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Jeffrey L Van Eps, Anuj Chaudhry, Joseph S Fernandez-Moure, Christian Boada, Vishwanath Chegireddy, Fernando J Cabrera, Songyuan Tang, Ennio Tasciotti, Raffaella Righetti
BACKGROUND: Complications of ventral hernia repair (VHR) may be investigated by computed tomography or ultrasound (US) but neither modality gives a quantifiable metric of repair quality short of identifying hernia recurrence. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP), a growth factor-rich autologous blood product, has been shown to improve incorporation of native tissue with bioprosthetics. In this study, we investigate the effect of PRP on the incorporation and mechanical integrity of a non-crosslinked porcine acellular dermal matrix (pADM) in a rodent model of VHR and the correlative ability of ultrasound shear wave elastography (US-SWE) to assess repair quality...
December 13, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Andrew M Bate, Frank M Hilker
Preytaxis is the attraction (or repulsion) of predators along prey density gradients and a potentially important mechanism for predator movement. However, the impact preytaxis has on the spatial spread of a predator invasion or of an epidemic within the prey has not been investigated. We investigate the effects preytaxis has on the wavespeed of several different invasion scenarios in an eco-epidemiological system. In general, preytaxis cannot slow down predator or disease invasions and there are scenarios where preytaxis speeds up predator or disease invasions...
December 13, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Mohamad Nasser, Pia Chedid, Ali Salami, Mariam Khalifeh, Said El Shamieh, Wissam H Joumaa
Rapid growing of mobile phones users has raised about the possible effects of these electromagnetic waves (EMW) on human health. Many studies have examined the role of these EMW on biological systems, but the results are still contradictory and controversial. In addition to EMW, over-activation of angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) has been associated with cognitive decline, incidence and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Candesartan, an AT1R blocker, is well recognized for treatment of hypertension...
December 2018: Data in Brief
Theresa E Gildner, Nawi Ng, Fan Wu, Yanfei Guo, J Josh Snodgrass, Paul Kowal
Evidence suggests that cognitive decline in older adults is influenced by cardiovascular health (CVH), with metabolic and vascular mechanisms hypothesized to underlie the etiology of cognitive impairment. Research in high-income nations suggests that improved CVH is linked with decreased cognitive impairment risk, but it is unclear if this pattern is evident in low-income countries. Nationally-representative data collected in China were drawn from the World Health Organization's Study on global AGing and adult health Wave 1 (2007-2010; n = 11,295)...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Daniel Aggio, Olia Papacosta, Lucy T Lennon, Sarah Ash, Peter H Whincup, S Goya Wannamethee, Barbara J Jefferis
Background: Previous physical activity (PA) tracking studies have examined the stability of overall PA and/or PA types, but few have investigated how specific types of sport/exercise track over the life course. The aim of this study was to determine how specific sports/exercises in midlife track and predict future sport/exercise and PA in men transitioning to old age. Methods: Seven thousand seven hundred thirty-five men (aged 40-59 years) recruited in 1978-80 were followed up after 12, 16 and 20 years...
2018: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Benjamin C Gibson, Joseph L Sanguinetti, Bashar W Badran, Alfred B Yu, Evan P Klein, Christopher C Abbott, Jeffrey T Hansberger, Vincent P Clark
Background: Transcranial Ultrasound Stimulation (tUS) is an emerging technique that uses ultrasonic waves to noninvasively modulate brain activity. As with other forms of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS), tUS may be useful for altering cortical excitability and neuroplasticity for a variety of research and clinical applications. The effects of tUS on cortical excitability are still unclear, and further complications arise from the wide parameter space offered by various types of devices, transducer arrangements, and stimulation protocols...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Kenichiro Miura, Yuko Sugita, Takahisa Furukawa, Kenji Kawano
Two successive image frames presented with a blank inter-stimulus interval (ISI) induce reversals of perceived motion in humans. This illusory effect is a manifestation of the temporal properties of image filters embedded in the visual processing pathway. In the present study, ISI experiments were performed to identify the temporal characteristics of vision underlying optokinetic responses (OKRs) in mice. These responses are thought to be mediated by subcortical visual processing. OKRs of C57BL/6 J mice, induced by a 1/4-wavelength shift of a square-wave grating presented with and without an ISI were recorded...
December 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Guoliang Li, Ruiheng Hu, Jau Tang, Huai Zheng, Sheng Liu
Electric corona discharge in a multi-phase system results in complex electro-hydrodynamic phenomena. We observed unconventional shock wave propagation on an oil thin film sprayed over a polymer-coated conductor. A hair-thin single shock wave arose when the high voltage bias of an overhung steel needle was abruptly removed. However, such solitary waves possess neither interference nor reflection properties commonly known for ordinary waves, and also differ from the solitons in a canal or an optical fiber. We also observed time-retarded movement for dispersed oil droplets at various distances from the epicenter which have no physical contact, as if a wave propagating on a continuous medium...
December 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiang Li, Paul R Marshall, Laura J Leighton, Esmi L Zajaczkowski, Ziqi Wang, Sachithrani U Madugalle, Jiayu Yin, Timothy W Bredy, Wei Wei
We have identified a member of the growth arrest and DNA damage (Gadd45) protein family, Gadd45 ׆ , which is known to be critically involved in DNA repair, as a key player in the regulation of immediate early gene (IEG) expression underlying the consolidation of associative fear memory in adult male C57/Bl6 mice. Gadd45 ׆ temporally influences learning-induced IEG expression in the prelimbic prefrontal cortex (PLPFC) through its interaction with DNA double-strand break (DSB)-mediated changes in DNA methylation...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Logan Kistler, S Yoshi Maezumi, Jonas Gregorio de Souza, Natalia A S Przelomska, Flaviane Malaquias Costa, Oliver Smith, Hope Loiselle, Jazmín Ramos-Madrigal, Nathan Wales, Eduardo Rivail Ribeiro, Ryan R Morrison, Claudia Grimaldo, Andre P Prous, Bernardo Arriaza, M Thomas P Gilbert, Fabio de Oliveira Freitas, Robin G Allaby
Domesticated maize evolved from wild teosinte under human influences in Mexico beginning around 9000 years before the present (yr B.P.), traversed Central America by ~7500 yr B.P., and spread into South America by ~6500 yr B.P. Landrace and archaeological maize genomes from South America suggest that the ancestral population to South American maize was brought out of the domestication center in Mexico and became isolated from the wild teosinte gene pool before traits of domesticated maize were fixed. Deeply structured lineages then evolved within South America out of this partially domesticated progenitor population...
December 14, 2018: Science
Li Chen, Jascha A Lau, Dirk Schwarzer, Jörg Meyer, Varun B Verma, Alec M Wodtke
Using a mid-infrared emission spectrometer based on a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD), we observe the dynamics of vibrational energy pooling of CO adsorbed at the surface of a NaCl crystal. After exciting a majority of the CO molecules to their first vibrationally excited state (v = 1), we observe infrared emission from states up to v = 27. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations show that vibrational energy collects in a few CO molecules at the expense of those up to eight lattice sites away by selective excitation of NaCl's transverse phonons...
December 13, 2018: Science
Paolo LoLo Giudice, Domenico Ursino, Nadia Mammone, Francesco Carlo Morabito, Umberto Aguglia, Vittoria Cianci, Edoardo Ferlazzo, Sara Gasparini
Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD) is a rapidly progressive, uniformly fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. Sporadic CJD (sCJD) is the most common form of CJD. Electroencephalography (EEG) is one of the main methods to perform clinical diagnosis of CJD, mainly because of periodic sharp wave complexes (PSWCs). In this paper, we propose a network analysis based approach to characterizing PSWCs in EEGs of patients with sCJD. Our approach associates a network with each EEG at disposal and defines a new numerical coefficient and some network motifs, which characterize the presence of PSWCs in an EEG tracing...
January 2019: International Journal of Medical Informatics
Xi Chen, Wu Chen, Yanwen Wang, Yiqun Han, Tong Zhu
BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise benefits health but increases inhalation of fine particles (PM2.5 ) in ambient air. Acute cardiopulmonary responses to PM2.5 exposure in individuals with different exercise habits, especially in areas with severe air pollution, are not well understood. METHODS: To examine acute cardiopulmonary responses to PM2.5 exposure modified by exercise habits, a panel of 20 healthy non-smoking male subjects, recruited in Beijing, China, completed seven visits...
December 13, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Sophie Püttmann, Janina Koch, Jochen Paul Steinacker, Stefan Andreas Schmidt, Thomas Seufferlein, Wolfgang Kratzer, Julian Schmidberger, Burkhard Manfras
BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to establish shear wave elastography of the pancreas by comparing measurements in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and healthy volunteers and to consider whether this method could contribute to the screening or prevention of T1D. METHODS: This pilot study included 15 patients with T1D (10 men, 5 women) and 15 healthy volunteers (10 men, 5 women) as controls. Measurements were performed with a Siemens Acuson S3000 (Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) using a 6C1 convex transducer and the Virtual Touch™ tissue quantification (VTQ) method...
December 13, 2018: BMC Medical Imaging
Eduard Guasch, Maria Sanz-de la Garza, Lluís Mont
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 13, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Yu Wang, Yuheng Qiao, Hongjuan Zhang, Yan Gao, Ming Zhang, Heng Tan, Dong Wang, Baoquan Jin
The transformer used in the conventional ultrasonic ranging system could provide a huge instantaneous driving voltage for the generation of ultrasonic wave, which leads to the safety problem in the explosive mixture. This paper proposes a transformerless ultrasonic ranging system powered by the intrinsically safe power source and analog switches. The analysis of intrinsic characteristics of ultrasonic driving circuit is realized in normal and fault conditions. The echo-processing circuit combined with LIN bus technology is further adopted in order to improve the system stability...
December 12, 2018: Sensors
Chucai Guo, Jianfa Zhang, Wei Xu, Ken Liu, Xiaodong Yuan, Shiqiao Qin, Zhihong Zhu
Graphene has unique properties which make it an ideal material for photonic and optoelectronic devices. However, the low light absorption in monolayer graphene seriously limits its practical applications. In order to greatly enhance the light absorption of graphene, many graphene-based structures have been developed to achieve perfect absorption of incident waves. In this review, we discuss and analyze various types of graphene-based perfect absorption structures in the visible to terahertz band. In particular, we review recent advances and optoelectronic applications of such structures...
December 12, 2018: Nanomaterials
Stefano Bellucci, Antonio Maffucci, Sergey Maksimenko, Federico Micciulla, Marco D Migliore, Alesia Paddubskaya, Daniele Pinchera, Fulvio Schettino
This paper investigates the electrical properties in the microwave range of a contact made by graphene nanoplatelets. The final goal is that of estimating the range of values for the equivalent electrical complex permittivity of a contact obtained by integrating low-cost graphene in the form of nanoplatelets (GNPs) into a high-frequency electrical circuit. To this end, a microstrip-like circuit is designed and realized, where the graphene nanoplatelets are self-assembled into a gap between two copper electrodes...
December 11, 2018: Materials
Tarra L Penney, Thomas Burgoine, Pablo Monsivais
Eating away from home is a risk factor for poor diet quality and obesity. With an ever-increasing proportion of household food spend directed toward eating out, the proliferation of these food establishments may contribute to their use, a potential precursor to less healthy food choices and low overall diet quality. However few studies are conducted at the national level and across a range of away from home food sources. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the density of away from home food establishments (e...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Alvaro Ortiz Perez, Benedikt Bierer, Louisa Scholz, Jürgen Wöllenstein, Stefan Palzer
Schools are amongst the most densely occupied indoor areas and at the same time children and young adults are the most vulnerable group with respect to adverse health effects as a result of poor environmental conditions. Health, performance and well-being of pupils crucially depend on indoor environmental quality (IEQ) of which air quality and thermal comfort are central pillars. This makes the monitoring and control of environmental parameters in classes important. At the same time most school buildings do neither feature automated, intelligent heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems nor suitable IEQ monitoring systems...
December 9, 2018: Sensors
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