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Brain blood flow

Ben-Chung Cheng, Po-Cheng Chen, Pei-Chin Chen, Cheng-Hsien Lu, Yu-Chi Huang, Kun-Hsien Chou, Shau-Hsuan Li, An-Ni Lin, Wei-Che Lin
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between cognitive impairment and brain perfusion using arterial spin labelling (ASL) in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing PD. METHODS: ESRD patients undergoing PD were recruited. Laboratory screening, neuropsychological tests and ASL magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were conducted prior to and after 6 months of PD. Age- and sex-matched normal subjects without ESRD served as the control group...
August 13, 2018: European Radiology
Michael Charles Stevens, Fraser M Callaghan, Paul Forrest, Paul G Bannon, Stuart M Grieve
Peripheral veno-arterial extra corporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is an established technique for short-to-medium support of patients with severe cardiac failure. However, in patients with concomitant respiratory failure, the residual native circulation will provide deoxygenated blood to the upper body, and may cause differential hypoxemia of the heart and brain. In this paper, we present a general computational framework for the identification of differential hypoxemia risk in VA-ECMO patients. A range of different VA-ECMO patient scenarios for a patient-specific geometry and vascular resistance were simulated using transient computational fluid dynamics simulations, representing a clinically relevant range of values of stroke volume and ECMO flow...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Michiyoshi Yoshimura, Jun-Hui Yuan, Keiko Higashi, Akiko Yoshimura, Hitoshi Arata, Ryuichi Okubo, Yoshiaki Nakabeppu, Takashi Yoshiura, Hiroshi Takashima
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome is a rare hereditary neurodegenerative disorder with clinical heterogeneity. This study is aim to demonstrate the clinical spectrum and radiologic characteristics of patients caused by Pro102Leu mutation in PRNP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospect clinical manifestations of five patients from four Japanese families, and comprehensively analyzed their brain MRI, SPECT (N-isopropyl-p-[123I] iodoamphetamine), and PET (18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose) images...
August 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Daniel G Amen, Sachit Egan, Somayeh Meysami, Cyrus A Raji, Noble George
BACKGROUND: Understanding the influence of aging on the brain remains a challenge in determining its role as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. OBJECTIVE: To identify patterns of aging in a large neuroimaging cohort. METHODS: A large psychiatric cohort of 31,227 individuals received brain SPECT at rest and during a concentration task for a total of 62,454 scans. ANOVA was done to identify the mean age trends over the course of the age range in this group, 0- 105 years...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Choy Lewis, Suraj D Parulkar, John Bebawy, Saadia Sherwani, Charles W Hogue
Neurological complications of cardiac surgery have a large effect on patient outcomes. In this review, the value of several modes of central nervous system monitoring for improving perioperative care is critiqued. The electroencephalogram (EEG) has been used as a means for detecting brain ischemia. Even though EEG changes are specific for ischemia, the reliability is tempered by many confounding factors. The effectiveness of the processed EEG for ensuring amnesia during surgery is controversial, but it may have value for optimizing anesthetic dose and thus reducing the risk for delirium...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Shumpei Onishi, Yoshinori Kajiwara, Takeshi Takayasu, Manish Kolakshyapati, Minoru Ishifuro, Vishwa Jeet Amatya, Yukio Takeshima, Kazuhiko Sugiyama, Kaoru Kurisu, Fumiyuki Yamasaki
BACKGROUND: Perfusion computed tomography (PCT) reflects blood flow and capillary condition, which is valuable in assessing brain tumors. We evaluated PCT parameters at tumor and peritumoral region for differentiating malignant brain tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed PCT in 39 patients with supratentorial malignant brain tumors (22 glioblastomas, 6 lymphomas, 11 metastases). Regions of interests were placed manually at tumor, peritumoral region and contralateral normal-appearing white matter...
August 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Jinping Cheng, Nils Korte, Ross Nortley, Huma Sethi, Yamei Tang, David Attwell
Many central nervous system diseases currently lack effective treatment and are often associated with defects in microvascular function, including a failure to match the energy supplied by the blood to the energy used on neuronal computation, or a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier. Pericytes, an under-studied cell type located on capillaries, are of crucial importance in regulating diverse microvascular functions, such as angiogenesis, the blood-brain barrier, capillary blood flow and the movement of immune cells into the brain...
August 10, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Gustavo C Costa, Henrique O Castro, Isabel R Mesquita, José Afonso, Guilherme M Lage, Herbert Ugrinowitsch, Gibson M Praça, Pablo J Greco
This study compared decision-making (DM) of experienced and novice volleyball coaches while measuring blood flow brain activation with functional near-infrared spectroscopy. We sampled 34 coaches (mean (M) age of 32.5, standard deviation [ SD] = 9.4 years) divided into two experience groups: (a) novice (M = 2.8, SD = 1.9 years) and (b) experienced (M = 19, SD = 7.2 years). We evaluated coaches' DM through their responses to video-based scenarios of attacks performed in the extremities of the net within the Declarative Tactical Knowledge Test in Volleyball...
August 10, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
John J Leddy, Mohammad N Haider, Michael Ellis, Barry S Willer
Sport-related concussion (SRC) is a physiological brain injury that produces cerebral and systemic effects, including exercise intolerance. Exercise intolerance after concussion is believed to be the result of autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction. Ventilation is inappropriately low for the level of exercise intensity, raising arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) levels. Elevated PaCO2 increases cerebral blood flow (CBF) out of proportion to exercise intensity, which is associated with symptoms that limit exercise performance...
August 2018: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Antonino Chillura, Antonino Naro, Fabrizio Ciappina, Alessia Bramanti, Paola Lauria, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
INTRODUCTION: The approach of an external stimulus to the peripersonal space (PPS) modifies some physiological measures, including the cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the supplementary motor area and premotor cortex. CBF measurement may be useful to assess brain activations when producing specific motor responses, likely mediated by cortical and subcortical neural circuits. METHODS: This study investigated PPS in 15 healthy humans by characterizing the hemodynamic responses (pulsatility index, PI; and heart rate, HR) related to different directions of movements of individual's hand toward and backward his/her own face, so to perturb PPS)...
August 9, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Laura Ramiro, Alba Simats, Teresa García-Berrocoso, Joan Montaner
Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death and the most frequent cause of disability worldwide. Currently, stroke diagnosis is based on neuroimaging; therefore, the lack of a rapid tool to diagnose stroke is still a major concern. In addition, therapeutic approaches to combat ischemic stroke are still scarce, since the only approved therapies are directed toward restoring blood flow to the affected brain area. However, due to the reduced time window during which these therapies are effective, few patients benefit from them; therefore, alternative treatments are urgently needed to reduce stroke brain damage in order to improve patients' outcome...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
E Vendel, V Rottschäfer, E C M de Lange
The development of drugs that target the brain is very challenging. A quantitative understanding is needed of the complex processes that govern the concentration-time profile of a drug (pharmacokinetics) within the brain. So far, there are no studies on predicting the drug concentration within the brain that focus not only on the transport of drugs to the brain through the blood-brain barrier (BBB), but also on drug transport and binding within the brain. Here, we develop a new model for a 2D square brain tissue unit, consisting of brain extracellular fluid (ECF) that is surrounded by the brain capillaries...
August 8, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Bao-Shuai Shan, Masaki Mogi, Jun Iwanami, Hui-Yu Bai, Harumi Kan-No, Akinori Higaki, Li-Juan Min, Masatsugu Horiuchi
The brain renin-angiotensin system plays a crucial role in ischemic stroke. It is known that stimulation of the angiotensin II type 2 (AT2 ) receptor protects against ischemic brain injury. We recently demonstrated that AT2 receptor stimulation by compound 21 (C21), a direct AT2 receptor agonist, inhibited vascular intimal proliferation with activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ). However, whether direct AT2 receptor stimulation protects against ischemic brain injury via PPAR-γ activation is still unknown...
August 8, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Justin Pollara, R Whitney Edwards, Liwen Lin, Victoria A Bendersky, Todd V Brennan
Brain death that occurs in the setting of deceased organ donation for transplantation is associated with systemic inflammation of unknown origin. It has recently been recognized that mitochondria-derived damage-associated molecular patterns (mtDAMPs) released into the circulation in the setting of trauma and tissue injury are associated with a systemic inflammatory response. We examined the blood of deceased organ donors and found elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that correlated with levels of mtDAMPs...
August 9, 2018: JCI Insight
Shinichi Goto, Takayuki Morikawa, Akiko Kubo, Keiyo Takubo, Keiichi Fukuda, Mayumi Kajimura, Makoto Suematsu
Carbon monoxide-generating heme oxygenase-2 is expressed in neurons and plays a crucial role for regulating hypoxic vasodilation through mechanisms unlocking carbon monoxide-dependent inhibition of H2 S-generating cystathionine β-synthase expressed in astrocytes. This study aims to examine whether heme oxygenase-2 plays a protective role in mice against stroke. Focal ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion. Regional differences in metabolites among ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres were analysed by quantitative imaging mass spectrometry equipped with an image-processing platform to optimize comparison of local metabolite contents among different animals...
July 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Lewis J Haddow, Claudia Godi, Magdalena Sokolska, M Jorge Cardoso, Ruth Oliver, Alan Winston, Wolfgang Stöhr, Amanda Clarke, Fabian Chen, Ian G Williams, Margaret Johnson, Nick Paton, Alejandro Arenas-Pinto, Xavier Golay, Hans Rolf Jäger
Background: Protease inhibitor monotherapy (PIM) for HIV may exert suboptimal viral control in the central nervous system. We determined whether cerebral blood flow (CBF) and regional brain volumes were associated with PIM, and whether specific cognitive domains were associated with imaging biomarkers. Methods: Cognitive assessment and brain MRI were performed after the final visit of a randomized HIV treatment strategy trial. Participants were virologically suppressed on triple therapy at trial entry and followed for 3-5 years...
July 31, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Osama F Harraz, Thomas Andrew Longden, David Hill-Eubanks, Mark T Nelson
We recently reported that the inward-rectifier Kir2.1 channel in brain capillary endothelial cells (cECs) plays a major role in neurovascular coupling (NVC) by mediating a neuronal activity-dependent, propagating vasodilatory (hyperpolarizing) signal. We further demonstrated that Kir2.1 activity is suppressed by depletion of plasma membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2 ). Whether cECs express depolarizing channels that intersect with Kir2.1-mediated signaling remains unknown. Here, we report that Ca2+ /Na+ -permeable TRPV4 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 4) channels are expressed in cECs and are tonically inhibited by PIP2 ...
August 7, 2018: ELife
Robert Zivadinov, Paul Polak, Ferdinand Schweser, Niels Bergsland, Jesper Hagemeier, Michael G Dwyer, Deepa P Ramasamy, John G Baker, John J Leddy, Barry S Willer
BACKGROUND: Long-term consequences of playing professional football and hockey on brain function and structural neuronal integrity are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To investigate multimodal metabolic and structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) differences in retired professional contact sport athletes compared with noncontact sport athletes. METHODS: Twenty-one male contact sport athletes and 21 age-matched noncontact sport athletes were scanned on a 3 tesla (3T) MRI using a multimodal imaging approach...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Hassam Ali, Shiza Sarfraz, Muhammad Sanan
Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is a congenital birth defect of the heart which actually comprises four individual flaws. It causes poor flow of oxygenated blood to the organs and leads to cyanosis (blue-tinted skin, because of inadequate oxygenation). It can be recognized at birth or in adulthood. But sometimes, cases may go unnoticed, and the patient might present with some rare complications. In this case, the patient presented with an embolic infarct of the brain at the age of 25 with an undiagnosed tetralogy of Fallot...
May 31, 2018: Curēus
Zhiwei Shen, Jianfeng Lei, Xueyuan Li, Zhanjing Wang, Xinjie Bao, Renzhi Wang
Transgenic animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) can mimic pathological and behavioral changes occurring in AD patients, and are usually viewed as the first choice for testing novel therapeutics. Validated biomarkers, particularly non-invasive ones, are urgently needed for AD diagnosis or evaluation of treatment results. However, there are few studies that systematically characterize pathological changes in AD animal models. Here, we investigated the brain of 8-month-old amyloid precursor protein/presenilin 1 (APP/PS1) transgenic and wild-type (WT) mice, employing 7...
August 2, 2018: Brain Research
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