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Interictal epileptiform discharges

Edward Faught, Ioannis Karakis, Daniel L Drane
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our purpose is to review evidence relating to the concept that interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) impair brain performance. RECENT FINDINGS: Sophisticated measures of motor and cognitive performance have clarified older observations, confirming that in both animals and humans, IEDs affect aspects of performance, IED morphology, frequency, anatomical distribution, and duration matter. However, we now know that it is difficult to draw a line between IEDs and seizures, not only by electrical criteria but even by metabolic and molecular measures...
October 8, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Joseph T Daley, Jennifer L DeWolfe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is a known interrelationship between sleep and epilepsy. This review highlights the recent findings regarding interactions between sleep and circadian rhythms and the manifestations of epilepsy and surgical treatments for refractory epilepsy. RECENT FINDINGS: CLOCK gene expression may be reduced within the epileptogenic focus in patients with refractory epilepsy. Interictal epileptiform discharges during NREM and especially REM sleep may lateralize to the epileptogenic hemisphere...
September 27, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Wenting Xie, Erin E Ross, Mark A Kramer, Uri T Eden, Catherine J Chu
Objective: Benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) is a common, self-limited epilepsy syndrome affecting school-age children. Classic interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) confirm diagnosis, and BECTS is presumed to be pharmacoresponsive. As seizure risk decreases in time with this disease, we hypothesize that the impact of IEDs and anticonvulsive drug (ACD) treatment on the risk of subsequent seizure will differ based on disease duration. Methods: We calculate subsequent seizure risk following diagnosis in a large retrospective cohort of children with BECTS (n = 130), evaluating the impact of IEDs and ACD treatment in the first, second, third, and fourth years of disease...
September 2018: Epilepsia open
Susanne Koch, Leopold Rupp, Christine Prager, Klaus D Wernecke, Sylvia Kramer, Astrid Fahlenkamp, Claudia D Spies
BACKGROUND: Epileptiform discharges frequently occur in children during induction of anaesthesia. However, studies analysing the impact of epileptiform discharges on postoperative emergence delirium in children are still scarce. The aim of this study is to correlate the incidence of epileptiform activity during anaesthesia induction with the occurrence of emergence delirium during stay in the recovery room. OBJECTIVES: Prospective, observational cohort study in children 0...
August 14, 2018: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Yanfeng Yang, Haixiang Wang, Wenjing Zhou, Tianyi Qian, Wei Sun, Guoguang Zhao
BACKGROUND: Seizures arising from the precuneus are rare, and few studies have aimed at characterizing the clinical presentation of such seizures within the anatomic context of the frontoparietal circuits. We aimed to characterize the electrophysiological properties and clinical features of seizures arising from the precuneus based on data from stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG). METHODS: The present retrospective study included 10 patients with medically intractable epilepsy, all of whom were diagnosed with precuneal epilepsy via stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) at Yuquan Hospital and Xuan Wu Hospital between 2014 and 2016...
August 13, 2018: BMC Neurology
Frank J van Schalkwijk, Monica Ricci, Armin Nikpour, Laurie A Miller
Disturbed sleep can negatively affect overnight memory retention as well as new learning the subsequent day. In healthy participants, positive associations between memory performance and sleep characteristics (e.g., time spent in slow-wave sleep [SWS]) have been detected. In a previous study, we found that SWS was much reduced in patients with focal seizures, but when correlations between memory complaints and various sleep characteristics were considered, the only significant relationship was with the time to onset of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (i...
August 7, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Jun T Park, Guadalupe Fernandez Baca Vaca, Rachel Tangen, Jonathan Miller
Resection of the hippocampus ipsilateral to the verbal memory-dominant hemisphere frequently results in severe memory deficits. In adults with epilepsy, multiple hippocampal transections (MHTs) have resulted in excellent seizure outcome with preservation of verbal memory. The authors report the first detailed case of a child undergoing MHTs for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. A 13-year-old right-handed boy had intractable seizures characterized by epigastric discomfort evolving to unresponsiveness and chewing automatisms, lasting 1 minute and occurring 2-3 times weekly, sometimes ending in a generalized tonic-clonic seizure...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Kazumasa Shiozaki, Satoshi Kajihara
AIM: As the population ages, epilepsy among elderly people is increasing. Epileptic seizures in the elderly are mostly complex partial seizures without convulsions, so more caution is needed in the diagnosis of epilepsy. If epileptic seizures in the context of memory impairment are overlooked, epilepsy may be misdiagnosed as dementia. However, in older patients with epilepsy, there is a possibility that cognitive function may be impaired in the interictal phase. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of anti-epileptic drug (AED) treatment for patients with cognitive impairment and interictal epileptiform discharge (IED) on electroencephalography...
August 6, 2018: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
Natasa Nenadic-Baranasic, Romana Gjergja-Juraski, Ivan Lehman, Mirjana Turkalj, Boro Nogalo, Nina Barisic
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to assess sleep architecture and respiration during sleep in children with intractable epileptic encephalopathies using overnight video-polysomnography (V-PSG). MATERIAL AND METHODS Between 2015 to 2017 overnight V-PSG recordings were made for 31 children (22 boys and 9 girls) with intractable epileptic encephalopathy with a mean age of 6.78±3.61 years and a mean body mass index (BMI) of 15.83±3.16 kg/m3. Thirty-one healthy children were matched for sex, age, and BMI as the control group...
August 4, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Isabella Tristano, Francesco Nicita, Giacomo Garone, Fabiana Ursitti, Consuelo Nardone, Valerio Rocchi, Cristiana Alessia Guido, Alberto Spalice
INTRODUCTION: Rolandic epilepsy, also known as benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS), is one of the most common epileptic syndromes in previously healthy children. Despite what was known about the benignity of this syndrome, there is always more evidence about the involvement of the cognitive functions with different deficits in several domains to be investigated. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of our study was to describe prognostic electroencephalogram (EEG) pattern of an adverse cognitive development to recognize patients at higher risk of lasting cognitive deficits that could need antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) or an improved neurocognitive therapy...
September 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Claude Steriade, Ahsan N V Moosa, Stephen Hantus, Richard A Prayson, Andreas Alexopoulos, Alexander Rae-Grant
PURPOSE: We sought to characterize the electroclinical features of seizures associated with autoimmune encephalitis and their relevance to outcome. METHODS: 19 patients with seizures and autoimmune encephalitis were identified from a database of 100 patients (2008-2017) with autoimmune neurological disorders. Clinical and electroclinical characteristics were collected. Persistent seizures at last follow-up were then correlated with electroclinical features. RESULTS: Status epilepticus (53%) and early intractability to AEDs (median time to second AED 9...
August 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Jonathan J Halford, M Brandon Westover, Suzette M LaRoche, Micheal P Macken, Ekrem Kutluay, Jonathan C Edwards, Leonardo Bonilha, Giridhar P Kalamangalam, Kan Ding, Jennifer L Hopp, Amir Arain, Rachael A Dawson, Gabriel U Martz, Bethany J Wolf, Chad G Waters, Brian C Dean
OBJECTIVE: The goal of the study was to measure the performance of academic and private practice (PP) neurologists in detecting interictal epileptiform discharges in routine scalp EEG recordings. METHODS: Thirty-five EEG scorers (EEGers) participated (19 academic and 16 PP) and marked the location of ETs in 200 30-second EEG segments using a web-based EEG annotation system. All participants provided board certification status, years of Epilepsy Fellowship Training (EFT), and years in practice...
September 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Christian Vollmar, Iris Stredl, Matthias Heinig, Soheyl Noachtar, Jan Rémi
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the necessity of recording ictal electroencephalography (EEG) in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) considered for resective surgery who have unilateral temporal interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) and concordant ipsitemporal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pathology. To calculate the necessary number of recorded EEG seizure patterns (ESPs) to achieve adequate lateralization probability. METHODS: In a retrospective analysis, the localization and lateralization of interictal and ictal EEG of 304 patients with lesional TLE were analyzed...
August 2018: Epilepsia
Satoru Ikemoto, Shin-Ichiro Hamano, Susumu Yokota, Reiko Koichihara, Yuko Hirata, Ryuki Matsuura
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the characteristics of scalp-recorded high frequency oscillations, especially ripples, can predict the "atypical forms" of benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (ABECTS), in BECTS. METHODS: Seven patients with ABECTS and eighteen patients with BECTS underwent electroencephalography (EEG) in the secondary bilateral synchrony (SBS) and non-SBS periods for ABECTS patients. SBS period is that when more than 50% of the interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) are bilaterally synchronized...
September 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Chaturbhuj Rathore, Pandurang R Wattamwar, Neeraj Baheti, Malcolm Jeyaraj, Gopal K Dash, Sankara P Sarma, Kurupath Radhakrishnan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic value of postoperative EEGs to estimate post anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) seizure outcome. METHODS: We studied postoperative EEGs in 325 consecutive patients who had minimum five years of post-ATL followup. Interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) present only during sleep were classified as sleep IEDs. We defined favorable final-year outcome as no seizures during the final one year and favorable absolute-postoperative outcome as no seizures during the entire postoperative period...
September 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Johannes Koren, Johannes Herta, Simone Draschtak, Georg Pötzl, Franz Fürbass, Manfred Hartmann, Tilmann Kluge, Andreas Gruber, Christoph Baumgartner
BACKGROUND: Critical care continuous electroencephalography (CCEEG) represents the gold standard for detection of nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) in neurological critical care patients. It is unclear which findings on short-term routine EEG and which clinical parameters predict NCSE during subsequent CCEEG reliably. The aim of the present study was to assess the prognostic significance of changes within the first 30 min of EEG as well as of clinical parameters for the occurrence of NCSE during subsequent CCEEG...
July 11, 2018: Neurocritical Care
Gregory Kapinos, Eugen Trinka, Peter W Kaplan
We propose a comprehensive review of the subject of epileptiform and potentially harmful EEG patterns that lie on the interictal continuum (IIC) to help with therapeutic decision-making and target future research. This approach to "electro-physiological SE" encompasses five dimensions of the IIC: it characterizes a periodic or rhythmic pattern, not only regarding its ictal morphology and potential harm with secondary neuronal injury, but also addresses the "metabolic footprint," clinical repercussion, and epileptogenic potential...
July 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
S Berrillo-Batista, L M Morales-Chacon, M M Baez-Martin, L Gomez-Fernandez, H Vera-Cuesta, C Maragoto-Rizo, A Sanchez-Coroneaux, L Perez-Mayo
AIM: To know the differences in the patterns of functional connectivity, the topological characteristics of the network and the relationship between these latter and the interictal epileptiform anomalies in children with primary and secondary autism spectrum disorder (ASD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted with 27 children aged between 3 and 13 years diagnosed with ASD. Subjects were submitted to an electroencephalogram in a functional state of spontaneous sleep...
July 15, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Murat Mert Atmaca, Nerses Bebek, Elif Kocasoy-Orhan, Candan Gürses
OBJECTIVE: Epilepsia partialis continua (EPC) is a special form of cortical epilepsy. Several studies have described the ictal and interictal electroencephalography (EEG) findings in patients with EPC; however, lateralizing and localizing values of these findings have been evaluated rarely. This study investigated the correlation of semiologic and EEG findings, and outcomes in patients with EPC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical and EEG findings and outcomes, and their correlations were studied prospectively in 15 patients who were diagnosed as having EPC upon presentation to Istanbul Medical Faculty Hospital between January 2010 and April 2014, and retrospectively in 5 previously evaluated patients...
August 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Carla Bentes, Hugo Martins, Ana Rita Peralta, Carlos Morgado, Carlos Casimiro, Ana Catarina Franco, Ana Catarina Fonseca, Ruth Geraldes, Patrícia Canhão, Teresa Pinho E Melo, Teresa Paiva, José M Ferro
Objective: Electroencephalography (EEG) can identify biomarkers of epileptogenesis and ictogenesis. However, few studies have used EEG in the prediction of poststroke seizures. Our primary aim was to evaluate whether early EEG abnormalities can predict poststroke epilepsy. Methods: A prospective study of consecutive acute anterior circulation ischemic stroke patients, without previous epileptic seizures, who were admitted to a stroke unit over 24 months and followed for 1 year...
June 2018: Epilepsia open
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