MWP-XG mixtures. The increase in the volume average diameter of proteins indicated that the WPs aggregated to form micro-particles during microparticulation...
August 9, 2018: Food & Function
T J Measey, M Pouliot, W Wierzbicki, C Swanson, D Brown, S Authier, O Donini
Development of medical countermeasures (MCMs) for gastrointestinal (GI) injury following acute radiation exposure requires well-characterized models that can assess not only survival but also secondary endpoints, including structural and functional characteristics of GI damage and recovery that ultimately contribute to long-term survival. The authors conducted a pilot study in a hemi-body shielded Göttingen minipig model of radiation-induced GI injury that enables radiation damage to the GI tract to be evaluated and reduces the potential for hemorrhage and/or damage in other more sensitive organ systems...
January 2018: Health Physics
V S Myakotnykh, E S Ostapchuk, V L Postovalova
There was held stationary survey of 661 patients in different age: 234 - from 60 to 102 years, 427 - from 18 to 59 years. Identify options for pathology, clearly increasing its prevalence in parallel with the increase of age. It is, first and foremost, diseases of musculoskeletal apparatus, gastrointestinal tract and cardiovascular system. At the same time, acute violations of cerebral circulation in the form of strokes, on the contrary, prevailed among persons under the age of 60 years, and an increase in the frequency of ischemic heart disease, angina without myocardial infarction among patients of elderly and senile age in relation to persons under the age of 60 years was insignificant...
2018: Advances in Gerontology, Uspekhi Gerontologii
Philippe Aubert, Elena Oleynikova, Hina Rizvi, Marième Ndjim, Catherine Le Berre-Scoul, Pierre Antoine Grohard, Julien Chevalier, Jean-Pierre Segain, Gwenola Le Drean, Michel Neunlist, Helene Boudin
Early-life adversity is a major risk factor for the development of diseases later in life. Maternal protein restriction (MPR) is associated with morbidities in offspring affecting multiple organs, but its impact on the gastrointestinal (GI) tract remains poorly studied. Using a rat model, we examined the consequences of MPR on GI function and on the enteric nervous system (ENS) in the offspring at postnatal d 35 under basal state and following a water avoidance stress (WAS). Compared with control rats, MPR rats exhibited greater colonic motility, permeability, and corticosteronemia...
August 1, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Akihiro Takano, Sangram Nag, Zhisheng Jia, Mahabuba Jahan, Anton Forsberg, Ryosuke Arakawa, Per Grybäck, Guillaume Duvey, Christer Halldin, Delphine Charvin
PURPOSE: Modulation of presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGlu4 ) by an allosteric ligand has been proposed as a promising therapeutic target in Parkinson's disease and levodopa-induced dyskinesia. A positron emission tomography (PET) ligand for an allosteric site of mGlu4 may provide evidence that a clinical drug candidate reaches and binds the target. A carbon-11-labeled PET radioligand binding an allosteric site of mGlu4 , [11 C]PXT012253, has been recently developed. Here, we describe the detailed characterization of this novel radiolabeled mGlu4 ligand in nonhuman primates...
July 31, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Yasar Sattar, Zarafshan Zubair, Nirav B Patel, Faiqa S Zafar, Ali Hassan, Nargis Tariq, Sharaad Latchana, Sharmi Biswas, Norina Usman, Stefany C Lopez Pantoja
Crohn's disease (CD) is a granulomatous inflammatory disease that can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract, from mouth to anus. In most cases, it remits and relapses in the terminal ileum, requiring treatment via steroid boluses. In rare cases, however, CD can involve the pulmonary system presenting as dyspnea on exertion and dry cough. We present a case of a 38-year-old man who developed shortness of breath, cough, and wheezing for one month after a colectomy procedure due to recurrent toxic megacolon...
May 30, 2018: Curēus
Mariona Pascal, Marina Perez-Gordo, Teresa Caballero, Maria M Escribese, M Natividad Lopez Longo, Olga Luengo, Luis Manso, Victor Matheu, Elena Seoane, Miguel Zamorano, Moisés Labrador, Cristobalina Mayorga
Allergic diseases, such as respiratory, cutaneous, and food allergy, have dramatically increased in prevalence over the last few decades. Recent research points to a central role of the microbiome, which is highly influenced by multiple environmental and dietary factors. It is well established that the microbiome can modulate the immune response, from cellular development to organ and tissue formation exerting its effects through multiple interactions with both the innate and acquired branches of the immune system...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Isabel M McFarlane, Manjeet S Bhamra, Alexandra Kreps, Sadat Iqbal, Firas Al-Ani, Carla Saladini-Aponte, Christon Grant, Soberjot Singh, Khalid Awwal, Kristaq Koci, Yair Saperstein, Fray M Arroyo-Mercado, Derek B Laskar, Purna Atluri
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare autoimmune disease characterized by fibroproliferative alterations of the microvasculature leading to fibrosis and loss of function of the skin and internal organs. Gastrointestinal manifestations of SSc are the most commonly encountered complications of the disease affecting nearly 90% of the SSc population. Among these complications, the esophagus and the anorectum are the most commonly affected. However, this devastating disorder does not spare any part of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and includes the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small and large bowels as well as the liver and pancreas...
2018: Rheumatology: Current Research
Ivan Rodrigo Wolf, Alexandre Rossi Paschoal, Cecilia Quiroga, Douglas Silva Domingues, Rogério Fernandes de Souza, Lucienne Garcia Pretto-Giordano, Laurival Antonio Vilas-Boas
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus agalactiae, also known as Group B Streptococcus (GBS), is a Gram-positive bacterium that colonizes the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract of humans. This bacterium has also been isolated from various animals, such as fish and cattle. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) can act as regulators of gene expression in bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes. However, little is known about the genomic distribution of ncRNAs and RNA families in S...
July 28, 2018: BMC Genomics
Byron P Vaughn, Kevin M Rank, Alexander Khoruts
Fecal microbiota transplantation was originally introduced as a method to repair intestinal microbiota following failure of multiple treatments of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection with antibiotics. However, it is hypothesized that intestinal dysbiosis may contribute to pathogenesis of many diseases, especially those involving the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, fecal microbiota transplantation is increasingly being explored as a potential treatment that aims to optimize microbiota composition and functionality...
July 25, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Karl Walter Bock
TCDD-mediated toxicity of human individuals together with animal studies led to identification of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). It was characterized as multifunctional ligand-activated transcription factor and environmental sensor. Comparison of human toxic responses and animal models provide hints to physiologic AHR functions including chemical and microbial defense, homeostasis of stem/progenitor cells and modulation of the immune system in barrier organs such as skin and the gastrointestinal tract...
July 26, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Tomonori Nochi, Christine A Jansen, Masaaki Toyomizu, Willem van Eden
The mucosal immune system is a compartmentalized part of the immune system that provides local immunity in the mucosa of the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and digestive tracts. It possesses secondary lymphoid tissues, which contain immune cells, such as T, B, and dendritic cells. Once the cells of the mucosal immune system are stimulated by luminal antigens, including microorganisms, they infiltrate into diffuse areas of mucosal tissues (e.g., respiratory mucosa and lamina propria of intestinal villi) and exhibit immune effector functions...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Alexandra E Purdy
Studies of Vibrio cholerae pathogenesis in the context of novel eukaryotic model systems have expanded our understanding of genes that underlie V. cholerae interactions with humans, as well as host organisms in the environment. These model systems have also helped uncover new functions for many gene products, revealing previously unknown virulence mechanisms. The Drosophila model for V. cholerae infection is a powerful tool for discovering new genetic pathways that govern bacterial physiology and colonization in the arthropod gastrointestinal tract...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Meenakshi Rao, Michael D Gershon
The gastrointestinal tract contains its own set of intrinsic neuroglial circuits - the enteric nervous system (ENS) - which detects and responds to diverse signals from the environment. Here, we address recent advances in the understanding of ENS development, including how neural-crest-derived progenitors migrate into and colonize the bowel, the formation of ganglionated plexuses and the molecular mechanisms of enteric neuronal and glial diversification. Modern lineage tracing and transcription-profiling technologies have produced observations that simultaneously challenge and affirm long-held beliefs about ENS development...
July 25, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
Angel Angelov, Teodora Yaneva-Marinova, Velitchka Gotcheva
Development of oat-based fermented beverages started in Europe in the past 30 years with the rise of the functional foods market. It is based on the increasing consumer demand for health drinks and value added foods and on the scientific insights on the nutrition composition of oats. The main health effects of oats are attributed to their high β-glucan content, which is proved to lower blood cholesterol and the intestinal absorption of glucose thus preventing diseases like cardiovascular injury, dyslipidemia, hypertension, inflammatory state and diabetes type 2...
July 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Hilary Schenck Eidam, John Russell, Kaushik Raha, Michael DeMartino, Donghui Qin, Huiping Amy Guan, Zhiliu Zhang, Gong Zhen, Haiyu Yu, Chengde Wu, Yan Pan, Gerard Joberty, Nico Zinn, Sylvie Laquerre, Sharon Robinson, Angela White, Amanda Giddings, Ehsan Mohammadi, Beverly Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Allen Oliff, Sanjay Kumar, Mui Cheung
Abdominal pain and abnormal bowel habits represent major symptoms for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients that are not adequately managed. Although the etiology of IBS is not completely understood, many of the functions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are regulated by the enteric nervous system (ENS). Inflammation or stress-induced expression of growth factors or cytokines may lead to hyperinnervation of visceral afferent neurons in GI tract and contribute to the pathophysiology of IBS. Rearranged during transfection (RET) is a neuronal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase critical for the development of the ENS as exemplified by Hirschsprung patients who carry RET loss-of-function mutations and lack normal colonic innervation leading to colonic obstruction...
July 12, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Xu-Dong Hou, Guang-Bo Ge, Zi-Miao Weng, Zi-Ru Dai, Yue-Hong Leng, Le-Le Ding, Ling-Ling Jin, Yang Yu, Yun-Feng Cao, Jie Hou
Pancreatic lipase (PL), a key enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of triacylglycerides in the gastrointestinal tract, has been identified as the therapeutic target for the regulation of lipid absorption. In the present study, six major constituents from a famous Chinese herbal medicine Cortex Mori Radicis (also named sangbaipi in Chinese), have been collected and their inhibitory effects on PL have been carefully investigated and well characterized by a fluorescence-based assay. The results clearly demonstrated that all tested bioactive constituents from Cortex Mori Radicis including sanggenone C (SC), sanggenone D (SD), kuwanon C (KC), kuwanon G (KG), morin and morusin displayed strong to moderate inhibitory effects towards PL with the IC50 values ranging from 0...
July 17, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
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