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Functional development of gastrointestinal tract

Fanny George, Catherine Daniel, Muriel Thomas, Elisabeth Singer, Axel Guilbaud, Frédéric J Tessier, Anne-Marie Revol-Junelles, Frédéric Borges, Benoît Foligné
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are representative members of multiple ecosystems on earth, displaying dynamic interactions within animal and plant kingdoms in respect with other microbes. This highly heterogeneous phylogenetic group has coevolved with plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates, establishing either mutualism, symbiosis, commensalism, or even parasitism-like behavior with their hosts. Depending on their location and environment conditions, LAB can be dominant or sometimes in minority within ecosystems...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Elizabeth Klingbeil, Claire B de La Serre
There is accumulating evidence that the gut microbiota and its composition dynamics play a crucial role in regulating the host physiological functions and behavior. Diet composition is the primary modulator of bacterial richness and abundance in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Macronutrient (fat, sugar, and protein) and fiber contents are especially important in determining microbiota composition and its effect on health outcomes and behavior. In addition to food composition, time of intake and eating patterns have recently been shown to significantly affect gut bacterial makeup...
December 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Xiao-Wei Feng, Wen-Ping Ding, Ling-Yun Xiong, Liang Guo, Jia-Ming Sun, Peng Xiao
Microbial constituents naturally inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract may influence the homeostasis of the gut environment. The presence or overabundance of some bacterial taxa has been reported to be associated with complex diseases, and the metabolites of certain bacteria may contribute to diverse disorders by influencing signaling pathways. Therefore, the study of gut microbial population has emerged as a crucial field and a new potential area of clinical significance. Advances in the methods of microbiota analysis have shed light upon the details including species diversity, microfloral activities as well as the entire gut microbiota...
December 2018: Current medical science
Rupak Pathak, Sumit K Shah, Martin Hauer-Jensen
PURPOSE: Radiation-induced gastrointestinal injury or radiation enteropathy is an imminent risk during radiation therapy of abdominal or pelvic tumors. Despite remarkable technological advancements in image-guided radiation delivery techniques, the risk of intestinal injury after radiotherapy for abdominal or pelvic cancers has not been completely eliminated. The irradiated intestine undergoes varying degrees of adverse structural and functional changes, which can result in transient or long-term complications...
December 7, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Jung Hwan Yoon, Olga Kim, Jung Woo Eun, Sung Sook Choi, Hassan Ashktorab, Duane T Smoot, Suk Woo Nam, Won Sang Park
NKX family members are involved in a variety of developmental processes such as cell fate determination in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and pancreas. However, whether NKX6.3 contributes to gastric carcinogenesis remains unclear. The objective of this study was to examine roles of NKX6.3 depletion in mutagenesis and gastric carcinogenesis, focusing on its effects on genetic alterations and expression of genes. Our results revealed that NKX6.3 depletion induced multiple genetic mutations in coding regions, including high frequency of point mutations such as cytosine-to-thymine and guanine-to-adenine transitions caused by aberrant expression of AICDA/APOBEC family in human gastric epithelial cells...
December 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Timothy R Koch, Timothy R Shope, Michael Camilleri
The worldwide rise in the prevalence of obesity supports the need for an increased interaction between ongoing clinical research in the allied fields of gastrointestinal medicine/surgery and diabetes mellitus. There have been a number of clinically-relevant advances in diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome emanating from gastroenterological research. Gastric emptying is a significant factor in the development of upper gastrointestinal symptoms. However, it is not the only mechanism whereby such symptoms occur in patients with diabetes...
November 15, 2018: World Journal of Diabetes
Kiyoshi Masuda, Yuki Kuwano
Gene expression patterns in cancer cells are strongly influenced by posttranscriptional mechanisms. RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play key roles in posttranscriptional gene regulation; they can interact with target mRNAs in a sequence- and structure-dependent manner, and determine cellular behavior by manipulating the processing of these mRNAs. Numerous RBPs are aberrantly deregulated in many human cancers and hence, affect the functioning of mRNAs that encode proteins, implicated in carcinogenesis. Here, we summarize the key roles of RBPs in posttranscriptional gene regulation, describe RBPs disrupted in cancer, and lastly focus on RBPs that are responsible for implementing cancer traits in the digestive tract...
November 26, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Caitlin A McMenamin, Courtney Clyburn, Kirsteen N Browning
Diet-induced obesity induces peripheral inflammation accompanied by a loss of myenteric neurons. Few studies, however, have investigated the effects of a high-fat diet (HFD) on either the development of myenteric neurons or prior to the occurrence of obesity. The present study assessed the effects of maternal HFD on the density and neurochemical phenotype of myenteric ganglia in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a control or HFD (14% or 60% kcal from fat, respectively) from embryonic day 13; the fundus, corpus and duodenum were fixed thereafter at postnatal 2, 4, 6 and 12 weeks of age for subsequent immunohistochemical studies...
November 21, 2018: Neuroscience
Grace B Hatton, Christine M Madla, Sarit C Rabbie, Abdul W Basit
It was in 400 BC that Hippocrates reportedly stated that "death sits in the colon". The growth in our knowledge of the intestinal microbiome and the gut-brain axis, their function and imbalance, has distinctly uncovered the complex relationship between the gut to disease predisposition and development, heralding the problem and the solution to disease pathology. Human studies of new drug molecules are typically performed in healthy volunteers and their specific disease indication. Approved drugs, however, are used by patients with diverse disease backgrounds...
November 16, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
Eleonora Cremonini, Cesar G Fraga, Patricia I Oteiza
Emerging evidence supports a beneficial action of the flavan-3-ol (-)-epicatechin (EC) on insulin sensitivity and potential impact on the development/progression of type 2 diabetes (T2D). In humans, supplementation with EC-rich foods, extracts, and pure EC improves insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in normal weight, overweight, obese and T2D individuals. These effects of EC are also observed in rodent models of diet-induced obesity and T2D. The events involved in the development of insulin resistance and T2D are multiple and interrelated...
November 14, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Mikuš Kuracinová Kristína, Janega Pavol, Janegová Andrea, Čierna Zuzana
BACKGROUND: Tumors arising from neuroendocrine cells are defined as epithelial neoplasms with predominantly neuroendocrine differentiation. They comprise a distinct group of tumors with a characteristic histological structure and functional properties that develop at various sites, particularly the gastrointestinal system (67%) and lungs (25%). Although such tumors are usually slow-growing and indolent, almost all have malignant potential and most can produce active hormones. Clinical signs vary, and many are dependent on the site at which the tumor develops...
2018: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
Grace Burns, Georgia Carroll, Andrea Mathe, Jay Horvat, Paul Foster, Marjorie M Walker, Nicholas J Talley, Simon Keely
BACKGROUND: Subtle histopathologic features such as eosinophilia and increased mast cells have been observed in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), including functional dyspepsia (FD) and the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The mechanisms that drive recruitment of these cells to the gastrointestinal tract remain unexplained, largely due to the heterogeneity in phenotypes among patients diagnosed with such conditions. We aimed to systematically review the literature and collate the evidence for immune activation in FD and IBS, and where possible, detail the nature of activation...
November 14, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Yun Kyung Lee, Parpi Mehrabian, Silva Boyajian, Wei-Li Wu, Jane Selicha, Steven Vonderfecht, Sarkis K Mazmanian
Many patients with chronic inflammation of the gut, such as that observed in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), develop colorectal cancer (CRC). Recent studies have reported that the development of IBD and CRC partly results from an imbalanced composition of intestinal microbiota and that intestinal inflammation in these diseases can be modulated by the microbiota. The human commensal Bacteroides fragilis is best exemplified playing a protective role against the development of experimental colitis in several animal disease models...
November 14, 2018: MSphere
Ahmad Javanmard, Sara Ashtari, Babak Sabet, Seyed Hossein Davoodi, Mohammad Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad Esmaeil Akbari, Azadeh Niaz, Amir Mohammad Mortazavian
Cancers of the gastrointestinal (GI) track are a serious global health problem. The human GI tract is home to trillions of microorganisms that known as gut microbiota and have established a symbiotic relationship with the host. The human intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the development of the gut immune system, metabolism, nutrition absorption, production of short-chain fatty acids and essential vitamins, resistance to pathogenic microorganisms, and modulates a normal immunological response...
2018: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
Kirsteen N Browning, R Alberto Travagli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the organization and structure of vagal neurocircuits controlling the upper gastrointestinal tract, and more recent studies investigating their role in the regulation of gastric motility under physiological, as well as pathophysiological, conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Vagal neurocircuits regulating gastric functions are highly plastic, and open to modulation by a variety of inputs, both peripheral and central. Recent research in the fields of obesity, development, stress, and neurological disorders highlight the importance of central inputs onto these brainstem neurocircuits in the regulation of gastric motility...
November 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Paulo Paixão, Marival Bermejo, Bart Hens, Yasuhiro Tsume, Joseph Dickens, Kerby Shedden, Niloufar Salehi, Mark J Koenigsknecht, Jason R Baker, William L Hasler, Robert Lionberger, Jianghong Fan, Jeffrey Wysocki, Bo Wen, Allen Lee, Ann Frances, Gregory E Amidon, Alex Yu, Gail Benninghoff, Raimar Löbenberg, Arjang Talattof, Duxin Sun, Gordon L Amidon
Exploring the intraluminal behavior of an oral drug product in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract remains challenging. Many in vivo techniques are available to investigate the impact of GI physiology on oral drug behavior in fasting state conditions. However, little is known about the intraluminal behavior of a drug in postprandial conditions. In a previous report, we described the mean solution and total concentrations of ibuprofen after oral administration of an immediate-release (IR) tablet in fed state conditions...
November 12, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Ji-Xian Xiong, Yan-Song Wang, Jingyi Sheng, Di Xiang, Tu-Xiong Huang, Bin-Bin Tan, Cui-Mian Zeng, Hua-Hui Li, Jiao Yang, Stephen J Meltzer, Yuriko Mori, Yan-Ru Qin, Xin-Yuan Guan, Li Fu
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) occurs with the highest frequency in China, especially in the high-risk Northern Chinese. Recent studies have reported that SLC22A3 is significantly downregulated in non-tumor (NT) esophageal tissues from familial ESCC patients compared with those from sporadic ESCC. However, the mechanism of how SLC22A3 regulates familial ESCC remains unknown. In this study, post hoc genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 496 cases with a family history of upper gastrointestinal tract cancers and 1056 controls were performed and the results revealed that SLC22A3 is a novel susceptibility gene for familial ESCC...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Paweł W Petryszyn, Anna Wiela-Hojeńska
Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UD) are the 2 common clinical subtypes of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The multifactorial etiology and pathogenesis of IBD is still unknown; however, the interaction between genetic, environmental and immunological factors seems to be crucial. A member of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette family, P-glycoprotein, encoded by the human ABCB1 gene, is among the most extensively studied transporters involved in drug disposition and effects...
October 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Greeshma Ray, Michelle S Longworth
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic inflammatory disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract. The incidence of IBD is increasing, with more cases occurring in developed countries. Multiple factors such as genetics, environmental changes, gut microbiota, and immune abnormalities have been associated with development of IBD. In recent years, it has become increasingly apparent that epigenetic modifications of chromatin and the manner in which chromatin is organized in the nucleus are additionally important elements that can influence responses induced by the factors described above, and may therefore contribute to the onset and pathogenesis of IBD...
November 8, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Yue Shang, Sanjay Kumar, Brian Oakley, Woo Kyun Kim
Sustainable poultry meat and egg production is important to provide safe and quality protein sources in human nutrition worldwide. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of chickens harbor a diverse and complex microbiota that plays a vital role in digestion and absorption of nutrients, immune system development and pathogen exclusion. However, the integrity, functionality, and health of the chicken gut depends on many factors including the environment, feed, and the GI microbiota. The symbiotic interactions between host and microbe is fundamental to poultry health and production...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
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