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Michael J Andres, Eric E Pulis, Stephen S Curran, Robin M Overstreet
Megasolena mikra sp. nov. is described from the queen angelfish, Holacanthus ciliaris (Linnaeus), off Florida, USA. The new species can be differentiated from all other species of Megasolena Linton, 1910 except Megasolena littoralis Muñoz, George-Nascimento, and Bray, 2017 in possessing testes that are smaller in diameter than the ovary. The new species can be differentiated from M. littoralis in lacking tegumental spines and possessing oral sucker papillae. Molecular data are provided for two species each of Cadenatella Dollfus, 1946, Hapladena Linton, 1910, and Megasolena Linton, 1910...
August 12, 2018: Parasitology International
Masaya Miyazaki, Kenichi Saito, Takashi Yanagawa, Hirotaka Chikuda, Yoshito Tsushima
PURPOSE: This prospective phase I trial was conducted to evaluate the safety of percutaneous cryoablation for osteoid osteoma (OO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine patients with OO (mean tumor size: 5.9 mm; tibia, n = 5; femur, n = 2; lumbar spine, n = 2) were enrolled and treated with percutaneous cryoablation. The primary endpoint was the evaluation of the treatment safety as determined using step-by-step registration. The secondary endpoints were the incidence and grade of adverse events by CTCAE version 4...
August 14, 2018: Japanese Journal of Radiology
Phani Krishna Karthik Yelamarthy, Tarush Rustagi, Rajat Mahajan, Vishwajeet Singh, Kalidutta Das, Murari Lal Bansal, Bibhudendu Mohapatra, Harvinder Singh Chhabra
Background: Charcot spinal arthropathy (CSA), a destructive spinal pathology, is seen in patients with impaired sensation. Superimposed infection in the affected spinal segments can lead to a challenge in the diagnosis and management. Spinal cord injury (SCI) is the leading cause of CSA as persons with SCI have significantly impaired sensation. Though infection of the CSA is rare, SCI persons are prone to superimposed infection of the Charcot spine. We report atypical presentations of three cases of CSA with superimposed infection...
2018: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
Mehmet Demir, Erdem Gumusburun, Nurten Seringec, Mustafa Cicek, Rodi Ertugrul, Bulent Guneri
OBJECTIVE: To determine the normal angular ranges of the lateral spinal alignments in the lumbar and sacral regions. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Kilis State Hospital, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras, Turkey, from February to August 2017, and comprised patients aged 18-27 years who underwent standardised standing lateral lumbar radiography to eliminate hip and low back disorders. All radiographs were obtained from the hospital database as well as the demographic and contact information of each subject...
August 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
André Nel, Jakub Prokop, Martina Pecharová, Michael S Engel, Romain Garrouste
The largest insects to have ever lived were the giant meganeurids of the Late Palaeozoic, ancient stem relatives of our modern dragonflies. With wingspans up to 71 cm, these iconic insects have been the subject of varied documentaries on Palaeozoic life, depicting them as patrolling for prey through coal swamp forests amid giant lycopsids, and cordaites. Such reconstructions are speculative as few definitive details of giant dragonfly biology are known. Most specimens of giant dragonflies are known from wings or isolated elements, but Meganeurites gracilipes preserves critical body structures, most notably those of the head...
August 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Milica D Jovicic, Ljubica M Konstantinovic, Anita D Grgurevic, Nenad D Milovanovic, Goran Trajkovic, Vladimir Z Jovicic, Svetlana I Kostic Dedic, Marija K Hrkovic, Snezana M Draganac
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to translate the Neck Disability Index into the Serbian language (NDI-S) and to investigate the validity of this version for use in Serbian population. METHODS: Fifty patients with cervical radiculopathy were enrolled in the study and completed a multidimensional questionnaire, including NDI-S. Inclusion criteria were ages between 18 and 65 years, Serbian speaking, no cognitive or hearing impairment, sharp and radiating neck and upper extremity pain that has lasted less than 12 months, radiculopathy signs evaluated by electromyoneurography and disc herniation, or spondylotic changes of cervical spine visualized on magnetic resonance imaging...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
Q Q Huang, S S Liu, G Q Liang
Though great progress on spinal sagittal alignment has been seen recently, which focuses on the lumbar spine-pelvic region and the whole spine, while there is a few research mainly concentrated on the cervical spine. In recent years, a growing number of researchers have been exploring the changes in the compensation of cervical sagittal alignment and their effect on surgery, and the preliminary results of these researches are satisfactory. The present review focuses on the measurement of sagittal plane parameters of cervical spine, changes of sagittal alignment in cervical spine disorders, and its effect on cervical surgery...
August 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
Y Qiu
This review mainly focused on the etiology and the surgical strategy for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) treatment. Genome-wide association study on the etiology of AIS using samples from more than 5 000 patients and 6 000 normal controls showed two genes: LBX1-AS1 on 10q24.32 and TNIK on 3q26.2 highly related to AIS initiation and progression. Regarding the conservative treatment of AIS, bracing is the only well-documented effective non-operative management in the early stage of AIS. For the patients with Cobb angle smaller than 80°, balancing spine, saving fusion level and restoring thoracic kyphosis are the basic objectives in surgical management...
August 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
Kyle Mueller, David Zhao, Osiris Johnson, Faheem A Sandhu, Jean-Marc Voyadzis
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infection (SSI) in spinal surgery contributes to significant morbidity and healthcare resource utilization. Few studies have directly compared the rate of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) SSI with open surgery. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether MIS techniques had a lower SSI rate in degenerative lumbar procedures as compared with traditional open techniques. METHODS: A single-center, retrospective review of a prospectively collected database was queried from January 2013 to 2016 for adult patients who underwent lumbar decompression and/or instrumented fusion for which the surgical indication involved degenerative disease...
August 9, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Emanuele Pravatà, Stefano Presilla, Luca Roccatagliata, Alessandro Cianfoni
OBJECTIVES: To perform a pilot study to quantify the radiation dose incident on operators during CT-guided interventional spine procedures, and provide a quick method to approximate it based on the total amount of radiation reported by the CT scanner. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data retrospectively obtained from 26 consecutive CT-guided spine procedures, encompassing a variety of interventions. Intermittent low-dose limited-coverage CT-scanning performed using a "step and shoot" mode to visualize needle advancement...
August 9, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Vibha Singhal, Landy P Torre Flores, Fatima C Stanford, Alexander T Toth, Brian Carmine, Madhusmita Misra, Miriam A Bredella
Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) in humans is distributed differentially across age and skeletal site. We have shown impaired microarchitecture and reduced bone strength at appendicular sites in conditions associated with high MAT of the axial skeleton in adults (including conditions of over- and undernutrition). Data are lacking regarding differences in MAT content of the appendicular versus the axial skeleton, and its relationship with bone microarchitecture and strength. Furthermore, data are conspicuously lacking in adolescents, a time when hematopoietic marrow is progressively converted to fatty marrow...
August 11, 2018: Bone
Anders Joelson, Barbro I Danielson, Rune Hedlund, Per Wretenberg, Karin Frennered
BACKGROUND: This case series of consecutive patients evaluated sagittal balance and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) 3 decades after in situ arthrodesis for high-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis. METHODS: Global sagittal balance, pelvic parameters, and compensatory mechanisms were evaluated on standing lateral radiographs of the spine and pelvis for 28 of 39 consecutive patients, 28 to 41 years after in situ arthrodesis for high-grade L5 to S1 spondylolisthesis...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Kei Ando, Ryuichi Shinjo, Kenyu Ito, Mikito Tsushima, Masayoshi Morozumi, Satoshi Tanaka, Masaaki Machino, Kyotaro Ota, Naoki Ishiguro, Shiro Imagama
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. OBJECTIVE: The goal of the study was to investigate the significance of a change in latency in monitoring of transcranial muscle-action potential (Tc-MsEP) waveforms. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Tc-MsEP has become a common approach in spine surgery due to its sensitivity and importance in motor function. Many reports have defined the alarm point of Tc-MsEP waveform as a particular decrease in amplitude, but evaluation of the waveform latency has not attracted as much attention...
September 1, 2018: Spine
Tetsuji Inoue, Masaya Mizutamari, Kazuaki Fukuda, Kuniaki Hatake
STUDY DESIGN: This was a single-institute retrospective study. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate postoperative complications in dialysis-dependent patients undergoing elective cervical and lumbar decompression surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Spinal surgery in dialysis-dependent patients is very challenging due to the high risk of serious postoperative complications and mortality associated with their fragile general condition. However, the outcome of decompression surgery alone has not been evaluated in such patients...
September 1, 2018: Spine
Gal Hacohen-Kleiman, Shlomo Sragovich, Gidon Karmon, Andy Y L Gao, Iris Grigg, Metsada Pasmanik-Chor, Albert Le, Vlasta Korenková, R Anne McKinney, Illana Gozes
Previous findings showed that in mice, complete knockout of activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) abolishes brain formation, while haploinsufficiency (Adnp+/-) causes cognitive impairments. We hypothesized that mutations in ADNP lead to a developmental/autistic syndrome in children. Indeed, recent phenotypic characterization of children harboring ADNP mutations (ADNP syndrome children) revealed global developmental delays and intellectual disabilities, including speech and motor dysfunctions. Mechanistically, ADNP includes a SIP motif embedded in the ADNP-derived snippet, drug candidate NAP (NAPVSIPQ also known as CP201), which binds to microtubule end binding protein 3, essential for dendritic spine formation...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Wendy Saltzman, David H Abbott, Neil Binkley, Ricki J Colman
Estrogen depletion leads to bone loss in almost all mammals with frequent regular ovarian cycles. However, subordinate adult female common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) undergo socially induced anovulation and hypoestrogenism without clinically apparent adverse skeletal consequences. Thus, we speculated that this non human primate might have evolved a mechanism to avoid estrogen-depletion bone loss. To test this possibility, we performed three experiments in which lumbar-spine (L5-L6) bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: (i) cross-sectionally in 13 long-term ovariectomized animals and 12 age- and weight-matched controls undergoing ovulatory cycles; (ii) longitudinally in 12 animals prior to, 3-4 and 6-7 months following ovariectomy (ovx), and six controls; and (iii) cross-sectionally in nine anovulatory subordinate and nine dominant females...
August 14, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Byung-Jou Lee, Jin Hoon Park, Sang-Ryong Jeon, Seung-Chul Rhim, Sung Woo Roh
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of the preoperative cross-sectional area (CSA) of the semispinalis cervicis on postoperative loss of cervical lordosis (LCL) after laminoplasty. METHODS: A total of 144 patients who met the inclusion criteria between January 1999 and December 2015 were enrolled. Radiographic assessments were performed to evaluate the T1 slope, C2-7 sagittal vertical axis (SVA), cephalad vertebral level undergoing laminoplasty (CVLL), preoperative C2-7 Cobb angle, and preoperative CSA of the semispinalis cervicis...
August 13, 2018: European Spine Journal
Jairam R Eswara, Miguel Castellan, Ricardo González, Nicolas Mendieta, Marc Cendron
BACKGROUND: The urologic management of children with spinal cord injury (SCI) differs from that of the adult insofar as the care involves a developing organ system and will be ongoing for years. Preservation of renal function as well as prevention of urinary tract infection in concert with both bladder and bowel continence are the essential guiding principles. METHODS: This is a non-systematic review of the literature and represents expert opinion where data are non-existent...
August 13, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Ryan T Ash, Paul G Fahey, Jiyoung Park, Huda Y Zoghbi, Stelios M Smirnakis
MECP2 duplication syndrome is an X-linked form of syndromic autism caused by genomic duplication of the region encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2). Mice overexpressing MECP2 demonstrate social impairment, behavioral inflexibility, and altered patterns of learning and memory. Previous work showed abnormally increased stability of dendritic spines formed during motor training in the apical tuft of primary motor cortex (area M1) corticospinal neurons in the MECP2 duplication mouse model. In the current study, we measure the structural plasticity of axonal boutons in layer 5 pyramidal neuron projections to layer 1 of area M1 during motor training...
May 2018: ENeuro
Sarah M Zimmerman, Melissa E Heard-Lipsmeyer, Milena Dimori, Jeff D Thostenson, Erin M Mannen, Charles A O'Brien, Roy Morello
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is characterized by osteopenia and bone fragility, and OI patients during growth often exhibit high bone turnover with the net result of low bone mass. Recent evidence shows that osteocytes significantly affect bone remodeling under physiological and pathological conditions through production of osteoclastogenic cytokines. The receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) produced by osteocytes for example, is a critical mediator of bone loss caused by ovariectomy, low-calcium diet, unloading and glucocorticoid treatment...
December 2018: Bone Reports
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