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quality of vision

Stephen Chan, Eliot L Siegel
There have been tremendous advances in artificial intelligence and machine learning within the past decade, especially in the application of deep learning to various challenges. These include advanced competitive games (such as Chess and Go), self-driving cars, speech recognition, and intelligent personal assistants. Rapid advances in computer vision for recognition of objects in pictures have led some individuals, including computer science experts and health care system experts in machine learning, to make predictions that machine learning algorithms will soon lead to the replacement of the radiologist...
October 16, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Aditi Das, Ana Quartilho, Wen Xing, Catey Bunce, Gary Rubin, Kelly MacKenzie, Gillian Adams, Annegret Dahlmann-Noor, Maria Theodorou
PURPOSE: IINS is associated with mild/moderate visual impairment, strabismus and compensatory head postures (CHP), which can negatively impact quality of life. Standard visual acuity assessments tend to underestimate the effect of IINS on visual functioning. Published evidence on the effect of INS on quality of life is slowly emerging. Our study examines visual functioning of adults with IINS using the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionairre-25 (VFQ-25). METHODS: 38 participants were recruited to participate in the study...
October 16, 2018: Strabismus
Gianni Virgili, Mariacristina Parravano, Jennifer R Evans, Iris Gordon, Ersilia Lucenteforte
BACKGROUND: Diabetic macular oedema (DMO) is a common complication of diabetic retinopathy. Antiangiogenic therapy with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) can reduce oedema, improve vision and prevent further visual loss. These drugs have replaced laser photocoagulation as the standard of care for people with DMO. OBJECTIVES: The 2014 update of this review found high-quality evidence of benefit with anti-VEGF modalities, compared to laser photocoagulation, for the treatment of DMO...
October 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Manuela Völkner, Thomas Kurth, Mike O Karl
The introduction of stem cell-based technologies for the derivation of three-dimensional retinal tissues, the so-called retinal organoids, offers many new possibilities for vision research: Organoids facilitate studies on retinal development and in vitro retinal disease modeling, as well as being valuable for drug testing. Further, retinal organoids also provide an unlimited cell source for cell replacement therapies. Here, we describe our protocol for efficiently differentiating large, stratified retinal organoids from mouse embryonic stem cells: unbiased manual dissection of the developing retinal organoid at an early stage into three evenly sized neuroepithelial portions (trisection step) doubles the yield of high-quality organoids...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Takeshi Teshigawara, Akira Meguro, Kazuro Yabuki, Seiichiro Hata, Nobuhisa Mizuki
At present, only one design is available for trifocal intraocular lens (IOL); unfortunately, this particular design is not suitable for implantation in the sulcus with optic capture when posterior capsule rupture (PCR) occurs. Although three-piece bifocal IOLs can be implanted in the sulcus, this form of IOL can be vulnerable to tilt and decentration, thus causing aberration and photopic phenomena, such as halos and glares. However, visual axis centered optic capture using femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) is able to manage such complex operations...
2018: International Medical Case Reports Journal
Eliane C Jorge, Edson N Jorge, Mayra Botelho, Joyce G Farat, Gianni Virgili, Regina El Dib
BACKGROUND: Diabetic macular oedema (DMO) is a complication of diabetic retinopathy and one of the most common causes of visual impairment in people with diabetes. Clinically significant macular oedema (CSMO) is the most severe form of DMO. Intravitreal antiangiogenic therapy is now the standard treatment for DMO involving the centre of the macula, but laser photocoagulation is still used in milder or non-central DMO. OBJECTIVES: To access the efficacy and safety of laser photocoagulation as monotherapy in the treatment of diabetic macular oedema...
October 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Fidel Vega, Maria S Millán, Nuria Garzón, Irene Altemir, Francisco Poyales, Jose Manuel Larrosa
The optical quality of a set of IOLs (modeling set: one monofocal and two bifocals) was assessed through focus by the area under the modulation transfer function (MTFa) metric and related to the visual acuity (VA) defocus curves of pseudophakic patients implanted with said IOLs. A non-linear relationship between the MTFa and clinical VA was obtained with an asymptotic limit found to be the best VA achievable by the patients. Two mathematical fitting functions between clinical VA and MTFa were derived with high correlation coefficients (R2 ≥0...
October 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Rachel Koch, Lina Roa, Jordan Pyda, Monica Kerrigan, Ernest Barthélemy, John G Meara
BACKGROUND: The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has made unparalleled contributions to global health and human development by bringing together generous funding, strategic partnerships, and innovative leadership. For the last twenty years, the Gates Foundation has supported the expansion of programs that directly address the fundamental barriers to the advancement of marginalized communities around the globe, with a transformative focus on innovations to combat communicable diseases and to ensure maternal and child health...
October 10, 2018: Surgery
Praveen J Patel, David H Steel, Christoph Hirneiß, John Brazier, Abdalla Aly, Benedicte Lescrauwaet
OBJECTIVES: To report the prevalence and severity of metamorphopsia, estimate its impact on vision-related quality of life (VRQoL) and evaluate predictors of VRQoL in patients with vitreomacular traction (VMT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective, cross-sectional multi-centre study in the United Kingdom of 185 patients with VMT, with or without a full thickness macular hole (FTMH). Self-reported metamorphopsia was determined using the metamorphopsia questionnaire...
October 12, 2018: Eye
Mette Kjer Kaltoft, Jesper Bo Nielsen, Jack Dowie
In this vision paper we envisage paradigmatic change transforming the health professional from the empowered agent of a dependent patient into the final decision supporter of an empowered person; a person who comes equipped with the preliminary opinion of an apomediative personalised decision support tool and the enhanced health decision literacy it produces. The anomalies in the current paradigm that will produce this change arise from unworkable attempts to combine multicriterial personal preferences and the best available evidence in a medical reasoning model...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Rodolfo Mastropasqua, Luca Agnifili, Leonardo Mastropasqua
The tear film (TF) is a trilaminar and dynamic fluid covering the entire ocular surface (OS), consisting of a mucus, aqueous, and lipid layer deeply interacting between them. Because of its structure and functions, TF plays a pivotal role in the preservation of the OS integrity and the quality of vision. Medical therapy for glaucoma is recognized to profoundly disturb the OS homeostasis by altering all components of the ocular surface unit, including TF. The presence of preservatives, the number of daily eye drops instillations, and the duration of therapy are the main contributors to TF changes...
October 9, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Awrajaw Dessie, Fentahun Adane, Ansha Nega, Sintayehu Daba Wami, Daniel Haile Chercos
Background: Globally, computer is one of the common office tools used in various institutions. Using computer for prolonged time led to the users at greater health risk of computer vision syndrome (CVS). Computer vision syndrome is the leading occupational health problem of the twenty-first century. About 70 percent of computer users are suffered from CVS. Besides the health problems, CVS causes inefficiency at workplace and deteriorate quality of work. The problem of CVS and its risk factors are not well known in Ethiopia...
2018: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
W Daniel Stamer, Andrew M Williams, Stephen Pflugfelder, Sarah E Coupland
Purpose: To assess experiences of vision scientists concerning the availability, quality, and documentation of human eye tissue for research, and to elicit researcher feedback about the establishment of an online portal that pairs eye bank capabilities with researcher needs. Methods: An online survey was designed by a working group of vision scientists and eye bank personnel and sent to members of ARVO. Results: A total of 407 responses were received from across ARVO scientific sections and career stages...
October 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Herdiana Herdiana, Jana Fitria Kartika Sari, Maxine Whittaker
INTRODUCTION: Vector Borne Diseases (VBDs) have a major impact on public health and socio-economic development. Inter-sectoral collaboration was recommended as one of the key elements of Integrated Vector Management (IVM), however limited evidence measures the effect and contribution of intersectoral approaches including but not only IVM. This systematic review aims to assess the existing evidence on all forms of inter-sectoral collaboration in VBD control and prevention, identify any gaps and develop a framework from a global perspective...
2018: PloS One
Xinfeng Zhang, Weisi Lin, Shiqi Wang, Jiaying Liu, Siwei Ma, Wen Gao
Image quality assessment (IQA) has attracted more and more attentions due to the urgent demand in image services. The perceptual-based image compression is one of the most prominent applications that requires IQA metrics to be highly correlated with human vision. To explore IQA algorithms that are more consistent with human vision, several calibrated databases have been constructed. However, the distorted images in the existing databases are usually generated by corrupting the pristine images with various distortions in coarse levels, such that the IQA algorithms validated on them may be inefficient to optimize perceptual-based image compression with fine-grained quality differences...
October 8, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
S R Catford, R I McLachlan, M K O'Bryan, J L Halliday
BACKGROUND: A significant increase in the use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) since its introduction in 1992 has been observed worldwide, including beyond its original intended use for severe male factor infertility. Concerns regarding ICSI include the effects of poor quality spermatozoa on offspring health and future fertility, and of the technique itself. The health and development of ICSI-conceived children beyond early infancy have not been comprehensively assessed. OBJECTIVE: A systematic review of health outcomes of ICSI-conceived offspring beyond the neonatal period compared to spontaneously conceived (SC) offspring...
September 17, 2018: Andrology
Sembagamuthu Sembiah, Bobby Paul, Aparajita Dasgupta, Lina Bandyopadhyay
Indian health sector is a complex admixture of public and private providers, but several lacunae of public health service delivery system in terms of human resource, access, and quality have resulted in unprecedented growth of private sector. Although seamless delivery of services at rural and urban areas, timely approach, and improved information technology system are the strength of the private sector, this package comes at the cost of high out-of-pocket expenditure. Mobilization of private sector health workforce by their capacity building in terms of orientation toward public health services is one of the available solutions to move toward wider coverage of public health services...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
Holbrook Hill Stoecklein, Scott T Youngquist
Survival for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is, on average, approximately 10% but considerable variability exists among emergency medical services (EMS) systems across the United States. The medical director of an EMS system has considerable control and influence over outcomes in a system by developing evidence-based protocols and overseeing a robust system of quality assurance. A vision for system-level oversight of care that includes continuous data collection and assessment, personally delivered and constructive feedback to providers, and a constant drive for improvement can result in improvements in both processes and patient-centered outcomes...
August 2018: Cardiology Clinics
Radka Andrysikova, Simon Pot, Simon Rüegg, Jitka Markova, Eliska Horackova, Filip Kolos, Katrin Voelter, Bernhard Spiess
OBJECTIVE: To screen a closed herd of the Old Kladruber Horses (OKH) for the prevalence of ocular disorders and report normal ocular variations. ANIMALS STUDIED: Two hundred and sixty-one horses, 122 Old Kladruber Gray Horses, and 139 Old Kladruber Black Horses owned by the National Stud Farm Kladruby nad Labem, Czech Republic, were included in the study with signalment and pedigree information recorded. PROCEDURES: Bilateral ocular examination of manually restrained horses was performed in a darkened environment by a single examiner (RA), using a portable slit-lamp biomicroscope, direct ophthalmoscope, and monocular indirect ophthalmoscopy using a Finnoff transilluminator and 20 D condensing lens...
October 5, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Eren Demir, David Southern, Aimee Verner, Winfried Amoaku
BACKGROUND: Advances in the management of retinal diseases have been fast-paced as new treatments become available, resulting in increasing numbers of patients receiving treatment in hospital retinal services. These patients require frequent and long-term follow-up and repeated treatments, resulting in increased pressure on clinical workloads. Due to limited clinic capacity, many National Health Service (NHS) clinics are failing to maintain recommended follow-up intervals for patients receiving care...
October 4, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
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