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Interictal epileptiform discharges

Tetsu Hirosawa, Mitsuru Kikuchi, Mina Fukai, Shoryoku Hino, Tatsuru Kitamura, Kyung-Min An, Paul Sowman, Tetsuya Takahashi, Yuko Yoshimura, Yoshiaki Miyagishi, Yoshio Minabe
Electroencephalograms of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) show higher rates of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs), which are known to have an inverse association with cognitive function in typically developed (TD) children. Nevertheless, that phenomenon has not been investigated adequately in children with ASD. From university and affiliated hospitals, 163 TD children (84 male, 79 female, aged 32-89 months) and 107 children (85 male, 22 female, aged 36-98 months) with ASD without clinical seizure were recruited...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Chang Cai, Jiajing Xu, Jayabal Velmurugan, Robert Knowlton, Kensuke Sekihara, Srikantan S Nagarajan, Heidi Kirsch
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) data is subject to many sources of environmental noise, and interference rejection is a necessary step in the processing of MEG data. Large amplitude interference caused by sources near the brain have been both common in clinical settings and difficult to reject. Artifacts from vagal nerve stimulators (VNS) are a common and difficult example. In this study, we describe a novel MEG interference rejection algorithm called dual signal subspace projection (DSSP) and evaluate its performance in clinical MEG data from people with epilepsy and implanted VNS...
November 28, 2018: NeuroImage
Wei-Chih Chang, Jan Kudlacek, Jaroslav Hlinka, Jan Chvojka, Michal Hadrava, Vojtech Kumpost, Andrew D Powell, Radek Janca, Matias I Maturana, Philippa J Karoly, Dean R Freestone, Mark J Cook, Milan Palus, Jakub Otahal, John G R Jefferys, Premysl Jiruska
The mechanism of seizure emergence and the role of brief interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) in seizure generation are two of the most important unresolved issues in modern epilepsy research. We found that the transition to seizure is not a sudden phenomenon, but is instead a slow process that is characterized by the progressive loss of neuronal network resilience. From a dynamical perspective, the slow transition is governed by the principles of critical slowing, a robust natural phenomenon that is observable in systems characterized by transitions between dynamical regimes...
December 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Maxime Lévesque, David Ragsdale, Massimo Avoli
The synchronized activity of neuronal networks under physiological conditions is mirrored by specific oscillatory patterns of the EEG that are associated with different behavioral states and cognitive functions. Excessive synchronization can however lead to focal epileptiform activity characterized by interictal and ictal discharges in epileptic patients and animal models. This review focusses on studies that have addressed epileptiform synchronization in temporal lobe regions by employing in vitro and in vivo recording techniques...
November 27, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
John Thomas, Luca Comoretto, Jing Jin, Justin Dauwels, Sydney S Cash, M Brandon Westover
Diagnosis of epilepsy based on visual inspection of electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities is an inefficient, time-consuming, and expert-centered process. Moreover, the diagnosis based on ictal epileptiform events is challenging as the ictal patterns are infrequent. Consequently, the development of an automated, fast, and reliable epileptic EEG diagnostic system is essential. The interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) are recurring patterns that are highly suggestive of epilepsy. In this paper, we propose an epileptic EEG classification system based on IED detection...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Ting Chen, Yu Deng, Longze Sha, Yan Shen, Qi Xu
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with hippocampal sclerosis is the most common type of drug-resistant epilepsy. Non-human primates are attractive models for studying the pathogenic mechanisms of TLE, with the goal of developing new drugs and interventions. In this study, we developed and tested a Cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) model of TLE. A total of 5 Cynomolgus monkeys received3-4 weekly unilateral hippocampal injections of kainic acid (KA) to induce repetitive acute seizures. Animals were monitored via video and electroencephalography (EEG) to assess KA-induced acute seizures and subsequent spontaneous recurrent epileptiform discharges (SREDs)...
November 10, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Xi Liu, Naoum P Issa, Sandra Rose, Shasha Wu, Taixin Sun, Leo V Towle, Peter C Warnke, James X Tao
PURPOSE: To determine the usefulness of the first-hour sleep EEG recording in identifying interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) during long-term video-EEG monitoring. METHOD: We retrospectively reviewed 255 consecutive patients who underwent continuous long-term video-EEG monitoring in the adult epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) at the University of Chicago. The complete video-EEG recording was reviewed, and the occurrence of IEDs was determined for each patient...
October 26, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Jong Hwa Shin, Eun Yeon Joo, Dae-Won Seo, Young-Min Shon, Seung Bong Hong, Seung-Chyul Hong
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the long-term postoperative outcomes and predictive factors associated with poor surgical outcomes in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled patients with MTLE who underwent resective surgery at single university-affiliated hospital. Surgical outcomes were determined using a modified Engel classification at the 2nd and 5th years after surgery and the last time of follow-up. RESULTS: The mean duration of follow-up after surgery was 7...
2018: PloS One
Li-Hao Li, Cong-Cong Ma, Hai-Feng Zhang, Ya-Jun Lian
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical and electrographic characteristics of seizures in LGI1-antibody encephalitis. METHODS: The methods utilized in this study were prospective analysis of the clinical manifestations, types of seizures, electroencephalogram (EEG), adjuvant examination, treatment and prognosis of 19 cases of LGI1-antibody encephalitis diagnosed from January 2017 to February 2018 in First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, and reviewed related literatures...
November 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Edward Faught, Ioannis Karakis, Daniel L Drane
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our purpose is to review evidence relating to the concept that interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) impair brain performance. RECENT FINDINGS: Sophisticated measures of motor and cognitive performance have clarified older observations, confirming that in both animals and humans, IEDs affect aspects of performance, IED morphology, frequency, anatomical distribution, and duration matter. However, we now know that it is difficult to draw a line between IEDs and seizures, not only by electrical criteria but even by metabolic and molecular measures...
October 8, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Joseph T Daley, Jennifer L DeWolfe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is a known interrelationship between sleep and epilepsy. This review highlights the recent findings regarding interactions between sleep and circadian rhythms and the manifestations of epilepsy and surgical treatments for refractory epilepsy. RECENT FINDINGS: CLOCK gene expression may be reduced within the epileptogenic focus in patients with refractory epilepsy. Interictal epileptiform discharges during NREM and especially REM sleep may lateralize to the epileptogenic hemisphere...
September 27, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Wenting Xie, Erin E Ross, Mark A Kramer, Uri T Eden, Catherine J Chu
Objective: Benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) is a common, self-limited epilepsy syndrome affecting school-age children. Classic interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) confirm diagnosis, and BECTS is presumed to be pharmacoresponsive. As seizure risk decreases in time with this disease, we hypothesize that the impact of IEDs and anticonvulsive drug (ACD) treatment on the risk of subsequent seizure will differ based on disease duration. Methods: We calculate subsequent seizure risk following diagnosis in a large retrospective cohort of children with BECTS (n = 130), evaluating the impact of IEDs and ACD treatment in the first, second, third, and fourth years of disease...
September 2018: Epilepsia open
Susanne Koch, Leopold Rupp, Christine Prager, Klaus D Wernecke, Sylvia Kramer, Astrid Fahlenkamp, Claudia D Spies
BACKGROUND: Epileptiform discharges frequently occur in children during induction of anaesthesia. However, studies analysing the impact of epileptiform discharges on postoperative emergence delirium in children are still scarce. The aim of this study is to correlate the incidence of epileptiform activity during anaesthesia induction with the occurrence of emergence delirium during stay in the recovery room. OBJECTIVES: Prospective, observational cohort study in children 0...
December 2018: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Yanfeng Yang, Haixiang Wang, Wenjing Zhou, Tianyi Qian, Wei Sun, Guoguang Zhao
BACKGROUND: Seizures arising from the precuneus are rare, and few studies have aimed at characterizing the clinical presentation of such seizures within the anatomic context of the frontoparietal circuits. We aimed to characterize the electrophysiological properties and clinical features of seizures arising from the precuneus based on data from stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG). METHODS: The present retrospective study included 10 patients with medically intractable epilepsy, all of whom were diagnosed with precuneal epilepsy via stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) at Yuquan Hospital and Xuan Wu Hospital between 2014 and 2016...
August 13, 2018: BMC Neurology
Frank J van Schalkwijk, Monica Ricci, Armin Nikpour, Laurie A Miller
Disturbed sleep can negatively affect overnight memory retention as well as new learning the subsequent day. In healthy participants, positive associations between memory performance and sleep characteristics (e.g., time spent in slow-wave sleep [SWS]) have been detected. In a previous study, we found that SWS was much reduced in patients with focal seizures, but when correlations between memory complaints and various sleep characteristics were considered, the only significant relationship was with the time to onset of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (i...
August 7, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Jun T Park, Guadalupe Fernandez Baca Vaca, Rachel Tangen, Jonathan Miller
Resection of the hippocampus ipsilateral to the verbal memory-dominant hemisphere frequently results in severe memory deficits. In adults with epilepsy, multiple hippocampal transections (MHTs) have resulted in excellent seizure outcome with preservation of verbal memory. The authors report the first detailed case of a child undergoing MHTs for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. A 13-year-old right-handed boy had intractable seizures characterized by epigastric discomfort evolving to unresponsiveness and chewing automatisms, lasting 1 minute and occurring 2-3 times weekly, sometimes ending in a generalized tonic-clonic seizure...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Kazumasa Shiozaki, Satoshi Kajihara
AIM: As the population ages, epilepsy among elderly people is increasing. Epileptic seizures in the elderly are mostly complex partial seizures without convulsions, so more caution is needed in the diagnosis of epilepsy. If epileptic seizures in the context of memory impairment are overlooked, epilepsy may be misdiagnosed as dementia. However, in older patients with epilepsy, there is a possibility that cognitive function may be impaired in the interictal phase. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of anti-epileptic drug (AED) treatment for patients with cognitive impairment and interictal epileptiform discharge (IED) on electroencephalography...
August 6, 2018: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
Natasa Nenadic-Baranasic, Romana Gjergja-Juraski, Ivan Lehman, Mirjana Turkalj, Boro Nogalo, Nina Barisic
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to assess sleep architecture and respiration during sleep in children with intractable epileptic encephalopathies using overnight video-polysomnography (V-PSG). MATERIAL AND METHODS Between 2015 to 2017 overnight V-PSG recordings were made for 31 children (22 boys and 9 girls) with intractable epileptic encephalopathy with a mean age of 6.78±3.61 years and a mean body mass index (BMI) of 15.83±3.16 kg/m3. Thirty-one healthy children were matched for sex, age, and BMI as the control group...
August 4, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Isabella Tristano, Francesco Nicita, Giacomo Garone, Fabiana Ursitti, Consuelo Nardone, Valerio Rocchi, Cristiana Alessia Guido, Alberto Spalice
INTRODUCTION: Rolandic epilepsy, also known as benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS), is one of the most common epileptic syndromes in previously healthy children. Despite what was known about the benignity of this syndrome, there is always more evidence about the involvement of the cognitive functions with different deficits in several domains to be investigated. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of our study was to describe prognostic electroencephalogram (EEG) pattern of an adverse cognitive development to recognize patients at higher risk of lasting cognitive deficits that could need antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) or an improved neurocognitive therapy...
September 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Claude Steriade, Ahsan N V Moosa, Stephen Hantus, Richard A Prayson, Andreas Alexopoulos, Alexander Rae-Grant
PURPOSE: We sought to characterize the electroclinical features of seizures associated with autoimmune encephalitis and their relevance to outcome. METHODS: 19 patients with seizures and autoimmune encephalitis were identified from a database of 100 patients (2008-2017) with autoimmune neurological disorders. Clinical and electroclinical characteristics were collected. Persistent seizures at last follow-up were then correlated with electroclinical features. RESULTS: Status epilepticus (53%) and early intractability to AEDs (median time to second AED 9...
August 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
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