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Stefan Schmid, Michèle Stauffer, Judit Jäger, Renate List, Silvio Lorenzetti
BACKGROUND: Regular infant carrying might be a contributing factor for the development and progression of low back and pelvic girdle pain in mothers after childbirth. However, the neuromechanical adaptations of the spine due to different sling-based carrying techniques are not sufficiently well understood in order to provide evidence-based carrying recommendations. RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the immediate effects of different sling-based infant carrying techniques on trunk neuromechanics? METHODS: Using a Vicon motion capture and a wireless surface electromyography system, three-dimensional pelvis and spinal kinematics as well as activation patterns of eight trunk muscles were derived from fifteen healthy young women during upright standing and level walking without carrying a load and while carrying a 6 kg-dummy with a sling in front and on either side...
October 12, 2018: Gait & Posture
Pavla Zedníková Malá, Václav Krajíček, Jana Velemínská
Correlations between facial bony structures and soft facial features are fundamental for facial approximation methods The purpose of this study was to assess the strength of the association between craniofacial shape and the shape of the soft-tissue profile and to determine the extent to which it might be possible to predict the latter from the former. Soft-tissue and skeletal facial profile curves were extracted from 86 lateral head cephalograms of a recent Central European population (52 males and 34 females, aged between 19 and 43 years), divided into five parts, segmented automatically and evaluated using geometric morphometrics...
September 26, 2018: Forensic Science International
Wolfgang Freund, Frank Weber, Gero Hoepner, Reinhard Meier, Stephan Klessinger
OBJECTIVE: Angulated projections are used in radiography to show the cervical neural foramen. Imaging the coronal oblique planes in an MRI of the cervical spine should therefore improve visualization of neural foramen pathology. This has to be demonstrated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A multi-center investigation of 40 patients with monoradiculopathy and 10 healthy controls was undertaken. T2-weighted sagittal, coronal oblique and axial slices were individually and separately examined by four readers blinded to the diagnosis...
October 13, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Heidi Chandler, Beate Lanske, Aurore Varela, Martin Guillot, Marilyne Boyer, Jeffrey Brown, Allen Pierce, Michael Ominsky, Bruce Mitlak, Roland Baron, Paul Kostenuik, Gary Hattersley
Male osteoporosis can occur with advanced age and with hypogonadism, with increased bone resorption and/or inadequate bone formation contributing to reduced bone mass and increased fracture risk. Abaloparatide is a selective PTH receptor agonist that increases bone formation and bone mass in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and in estrogen-deficient animals. The current study evaluated the effects of abaloparatide in orchiectomized (ORX) rats, a model of male osteoporosis. Four-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats underwent ORX or sham surgery; 8 weeks later the ORX groups exhibited relative osteopenia vs sham controls, based on dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and/or peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) assessments at the total body, lumbar spine, femur, and tibia...
October 18, 2018: Bone
Stephan N Salzmann, Toshiyuki Shirahata, Jingyan Yang, Courtney Ortiz Miller, Brandon B Carlson, Colleen Rentenberger, John A Carrino, Jennifer Shue, Andrew A Sama, Frank P Cammisa, Federico P Girardi, Alexander P Hughes
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) of the lumbar spine is used as an alternative to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in assessing bone mineral density (BMD). The average BMD of L1-L2 is the standard reportable metric used for diagnostic purposes according to current recommendations. The density of L1 and L2 has also been proposed as a reference value for the remaining lumbosacral vertebrae and is commonly used as a surrogate marker for overall bone health. Since regional BMD differences within the spine have been proposed, it is unclear if the L1-L2 average correlates with the remainder of the lumbosacral spine...
October 18, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Ming Chen, Da Shao, Yali Fu, Qianqian Ma, Ming Chen, Dongyang Cui, Jiaojiao Song, Huan Sheng, Li Yang, Yi Dong, Bin Lai, Ping Zheng
Addiction memory is subjected to time-dependent shifts toward neocortex in remote period to promote long-term addiction memory storage, which plays an important role in drug relapse. However, how the activity and neuroplasticity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) change after contextual morphine withdrawal conditioning and what factors determine this change remain to be determined. In this paper, using immunohistochemical and single-cell microinjection techniques, combining behavioral assay, we found that (1) contextual withdrawal conditioning increases the expression of c-Fos, but not Arc, in the ACC in morphine withdrawal mice; (2) at the first day after conditioning, conditioned context has no influence on the expression of c-Fos and Arc in the ACC in morphine withdrawal mice; (3) at the 14th day after conditioning, conditioned context increases the expression of both c-Fos and Arc in the ACC in morphine withdrawal mice; (4) the inhibition of dendritic spines of the ACC or projection neurons from the CA3 of the hippocampus to the ACC attenuates the conditioned context-induced increase of Arc expression in the ACC and abolishes the retrieval of withdrawal memory at the 14th day after conditioning...
October 18, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Brooke T Kennamer, Marc S Arginteanu, Frank M Moore, A A Steinberger, Kevin C Yao, Yakov Gologorsky
OBJECT: This study sought to determine if a relationship exists between caudal instrumented level and revision rates, neck disability index scores, and cervical alignment in patients undergoing multilevel posterior cervical fusion. METHODS: This study examined a dataset of all patients undergoing posterior cervical decompression and fusion at ≥3 levels, terminating between C4 and T4, between January 2010 and December 2015, with at least 12 months of clinical follow-up...
October 17, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Bernhard Steiner, Hans Peter Dimai, Hubert Steiner, Sabrina Cirar, Astrid Fahrleitner-Pammer
OBJECTIVES: Calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is a readily accessible and radiation-free alternative to dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for assessing bone mineral density (BMD). Results obtained from QUS measurement cannot directly be compared to DXA, since these techniques capture different bone-specific parameters. To identify individuals who are likely to have osteoporosis by DXA, device-specific thresholds have to be defined for QUS. This cross-sectional study evaluated the accuracy of QUS to identify postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, defined as a T score of -2...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Ujwal Bhure, Justus E Roos, Klaus Strobel
Osteoid osteoma is a painful, benign, osteoblastic lesion that occurs in younger patients and affects the extremities or the axial skeleton. While plain film findings may suggest the diagnosis, in complex anatomical regions such as the spine, pelvis, wrist and foot advanced imaging modalities are often required. A typical nidus surrounded by sclerosis or cortical thickening characterizes osteoid osteoma on plain radiography and CT. MR is the cross-sectional imaging modality of choice for most musculoskeletal disorders...
October 19, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Dietmar Krappinger, Richard A Lindtner, Michael J Zegg, Benjamin Henninger, Verena Kaser, Anna Spicher, Rene Schmid
PURPOSE: To revisit the concept of spondylotic traumatic central cord syndrome (TCCS) by assessing the frequency of discoligamentous injury and to correlate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and intraoperative findings. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of twenty-three consecutive patients (mean age: 62.7 ± 14.8 years) with profound spondylotic TCCS after acute cervical hyperextension trauma but without signs of instability on initial CT scans who underwent anterior surgical decompression and fusion was performed...
October 19, 2018: European Spine Journal
Bernhard Wilhelm Ullrich, Philipp Schenk, Ulrich J Spiegl, Thomas Mendel, Gunther Olaf Hofmann
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective, longitudinal cohort study. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether Hounsfield units (HUs), as an alternative bone mineral density measurement to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and quantitative computed tomography, which lead to additional radiation exposure for patients, has an effect on the maintenance of reduction in bisegmental Cobb angle (CA) and cage subsidence in patients who receive bisegmental spine stabilization after traumatic thoracolumbar spine fractures...
October 19, 2018: European Spine Journal
Wen-Bo Nie, Fa-Gang Ye, Jian-Lin Ma, Jiang-Ping Yu, Ming-Xing Wang, Zhen-Hua Zhang, Fu-Jie Sun
The feasibility of three-dimensional (3D) printing technology combined with minimally invasive surgery in the treatment of pubic rami fractures was explored. From August 2015 to October 2017, a series of 30 patients who underwent surgical stabilization of their anterior pelvic ring (all utilizing the 3D printing technology) by one surgeon at a single hospital were studied. The minimally invasive incisions were made through anterior inferior cilia spine and pubic nodule. Data collected included the operative duration, the blood loss, the damage of the important tissue, the biographic union and the recovery of the function after the operation...
October 2018: Current medical science
Akihiko Hiyama, Hiroyuki Katoh, Daisuke Sakai, Masato Sato, Masahiro Tanaka, Tadashi Nukaga, Masahiko Watanabe
We investigated how skeletal muscle mass (SMM) affects spinal sagittal balance (radiographic parameters) in symptomatic spinal patients. The first purpose of this study was to evaluate the body composition and the spinal sagittal alignment in symptomatic spinal patients. The second purpose of this study was to compare whether the body composition and the spinal sagittal alignment is different in patients with cervical spine disease and lumbar spine disease. We retrospectively evaluated 313 patients who were hospitalized for surgery to treat spinal degenerative disease, who were divided into cervical and lumbar spine disease groups...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Travis Rush, Jose Martinez-Hernandez, Marc Dollmeyer, Marie Lise Frandemiche, Eve Borel, Sylvie Boisseau, Muriel Jacquier-Sarlin, Alain Buisson
Amyloid-β (Aβ) drives the synaptic impairment and dendritic spine loss characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but how Aβ affects the actin cytoskeleton remains unknown and contentious. The actin-binding protein, cofilin-1 (cof1), is a major regulator of actin dynamics in dendritic spines, and is subject to phospho-regulation by multiple pathways, including the Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) pathway. While cof1 is implicated as a driver of the synaptotoxicity characteristic of the early phases of AD pathophysiology, questions remain about the molecular mechanisms involved...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Satoshi Nori, Tateru Shiraishi, Ryoma Aoyama, Ken Ninomiya, Junichi Yamane, Kazuya Kitamura, Seiji Ueda
After lower-cervical-level spinal-cord tumor resection, compensatory upper cervical lordosis with lower cervical kyphosis was observed. However, no studies examined this compensation following posterior decompression surgery for cervical compressive myelopathy (CCM). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the compensatory mechanism after muscle-preserving selective laminectomy (SL) and to assess the clinical outcomes following such compensation. Enrolled in the study were 125 CCM patients who underwent C6 single-level SL, C5-C6 two-level SL, C4-C6 three-level SL, and C3-C6 four-level SL...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
C Rohdin, J Häggström, I Ljungvall, H Nyman Lee, S De Decker, S Bertram, K Lindblad-Toh, K Hultin Jäderlund
Congenital vertebral malformations (CVMs) are common in brachycephalic dogs such as the pug, and are often considered incidental findings. However, specific CVMs have been suggested to be associated with neurological deficits in pugs. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical importance of CVMs in the pug by comparing computed tomography studies of the thoracolumbar spine from pugs without neurological deficits with those from pugs with a confirmed T3-L3 spinal cord lesion and neurological deficits consistent with a chronic T3-L3 myelopathy...
November 2018: Veterinary Journal
Yan Yang, Shi Qiu, Linghui Deng, Xi Tang, Xinrui Li, Qiang Wei, Ping Fu
BACKGROUND: Mineral bone disease constitutes a common complication of post-kidney transplantation, leading to great disability. As there is no consensus on the optimal treatment for post-kidney transplant recipients (KTRs), we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of bisphosphonate and its combined therapies. METHODS: We incorporated relevant trials to perform a network meta-analysis from direct and indirect comparisons. We searched PubMed, Embase and the CENTRAL and the reference lists of relevant articles up to August 1, 2017, for randomized controlled trials...
October 19, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Hae Sang Lee, Jong Seo Yoon, Kyu Jung Park, Jung Sub Lim, Jin Soon Hwang
Long-term effects of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) on bone health remain unclear. The objective of this study was to assess the possible association of bone mineral density (BMD) at multiple sites with T2D after correcting for several potential confounders such as age, sex, Tanner stage, and BMI known to affect BMD in adolescents with newly developed T2D. In this cross-sectional study, 17 children and adolescents with T2D and 59 age, sex, and BMI-matched controls were included. All subjects underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure regional and whole-body composition with Lunar Prodigy at the time of initial diagnosis...
October 19, 2018: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Benjamin D Boros, Kelsey M Greathouse, Marla Gearing, Jeremy H Herskowitz
Subtle alterations in dendritic spine morphology can induce marked effects on connectivity patterns of neuronal circuits and subsequent cognitive behavior. Past studies of rodent and nonhuman primate aging revealed reductions in spine density with concomitant alterations in spine morphology among pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex. In this report, we visualized and digitally reconstructed the three-dimensional morphology of dendritic spines from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in cognitively normal individuals aged 40-94 years...
September 21, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Suvir Singh, Chepsy C Philip, Uttam George, Manthanathu J John
Hemophilia A is an inherited bleeding disorder, seen in 1 in 10,000 live births. It is characterized by an increased risk of bleeding, especially involving the musculoskeletal system. Central nervous system bleeding, including brain and spinal cord bleed is rare in the absence of overt trauma, seen in <5% patients. Epidural spinal bleeding in hemophilia is even rarer, and described in <20 patients so far in literature. We describe a young boy who presented with a cervical spine epidural bleed, and was managed conservatively without any sequelae...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
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