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anabolic-androgen steroids

Donata Favretto, Rossella Snenghi, Roberto Pertile, Rafi El Mazloum, Marianna Tucci, Sindi Visentin, Susanna Vogliardi
Letrozole is an aromatase inhibitor, used to treat post-menopausal women with hormone receptor-positive or unknown advanced breast cancer. It is prohibited in sport because it is used together with androgen anabolizing steroids to avoid their adverse effects. In case of adverse analytical finding, it may be important to distinguish between repetitive use due to voluntary administration and occasional use, possibly due to involuntary intake. With the objective to identify the dose capable of producing a positive hair testing, and to apply these results to the scenarios of letrozole inadvertent ingestion by an athlete, this study aims at investigating the urinary excretion and incorporation into hair of single doses of letrozole...
December 2, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Zachary J Solomon, Jorge Rivera Mirabal, Daniel J Mazur, Taylor P Kohn, Larry I Lipshultz, Alexander W Pastuszak
INTRODUCTION: Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) differentially bind to androgen receptors depending on each SARM's chemical structure. As a result, SARMs result in anabolic cellular activity while avoiding many of the side effects of currently available anabolic steroids. SARMs have been studied in the treatment of breast cancer and cachexia and have also been used as performance-enhancing agents. Here, we evaluate and summarize the current literature on SARMs. AIM: To present the background, mechanisms, current and potential clinical applications, as well as risks and benefits of SARMs...
November 29, 2018: Sexual Medicine Reviews
Sofia Zelleroth, Erik Nylander, Fred Nyberg, Alfhild Grönbladh, Mathias Hallberg
The use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) among non-athletes is a public health-problem, as abusers underestimate the negative effects associated with these drugs. The present study investigated the toxic effects of testosterone, nandrolone, stanozolol, and trenbolone, and aimed to understand how AAS abuse affects the brain. Mixed cortical cultures from embryonic rats were grown in vitro for 7 days and thereafter treated with increasing concentrations of AASs for 24 h (single-dose) or 3 days (repeated exposure)...
November 28, 2018: Neuroscience
Edward T Ha, Michael L Weinrauch, Jeffrey Brensilver
Currently, the cardiovascular risk associated with the use of anabolic steroids is not well documented. Recent studies have shown that its use may potentiate the development of cardiac dysfunction in the short term. This case report describes an encounter that supports a causal link between anabolic-androgenic steroid use (AAS) and cardiomyopathy later in life. We herein present a case study of a 73-year-old prior Olympic athlete who had misused AAS for 20 years and subsequently was found to have developed a systolic and diastolic cardiomyopathy, presumably due to long-standing left ventricular hypertrophy...
September 17, 2018: Curēus
Consuelo Guerri, María Pascual
Evidence obtained in recent decades has demonstrated that the brain still matures in adolescence. Changes in neural connectivity occur in different regions, including cortical and subcortical structures, which undergo modifications in white and gray matter densities. These alterations concomitantly occur in some neurotransmitter systems and hormone secretion, which markedly influence the refinement of certain brain areas and neural circuits. The immaturity of the adolescent brain makes it more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol and drug abuse, whose use can trigger long-term behavioral dysfunction...
November 20, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
H Horwitz, J T Andersen, K P Dalhoff
BACKGROUND: The lifetime prevalence of androgenic anabolic steroid abuse is estimated to be around 6% for men, but there is limited knowledge about the side effects of these drugs. OBJECTIVE: To investigate mortality and morbidity amongst users of androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS). METHODS: In this retrospective matched cohort study, 545 male subjects tested positive for AAS in Danish fitness centres during the period 3 January 2006 to 1 March 2018...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Adam D Gill, Lizeth Perez, Isaac N Q Salinas, Samantha R Byers, Yang Liu, Briana L Hickey, Wenwan Zhong, Richard J Hooley
Arrayed complexes of a water-soluble deep cavitand and two fluorescent indicators show selective sensing of anabolic-androgenic steroids in aqueous environments. By combining the host:guest complexes with small amounts of heavy metal ions, discrimination between steroids that vary in structure by only a single π bond is possible. The sensing occurs via a triggered aggregation mechanism, which can be mediated by both the presence of metal ions and the steroids. The use of both "turn-on" and "turn-off" fluorophores is essential for good discrimination...
November 14, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Barbora Tircova, Zuzana Bosakova, Petr Kozlik
Over the past decade, the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) by recreational bodybuilders and regular gym members has been increasing exponentially. However, there is a lack of knowledge on AAS products sold in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The aim of this study was to assess the quantity of active substances in AAS products obtained from AAS users in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. In addition, the study also examines the current trends in counterfeit AAS products used by recreational bodybuilders and regular gym members...
November 13, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Dicky Struik, Fabrizio Sanna, Liana Fattore
Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide. Although its use is associated with multiple adverse health effects, including the risk of developing addiction, recreational and medical cannabis use is being increasing legalized. In addition, use of synthetic cannabinoid drugs is gaining considerable popularity and is associated with mass poisonings and occasional deaths. Delineating factors involved in cannabis use and addiction therefore becomes increasingly important. Similarly to other drugs of abuse, the prevalence of cannabis use and addiction differs remarkably between males and females, suggesting that sex plays a role in regulating cannabinoid sensitivity...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Francis Ribeiro de Souza, Allan Robson Kluser Sales, Marcelo Rodrigues Dos Santos, Rafael Armani Porello, Guilherme Wesley Peixoto da Fonseca, Ana Luiza Carrari Sayegh, Antonio Carlos Battaglia Filho, Rosa Maria Rodrigues Pereira, Liliam Takayama, Tiago Franco de Oliveira, Mauricio Yonamine, Carlos Eduardo Negrão, Maria Janieire de Nazaré Nunes Alves
Disturbed shear rate (SR), characterized by increased retrograde and oscillatory SR in the brachial artery, is associated with inflammation, atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, and sympathetic hyperactivity. Young subjects do not have disturbed SR; however, elderly subjects do, which seems to be associated with sympathetic hyperactivity. Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse in young is associated with increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). We hypothesized that AAS users might have disturbed SR...
November 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Alan D Brailsford, Wan Noor Mahirah Majidin, Nick Wojek, David A Cowan, Christopher Walker
Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are the most widely abused class of drugs by athletes, and thus represent a significant problem to the anti-doping community. Confirmation of a doping violation for AAS cannot always be based on their presence alone due to the endogenous production of some steroids. Both testosterone (and its metabolites) and the major diagnostic metabolite of nandrolone (19-norandrosterone) are produced endogenously. Gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) is used in such cases to differentiate between the administration of a synthetic preparation and endogenous steroid production, by measurement of their differing carbon isotope (13C/12C) ratio...
October 31, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Miguel Garcia-Argibay
BACKGROUND: The increase in the prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) use has been the subject of study in the last decades. Several studies indicated a strong association between the use of AAS and the performance of risky behaviors mediated by factors such as aggression, impulsivity, depression, and anxiety. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify differences in personality trait, impulsivity, and the ability to delay gratification between AAS users and non-users that predispose or serve as a buffering mechanism against its usage and whether it is related to an increased likelihood of engaging in infidelity...
October 30, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Ammar Hassan, Robert J Fontana
Exertional heat stroke most commonly develops following prolonged levels of aerobic activity in a warm or humid environment. Hypoperfusion of the vital organs along with activation of the inflammasome can lead to progressive and potentially fatal multiorgan failure including acute liver failure. In the United States, herbal and dietary supplements that are marketed to improve performance, strength, and weight loss are increasingly being used by both amateur and professional athletes. Consumption of bodybuilding supplements that contain androgenic anabolic steroids can lead to adverse hepatic effects ranging from asymptomatic serum aminotransferase elevations to severe cholestatic hepatitis with prolonged jaundice...
November 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
Daniel G Franey, Eduardo D Espiridion
There are numerous reports of the psychiatric effects of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use. However, these effects have not been clearly elicited in controlled clinical trials. This discrepancy is largely due to the presence of a variety of synergistic factors seen in the real-life setting of AAS abuse. In this case, we report a patient in acute mania admitted to Frederick Memorial Hospital in Frederick, Maryland. He had no prior history or family history of manic episodes. His symptoms were refractory to initial pharmacologic intervention...
August 20, 2018: Curēus
Ibtesam Saad Al-Dhuayan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Nandrolone and whey protein are used as supplementary food and athletic food. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible histological and ultrastructural alterations in the liver of adult rats after treatment of the anabolic androgenic steroids (Nandrolone decanoate) and whey protein. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty eight Wistar Albino male rats were used in the present study divided into 4 groups: Control group received 0.5 mL of saline solution by oral, Nandrolone group injected intramuscular (10 mg kg-1 b...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Aruna Nigam, Arifa Anwar Elahi, Neha Varun, Nidhi Gupta
Clitoromegaly is an important sign of virilisation and poses difficulty in sex determination, when present since birth. The diagnosis and treatment in an adult is a major challenge to the treating gynaecologist. The primary reason for its development is androgen excess due to congenital adrenal hyperplasia, polycystic ovarian syndrome, ovarian virilising tumours, neurofibromas, adrenal neoplasm and prolonged intake of anabolic steroids. A case of young nulliparous married woman who presented with primary amenorrhoea and clitoromegaly and was managed successfully has been reported...
September 30, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Amanda E Halliburton, Matthew S Fritz
The use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) is problematic for youth because of negative effects such as reduced fertility, increased aggression and exposure to toxic chemicals. An effective programme for addressing this problem is Adolescents Training and Learning to Avoid Steroids (ATLAS). This secondary analysis expands prior research by identifying prominent mechanisms of change and highlighting key longitudinal processes that contributed to the success of ATLAS. The current sample consists of high-school football players ( N = 1...
2018: International Journal of Adolescence and Youth
Simon Chang, Anna-Marie B Münster, Jørgen Gram, Johannes J Sidelmann
Anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse surged during the 1980s and is seen in approximately 1 in 20 of all males today. A wide spectrum of AAS compounds and abuse regimens are applied and AAS abuse has been associated with an unfavorable cardiovascular profile. The aim of this review is to critique the collected data concerning effects of AAS abuse on thrombosis risk through presentation of condensed evidence from studies investigating AAS-induced changes in coagulation, fibrinolysis, and cardiovascular risk markers...
November 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Juhee Agrawal, Birgit Ludwig, Bhaskar Roy, Yogesh Dwivedi
Testosterone is an anabolic androgenic steroid hormone involved in brain development, reproduction, and social behavior. Several studies have shown that testosterone can cause impulsivity in humans, which in turn, is linked with mood-related psychiatric disorders and higher risk of death by suicide. The mechanisms by which testosterone abuse influences impulsivity are unclear. The present study aims to understand how testosterone influences impulsivity in a rodent model both at behavioral and molecular levels...
September 27, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Julius Fink, Brad Jon Schoenfeld, Anthony C Hackney, Masahito Matsumoto, Takahiro Maekawa, Koichi Nakazato, Shigeo Horie
Performance enhancing substances are becoming increasingly popular amongst bodybuilders and people who want to enhance their physiques. However, due to the rise of the Internet and laws prohibiting sales of these substances without prescription, the route of procurement and administration practices have become more and more dangerous. Prior to the mid-1970's, anabolic steroids were not regulated and easily available from physicians and pharmacies in several countries. In 1990, the United States enacted the Anabolic Steroid Control Act, leading to the proliferation of black markets and underground laboratories...
September 24, 2018: Physician and Sportsmedicine
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