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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104076/comparison-of-propensity-score-methods-and-covariate-adjustment-evaluation-in-4-cardiovascular-studies
#1
REVIEW
Markus C Elze, John Gregson, Usman Baber, Elizabeth Williamson, Samantha Sartori, Roxana Mehran, Melissa Nichols, Gregg W Stone, Stuart J Pocock
Propensity scores (PS) are an increasingly popular method to adjust for confounding in observational studies. Propensity score methods have theoretical advantages over conventional covariate adjustment, but their relative performance in real-word scenarios is poorly characterized. We used datasets from 4 large-scale cardiovascular observational studies (PROMETHEUS, ADAPT-DES [the Assessment of Dual AntiPlatelet Therapy with Drug-Eluting Stents], THIN [The Health Improvement Network], and CHARM [Candesartan in Heart Failure-Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and Morbidity]) to compare the performance of conventional covariate adjustment with 4 common PS methods: matching, stratification, inverse probability weighting, and use of PS as a covariate...
January 24, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088883/candesartan-cilexetil-loaded-nanodelivery-systems-for-improved-oral-bioavailability
#2
Narendar Dudhipala, Kishan Veerabrahma
Candesartan cilexetil (CC), an antihypertensive drug, has low oral bioavailability due to poor solubility and hepatic first-pass metabolism. These are major limitations in oral delivery of CC. Several approaches are known to reduce the problems of solubility and improve the bioavailability of CC. Among various approaches, nanotechnology-based delivery of CC has potential to overcome the challenges associated with the oral administration. This review focuses on various nano-based delivery systems available and tried for improving the aqueous solubility, dissolution and consequently bioavailability of CC upon oral administration...
February 2017: Therapeutic Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079517/pharmacokinetic-and-bioequivalence-study-comparing-a-candesartan-cilexetil-rosuvastatin-calcium-fixed-dose-combination-with-the-concomitant-administration-of-candesartan-cilexetil-and-rosuvastatin-calcium-in-healthy-korean-subjects%C3%A2
#3
Dan-Bee Park, Kyungho Jang, Jae-Won Lee, Cheol-Won Park, Back-Hwan Lee, Min-Gul Kim, Ji-Young Jeon
CONTEXT: A fixed-dose combination (FDC) of candesartan and rosuvastatin was recently developed for the treatment of cardiovascular disease and expected to enhance patient compliance. OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to compare the single-dose pharmacokinetic properties and tolerability of DP-R208 (candesartan and rosuvastatin FDC) to those of each component administered alone in healthy Korean male volunteers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 40 healthy Korean volunteers were enrolled in this randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-treatment, two-way crossover study...
January 12, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045910/comparative-efficacy-and-safety-of-antihypertensive-agents-for-adult-diabetic-patients-with-microalbuminuric-kidney-disease-a-network-meta-analysis
#4
Rongzhong Huang, Yuxing Feng, Ying Wang, Xiaoxia Qin, Narayan Dhruvaraj Melgiri, Yang Sun, Xingsheng Li
BACKGROUND: Antihypertensive treatment mitigates the progression of chronic kidney disease. Here, we comparatively assessed the effects of antihypertensive agents in normotensive and hypertensive diabetic patients with microalbuminuric kidney disease. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing oral antihypertensive agents in adult diabetic patients with microalbuminuria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034361/formulation-and-optimization-of-candesartan-cilexetil-nano-lipid-carrier-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation
#5
Anjan Paudel, EmptyYN Y Ameeduzzafar, Syed Sarim Imam, Abdul Hafeez, Mohd Fazil, Shahroz Khan, Farhan Jalees Ahmad, Asgar Ali
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to formulate and optimize Candesartan Cilexetil (CC) loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for enhanced oral bioavailability. METHOD: Glycerol monostearate (GMS), Oleic acid, Tween 80 and Span 40 were selected as a solid lipid, liquid lipid, surfactant and co- surfactant, respectively. The CC-NLCs were prepared by hot emulsion probe sonication technique and optimized using experimental design approach. The formulated CC-NLCs were evaluated for various physicochemical parameters and further optimized formulation (CC-NLC-Opt) was assessed for in-vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic activity...
December 30, 2016: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025965/pharmacokinetics-and-safety-of-nifedipine-gits-candesartan-fixed-dose-combination-in-subjects-with-hepatic-impairment%C3%A2
#6
Yuwang Liu, Michael-Friedrich Boettcher, Anja Schmidt, Sigrun Unger, Atef Halabi, Erich Brendel, Hartmut Blode
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles and safety of nifedipine and candesartan after a single oral dose of nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system (GITS) 30 mg/candesartan cilexetil 8 mg (N30/C8 mg) fixed-dose combination (FDC) in adults with mild to moderate hepatic impairment. METHODS: A phase I, single-center, non-randomized, non-controlled, non-blinded, observational study (N = 32). PK profiles for nifedipine and candesartan were assessed in patients with mild (Child-Pugh A; group 1) or moderate (Child-Pugh B; group 2) hepatic impairment and compared with age- and gender-matched healthy controls (groups 3 and 4) following a single dose of N30/C8 FDC...
December 27, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002877/the-drugs-that-mostly-frequently-induce-acute-kidney-injury-a-case%C3%A2-%C3%A2-non-case-study-of-a-pharmacovigilance-database
#7
Marion Pierson-Marchandise, Valérie Gras, Julien Moragny, Joelle Micallef, Louise Gaboriau, Sylvie Picard, Gabriel Choukroun, Kamel Masmoudi, Sophie Liabeuf
AIMS: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with a high hospitalization rate, accelerated long-term decline in kidney function and a high mortality rate. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) constitute one of the most important modifiable factors in the context of AKI. Most studies of drug-induced AKI have focused on a sole drug class. The objective of the present study was to establish a comprehensive overview of drug-induced AKI on the basis of spontaneously reported ADRs in the French national pharmacovigilance database (FPVD)...
December 21, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943353/two-selective-hptlc-methods-for-determination-of-some-angiotensin-ii-receptor-antagonists-in-tablets-and-biological-fluids
#8
Gamal A Salah, Hanaa M Abd El-Wadood, Mohamed Khairy, Ahmed A Khorshed
Two simple, selective, precise and highly sensitive high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) methods have been developed and validated for analysis of five angiotensin II receptor antagonists namely losartan, irbesartan valsartan, candesartan and olmesartan which widely used in clinical practice. High performance TLC of the drugs was performed on pre-coated silica gel HPTLC plates 60 F254 by development using mobile phase composed of chloroform: acetone: glacial acetic acid (7.8: 1.5: 0.7 v/v/v) which suitable for all of the studied drugs...
December 10, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924184/revealed-opportunism-how-physicians-game-prior-authorization-protocols-until-they-are-rescinded
#9
Natan R Kahan, Dan-Andrei Waitman, David P Chinitz
BACKGROUND: Prior authorization (PA) is a management technique that has been implemented to manage the utilization of expensive drugs and to improve the precision of drug prescribing. PA requirements may incentivize physicians to document adverse effects, sometimes falsely, to meet the eligibility requirements. OBJECTIVES: To identify documentation patterns that may facilitate the quantitative analysis of physician gaming and underreporting behaviors associated with the prescribing of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in a primary care setting, and to evaluate the effect of a PA requirement on the documentation of adverse events as a way to receive approval for more expensive drugs...
September 2016: American Health & Drug Benefits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908837/angiotensin-type-1a-receptor-regulates-%C3%AE-arrestin-binding-of-the-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptor-via-heterodimerization
#10
András D Tóth, Pál Gyombolai, Bence Szalai, Péter Várnai, Gábor Turu, László Hunyady
Heterodimerization between angiotensin type 1A receptor (AT1R) and β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) has been shown to modulate G protein-mediated effects of these receptors. Activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) leads to β-arrestin binding, desensitization, internalization and G protein-independent signaling of GPCRs. Our aim was to study the effect of heterodimerization on β-arrestin coupling. We found that β-arrestin binding of β2AR is affected by activation of AT1Rs. Costimulation with angiotensin II and isoproterenol markedly enhanced the interaction between β2AR and β-arrestins, by prolonging the lifespan of β2AR-induced β-arrestin2 clusters at the plasma membrane...
November 28, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889505/candesartan-ameliorates-arsenic-induced-hypertensive-vascular-remodeling-by-regularizing-angiotensin-ii-and-tgf-beta-signaling-in-rats
#11
Maibam Wanta Khuman, Sankaran Kutty Harikumar, Abdul Sadam, Manickam Kesavan, Vattaparambil Sukumaran Susanth, Subhashree Parida, Karam Pal Singh, Souvendra Nath Sarkar
Arsenic exposure can cause several cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, atherosclerosis and microvascular disease. Earlier, we reported that arsenic-mediated enhancement of angiotensin II (AngII) signaling can impair vascular physiology. Here, we investigated whether the AT1 receptor (AT1R) blocker candesartan can ameliorate the arsenic-induced hypertensive vascular remodeling in rats and whether the amelioration could relate to attenuation in vascular AngII and TGF-β signaling. Rats were exposed to sodium arsenite (50ppm) through drinking water for 90 consecutive days...
December 30, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856342/angiotensin-ii-at1-receptors-mediate-neuronal-sensitization-and-sustained-blood-pressure-response-induced-by-a-single-injection-of-amphetamine
#12
N A Marchese, M C Paz, X Caeiro, F M Dadam, G Baiardi, M F Perez, C Bregonzio
A single exposure to amphetamine induces neurochemical sensitization in striatal areas. The neuropeptide angiotensin II, through AT1 receptors (AT1-R) activation, is involved in these responses. However, amphetamine-induced alterations can be extended to extra-striatal areas involved in blood pressure control and their physiological outcomes. Our aim for the present study was to analyze the possible role for AT1-R in these events using a two-injection protocol and to further characterize the proposed AT1-R antagonism protocol...
January 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846743/support-for-involvement-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system-in-dysplastic-barrett-s-esophagus
#13
Svein Olav Bratlie, Anna Casselbrant, Anders Edebo, Lars Fändriks
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Patients with dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus (BE) have a considerable risk of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). The mucosal expression of the pro-inflammatory angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R) is elevated in these patients, suggesting a role in carcinogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether interference with the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) would influence downstream markers of carcinogenesis. METHODS: Endoscopic mucosal biopsies from BE patients with low-grade dysplasia (LGD) were sampled before and after a three-week period of RAS-interfering treatment...
March 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824680/angiotensin-ii-receptor-blockers-following-intravenous-nicardipine-administration-to-lower-blood-pressure-in-patients-with-hypertensive-intracerebral-hemorrhage-a-prospective-randomized-study
#14
Joji Inamasu, Shunsuke Nakae, Kazuhide Adachi, Yuichi Hirose
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (HICH), intravenous nicardipine is primarily used to lower blood pressure (BP). However, there are few studies investigating the role of oral antihypertensives administered after intravenous nicardipine to prevent BP from rising. Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) may be beneficial in HICH patients not only as antihypertensives but also by lowering plasma catecholamine levels. A prospective randomized study was conducted between January 2015 and March 2016 to comparatively evaluate the efficacy of two ARBs (azilsartan vs...
November 7, 2016: Blood Pressure Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787557/potential-benefit-of-low-dose-candesartan-in-trastuzumab-induced-cardiotoxic-effects
#15
Seongseok Yun, Rostam Khoubyari, Ivo Abraham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 27, 2016: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787551/potential-benefit-of-low-dose-candesartan-in-trastuzumab-induced-cardiotoxic-effect-reply
#16
Jan H M Schellens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 27, 2016: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758802/in-individuals-at-intermediate-risk-for-cardiovascular-disease-treatment-with-rosuvastatin-but-not-candesartan-plus-hydrochlorothiazide-lowers-cardiovascular-disease-event-rates
#17
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754082/os-19-05-combination-of-arb-and-nifedipine-cr-reduces-microalbuminuria-in-association-with-reduction-of-serum-uric-acid-sub-analysis-of-nice-combi-study
#18
Naoki Nakagawa, Keisuke Maruyama, Motoki Matsuki, Nobuyuki Sato, Kenjiro Kikuchi, Naoyuki Hasebe
OBJECTIVE: Uric acid is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We investigated the relationship between the change of urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and the changes of serum uric acid (SUA) during antihypertensive treatment in hypertensive patients with microalbuminuria as a subanalysis of the results of the NICE Combi (Nifedipine and Candesartan Combination) Study. DESIGN AND METHOD: A total of 86 subjects with essential hypertension with microalbuminuria (UAE < 300 mg•g-1 creatinine) were randomly assigned in a double-blind manner to a combination therapy group (standard-dose candesartan at 8 mg/day plus controlled-release (CR) nifedipine 20 mg/day) (n = 42) or an up-titrated monotherapy group (candesartan 12 mg/day) (n = 44) for 8 weeks of continuous treatment after initially receiving standard-dose candesartan (8 mg/day) monotherapy for 8 weeks (initial treatment)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753835/sy-05-1-fibro-inflammatory-changes-during-progression-of-systolic-diastolic-dysfunction-in-the-hypertensive-heart
#19
Hisashi Kai
There is increasing evidence that fibro-inflammatory changes play a role in variety of cardiovascular diseases. We created new rat models to investigate the role of fibro-inflammatory changes in the pathophysiology of systolic and diastolic dysfunction in hypertensive heart. (1) a model of a blood pressure (BP) surge was created by performing abdominal aortic constriction in Wistar-Kyoto rats. Aortic constriction rapidly increased BP and the high BP levels sustained. A BP surge transiently induced MCP-1 and TGF-beta induction, angiotensin converting enzyme activation, and macrophage infiltration, followed by left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and perivascular reactive fibrosis...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753282/pharmacokinetic-and-bioequivalence-studies-of-a-newly-developed-branded-generic-of-candesartan-cilexetil-tablets-in-healthy-volunteers
#20
Rajesh Patel, Jonathan L Palmer, Shashidhar Joshi, Alejandro Di Ció Gimena, Florencia Esquivel
Two bioavailability/bioequivalence studies were carried out to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of candesartan cilexetil 16-mg tablet formulations. A pilot study was used to optimize the formulation and manufacturing process prior to conducting the definitive study. The pilot study was a single-dose, randomized, 2-period crossover, and the definitive study was a single-dose, randomized, 3-period, 6-sequence crossover study in healthy adults. In the pilot study the test formulation was 24% and 18% greater for Cmax and AUC, respectively, compared with the innovator product...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
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