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Brain blood flow

Guido Camps, Kees de Graaf, Paul A M Smeets
Background: The most commonly consumed carbonated beverages are soda and beer. Carbon dioxide increases gastric volume, which can lead to epigastric discomfort. Women are more susceptible to this; however, correlations with neural activity and gastric distention are unknown. Objective: This study sought to determine the subjective, gastric, and neural correlates of epigastric discomfort in men and women. Methods: Thirty-four healthy, normal-weight adults [17 women; mean ± SD body mass index (BMI; kg/m2): 22...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Xuebin Qi, Qu Zhang, Yaoxi He, Lixin Yang, Xiaoming Zhang, Peng Shi, Linping Yang, Zhengheng Liu, Fuheng Zhang, Fengyun Liu, Shiming Liu, Tianyi Wu, Chaoying Cui, Ouzhuluobu, Caijuan Bai, Baimakangzhuo, Jianlin Han, Shengguo Zhao, Chunnian Liang, Bing Su
Yak is one of the largest native mammalian species at the Himalayas, the highest plateau area in the world with an average elevation of more than 4,000 meters above the sea level. Yak is well adapted to high altitude environment with a set of physiological features for a more efficient blood flow for oxygen delivery under hypobaric hypoxia. Yet, the genetic mechanism underlying its adaptation remains elusive. We conducted a cross-tissue, cross-altitude and cross-species study to characterize the transcriptomic landscape of domestic yaks...
December 4, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Lingzhong Meng, Yingwei Wang, Lina Zhang, David L McDonagh
OBJECTIVES: Pressure autoregulation is an organ's intrinsic ability to maintain blood flow despite changes in perfusion pressure. The purpose of this review is to discuss autoregulation's heterogeneity among different organs and variability under different conditions, a very clinically relevant topic. DATA SOURCES: Systematic search of Ovid MEDLINE; nonsystematic search of PubMed, Google Scholar, and reference lists. STUDY SELECTION: Animal or human studies investigating the potency or variation of pressure autoregulation of any organs or the association between autoregulation and outcomes...
December 3, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Noémi Kovács, Krisztián Szigeti, Nikolett Hegedűs, Ildikó Horváth, Dániel S Veres, Michael Bachmann, Ralf Bergmann, Domokos Máthé
Radiotherapy is one of the most frequently applied treatments in oncology. Tissue-absorbed ionizing radiation damages not only targeted cells but the surrounding cells too. The consequent long-term induced oxidative stress, irreversible tissue damage, or second malignancies draw attention to the urgent need of a follow-up medical method by which personalized treatment could be attained and the actually dose-limiting organ could be monitored in the clinical practice. We worked out a special hemisphere irradiation technique for mice which mimics the radiation exposure during radiotherapy...
2018: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
Ilaria Alice Crippa, Carles Subirà, Jean-Louis Vincent, Rafael Fernandez Fernandez, Silvia Cano Hernandez, Federica Zama Cavicchi, Jacques Creteur, Fabio Silvio Taccone
BACKGROUND: Sepsis-associated brain dysfunction (SABD) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The pathophysiology of SABD is multifactorial. One hypothesis is that impaired cerebral autoregulation (CAR) may result in brain hypoperfusion and neuronal damage leading to SABD. METHODS: We studied 100 adult patients with sepsis (July 2012-March 2017) (age = 62 [52-71] years; Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score on admission = 21 [15-26])...
December 4, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Oxana Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Dmitry Postnov, Jürgen Kurths
The peripheral lymphatic system plays a crucial role in the recovery mechanisms after many pathological changes, such as infection, trauma, vascular, or metabolic diseases. The lymphatic clearance of different tissues from waste products, viruses, bacteria, and toxic proteins significantly contributes to the correspondent recovery processes. However, understanding of the cerebral lymphatic functions is a challenging problem. The exploration of mechanisms of lymphatic communication with brain fluids as well as the role of the lymphatic system in brain drainage, clearance, and recovery is still in its infancy...
November 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kicheon Park, Wei Chen, Nora D Volkow, Craig P Allen, Yingtian Pan, Congwu Du
Cocaine is a highly addictive drug with complex pharmacological effects. Most preclinical imaging studies investigating the effects of cocaine in the brain have been performed under anesthesia, which confounds findings. To tackle this problem, we used optical imaging to compare the effects of cocaine in the awake versus the anesthetized state. For this purpose, we customized an air floating mobile cage to fit the multi-wavelength spectral and laser speckle optical imaging system and implanted a multi-layer cranial window over the mouse somatosensory cortex...
December 1, 2018: NeuroImage
Anja Beckmann, Alexander Grißmer, Sandra Wolf, Johanna Recktenwald, Carola Meier
In the intact brain, astrocytes play an important role in a number of physiological functions like spatial buffering of potassium, maintenance of calcium homeostasis, neurotransmitter release, regulation of the cerebral blood flow, and many more. As pathophysiological events upon hypoxic-ischemic brain injury include excitotoxicity by glutamate release as well as oxidative stress, astrocytes and their gap junction-based syncytium are of major relevance for regulating the extent of resulting brain damage. The gap junction protein Connexin 43 (Cx43) contributes mainly to the astrocytic intercellular communication...
December 1, 2018: Neuroscience
Yahui Zhao, Junlin Lu, Qian Zhang, Yan Zhang, Dong Zhang, Rong Wang, Yuanli Zhao
OBJECTIVE: Indirect bypass surgery, which induces spontaneous neoangiogenesis in ischemic brain tissue and improves cerebral blood flow, is an effective treatment for moyamoya disease (MMD). The time course of neoangiogenesis development has not yet been investigated. This study aimed to determine the critical period of neovascularization after indirect bypass in MMD patients. METHODS: Patients with MMD who underwent indirect bypass surgery at Peking University International Hospital between January 2015 and October 2017 were retrospectively reviewed...
December 3, 2018: Clinical Neuroradiology
Hong-Mei Zhang, Wei Chen, Rui-Ning Liu, Yan Zhao
Introduction: Secondary brain injury is a major factor that affects the prognosis and outcome of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. Secondary brain edema is considered to be an initiating factor in secondary brain injury after TBI. A previous study has indicated that Notch signaling activation contributes to neuron death in mice affected by stroke; however, its role in neuronal oxidation stress for brain edema after TBI is not well established. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values can represent the brain edema after TBI...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
João D Mattos, Monique O Campos, Marcos P Rocha, Daniel E Mansur, Helena N M Rocha, Vinicius P Garcia, Gabriel Batista, Thiago S Alvares, Gustavo V Oliveira, Mônica V Souza, Rogério L R Videira, Natalia G Rocha, Niels H Secher, Antonio C L Nóbrega, Igor A Fernandes
KEY POINTS: It is unknown whether excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production drives the isocapnic hyperoxia (IH)-induced decline in human cerebral blood flow (CBF) via reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and leads to disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) or neural-parenchymal damage. We then simultaneously quantified CBF, metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2 ) and transcerebral exchanges of NO-end products, oxidant, antioxidant, and neural-parenchymal damage markers under IH with intravenous saline and vitamin C infusion...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Juan Ramiro Diaz, Ki Jung Kim, Michael W Brands, Jessica A Filosa
Hypertension is an important contributor to cognitive decline but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Although much focus has been placed on the effect of hypertension on vascular function, less is understood of its effects on nonvascular cells. Because astrocytes and parenchymal arterioles (PA) form a functional unit (neurovascular unit), we tested the hypothesis that hypertension-induced changes in PA tone concomitantly increases astrocyte Ca2+ . We used cortical brain slices from 8-week-old mice to measure myogenic responses from pressurized and perfused PA...
December 2, 2018: Glia
Feixue Wang, Yu Cao, Lina Ma, Hui Pei, Wolf Dieter Rausch, Hao Li
Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second most common type of dementia after Alzheimer's disease (AD), characterized by progressive cognitive impairment, memory loss, and thinking or speech problems. VaD is usually caused by cerebrovascular disease, during which, cerebrovascular endothelial cells (CECs) are vulnerable. CEC dysfunction occurs before the onset of VaD and can eventually lead to dysregulation of cerebral blood flow and blood-brain barrier damage, followed by the activation of glia and inflammatory environment in the brain...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Akihiko Wada, Kohei Tsuruta, Ryusuke Irie, Koji Kamagata, Tomoko Maekawa, Shohei Fujita, Saori Koshino, Kanako Kumamaru, Michimasa Suzuki, Atsushi Nakanishi, Masaaki Hori, Shigeki Aoki
PURPOSE: Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are representative disorders of dementia of the elderly and the neuroimaging has contributed to early diagnosis by estimation of alterations of brain volume, blood flow and metabolism. A brain network analysis by MR imaging (MR connectome) is a recently developed technique and can estimate the dysfunction of the brain network in AD and DLB. A graph theory which is a major technique of network analysis is useful for a group study to extract the feature of disorders, but is not necessarily suitable for the disorder differentiation at the individual level...
December 3, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
Helena Estirado-Fugarolas, Maribel Maldonado-Meléndez
Stroke is a cerebrovascular disease caused by a decrease or abrupt obstruction of blood flow to the brain. Nerve cells do not receive oxygen and there is a transient or permanent alteration of the function of a certain region of the brain. It causes high morbidity and mortality resulting in disabilities with a large economic cost to society. The Stroke Code was established at the Mollet Hospital in 2015. A protocol, action guideline and registry were created. The Mollet Hospital does not have a specialist unit so people who suffer thrombolysis and / or who require specific care are transferred to the referral centre...
November 28, 2018: Enfermería Clínica
Ahmed Abdel Khalek Abdel Razek, Lamiaa El-Serougy, Mohamed Abdelsalam, Gada Gaballa, Mona Talaat
PURPOSE: Differentiation primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) from glioblastoma through applying arterial-spin-labeling perfusion (ASL) and diffusion-tensor-imaging (DTI). METHODS: Study was done prospectively on 31 patients having a provisional diagnosis of PCNSL and glioblastoma who underwent conventional MRI, DTI, and ASL of the brain. The tumor blood flow (TBF), mean diffusivity (MD) plus fractional anisotropy (FA) of the mass were measured. Final diagnosis was done by pathological examination...
November 28, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Rui Cao, Chenchu Zhang, Vladimir Mitkin, Miles Lankford, Jun Li, Zhiyi Zuo, Craig Meyer, Christopher Goyne, Stephen Ahlers, James R Stone, Song Hu
Blast traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is a leading contributor to combat-related injuries and death. Although substantial emphasis has been placed on blast-induced neuronal and axonal injuries, co-existing dysfunctions in the cerebral vasculature, particularly the microvasculature, remain poorly understood. Here, we studied blast-induced cerebrovascular dysfunctions in a rat model of bTBI (blast overpressure: 187.8±18.3 kPa). Using photoacoustic microscopy, we quantified changes in cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism-including blood perfusion, oxygenation, flow, oxygen extraction fraction, and the metabolic rate of oxygen-4 hours post-injury...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Pol Picón-Pagès, Joan Garcia-Buendia, Francisco J Muñoz
Nitric oxide (NO) works as a retrograde neurotransmitter in synapses, allows the brain blood flow and also has important roles in intracellular signaling in neurons from the regulation of the neuronal metabolic status to the dendritic spine growth. Moreover NO is able to perform post-translational modifications in proteins by the S-nitrosylation of the thiol amino acids, which is a physiological mechanism to regulate protein function. On the other hand, during aging and pathological processes the behavior of NO can turn harmful when reacts with superoxide anion to form peroxynitrite...
November 27, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
Ke Zhang, Volker J Sturm, Lukas R Buschle, Artur Hahn, Seong Dae Yun, N Jon Shah, Martin Bendszus, Sabine Heiland, Heinz-Peter Schlemmer, Christian H Ziener, Felix T Kurz
A 2D gradient-echo EPI is commonly employed for arterial spin labeling (ASL) readout to achieve fast whole brain coverage measurements. However, such a readout suffers from susceptibility artifacts induced by magnetic field inhomogeneities. To reduce these susceptibility effects, single-shot spin-echo EPI was proposed to be used for acquisitions in continuous ASL (CASL). To minimize functional and physiological variations, a gradient-echo (GE)/spin-echo (SE) dual-echo EPI readout of the CASL sequence is needed for a comparison between GE- and SE-based determination of cerebral blood flow (CBF)...
November 27, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
V O Belash, D E Mokhov, E S Tregubova
BACKGROUND: The pathological changes in the cervical spine frequently result in the disturbances of the blood supply in the vertebral-basiliar system. The degenerative-dystrophic processes in the cervical spine occupy the leading place in the pathogenesis of the vertebral artery syndrome (VAS) causing disorders of the microcirculation and innervation, as well as the restriction of mobility and the development of somatic dysfunctions. It can be assumed that the manual methods applied to manage this condition can be effective in the removal the functional abnormalities in the blood flow...
2018: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
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