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quality of vision

Paulin-Bertrand Nguina Ekeme
INTRODUCTION: Researchers on skills management insist on the need to have a context-based approach. We highlight the components of a grid of key skills of health professionals in public hospitals of different categories in the city of Yaoundé in Cameroon. METHOD: In order to have a global vision of the design, implementation, evaluation and practices around the key competencies of health professionals, 43 semi-directive interviews were validated with actors with different functions and positions...
October 22, 2018: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
Martin Donnelley, David W Parsons
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a progressive, chronic and debilitating genetic disease caused by mutations in the CF Transmembrane-Conductance Regulator ( CFTR ) gene. Unrelenting airway disease begins in infancy and produces a steady deterioration in quality of life, ultimately leading to premature death. While life expectancy has improved, current treatments for CF are neither preventive nor curative. Since the discovery of CFTR the vision of correcting the underlying genetic defect - not just treating the symptoms - has been developed to where it is poised to become a transformative technology...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Sebastian Salazar-Colores, Eduardo Cabal-Yepez, Juan M Ramos-Arreguin, Guillermo Botella, Luis M Ledesma-Carrillo, Sergio Ledesma
Outdoor images are used in a vast number of applications, such as surveillance, remote sensing, and autonomous navigation. The greatest issue with these types of images is the effect of environmental pollution: haze, smog, and fog originating from suspended particles in the air, such as dust, carbon and water drops, which cause degradation to the image. The elimination of this type of degradation is essential for the input of computer vision systems. Most of the state-of-the-art research in dehazing algorithms is focused on improving the estimation of transmission maps, which are also known as depth maps...
December 7, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
M H J Hollander, M Contini, J W Pott, A Vissink, R H Schepers, J Jansma
OBJECTIVE: Various functional outcomes after upper blepharoplasty are reported in the literature. We systematically reviewed the literature to assess the objective and subjective functional effects of upper blepharoplasty. METHODS: After a systematic search of four search engines (Pubmed, Embase, Cinahl and Cochraine), any study on objective and subjective (patient reported) functional outcome after upper blepharoplasty was subjected to a quality assessment for possible inclusion in the review...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
Sharmeela Saha, Jay B Wish
The responsibilities of a dialysis unit medical director are specified in the ESRD Conditions for Coverage and encompass multiple quality, safety, and educational domains. Many of these responsibilities require leadership skills that are neither intuitive nor acquired as part of the medical director's training. An effective medical director is able to shape the culture of the dialysis facility such that patients and staff feel free to communicate their concerns regarding suboptimal processes without fear of retribution, and there is a continuous iterative process of quality improvement and safety, which values input from all stakeholders...
November 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
Brigitte Schiller
The early beginning of the end-stage kidney disease program with the introduction of the Medicare Act of 1973 was marked by nephrologist entrepreneurs pioneering dialysis centers to deliver dialysis addressing the clinical needs of patients in a collaborative effort between physicians and nurses. As the number of patients grew, a system reliably providing dialysis treatments for many more patients than was ever anticipated was required to enable the demands of the increased scale. Solutions appropriate to respond to the growing needs of out-patient dialysis centers were developed combining emerging technology, clinical advances, and operational efficiency...
November 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
John Hovanesian, Edward Holland
PURPOSE: To compare patient-reported tolerability, impact on quality of life, interference with activities of daily life, and ocular surface toxicity of branded nepafenac 0.3% and generic ketorolac 0.5% after cataract surgery. SETTING: Harvard Eye Associates, Laguna Hills, California, and the Cincinnati Eye Institute, Ohio, USA. DESIGN: Prospective case series. METHODS: One eye of each patient was randomized to receive ketorolac 0...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Wendy A Wells, Michael T Harhen, Michael J Thrall, Maria M Shevchuk, Guillermo J Tearney, Lida P Hariri
CONTEXT.—: Our patients are now demanding value for their medical diagnoses and treatment in terms of optimal costs, quality, and outcomes. The financial justification for the introduction of new emerging technologies that may better meet these needs will depend on many factors, even if there is an established reimbursement code. In vivo and ex vivo microscopic technologies (IVM and EVM, respectively) will be used as examples of potentially transforming technologies. OBJECTIVE...
December 10, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Victoria H Fan, Lauren E Grosberg, Sasidhar S Madugula, Pawel Hottowy, Wladyslaw Dabrowski, Alexander Sher, Alan M Litke, E J Chichilnisky
Epiretinal prostheses are designed to restore vision in people blinded by photoreceptor degenerative diseases, by directly activating retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) using an electrode array implanted on the retina. In present-day clinical devices, current spread from the stimulating electrode to a distant return electrode often results in the activation of many cells, potentially limiting the quality of artificial vision. In the laboratory, epiretinal activation of RGCs with cellular resolution has been demonstrated with small electrodes, but distant returns may still cause undesirable current spread...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Ving Fai Chan, Graeme E MacKenzie, Jordan Kassalow, Ella Gudwin, Nathan Congdon
Presbyopia affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, and the number is growing rapidly due to the aging global population. Uncorrected presbyopia is the world's leading cause of vision impairment, and as with other causes, the burden falls unfairly on low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where rates of presbyopic correction are as low as 10%. The importance of presbyopia as a cause of vision impairment is further underscored by the fact that it strikes at the heart of the productive working years, although it can be safely and effectively treated with a pair of inexpensive glasses...
December 7, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
Jason H Peragallo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the recent advances in understanding how primary brain tumors affect vision in children. RECENT FINDINGS: Children with primary brain tumors may have vision loss due to involvement of their afferent visual pathways or from papilledema. These vision deficits may go unrecognized until later in life, years after treatment of the primary lesion. Strabismus and cranial nerve palsies may occur as a result of brain tumors. Ophthalmologists can monitor and treat young children at risk for vision loss from amblyopia as a result of effects from their underlying lesion...
December 3, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Jason C Yam, Yuning Jiang, Shu Min Tang, Antony K P Law, Joyce J Chan, Emily Wong, Simon T Ko, Alvin L Young, Clement C Tham, Li Jia Chen, Chi Pui Pang
PURPOSE: Low-concentration atropine is an emerging therapy for myopia progression, but its efficacy and optimal concentration remain uncertain. Our study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of low-concentration atropine eye drops at 0.05%, 0.025%, and 0.01% compared with placebo over a 1-year period. DESIGN: Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked trial. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 438 children aged 4 to 12 years with myopia of at least -1...
July 6, 2018: Ophthalmology
Duncan C Meyers, Celene E Domitrovich, Rawan Dissi, Jordan Trejo, Mark T Greenberg
A strong body of research indicates that evidence-based programs designed to promote social and emotional learning (SEL) can lead to positive developmental outcomes for children and youth. Although these evidence-based programs have demonstrated benefits for students, it is also well-established that programs must be implemented with quality and sustained to maximize positive outcomes. To support schools in implementing SEL that is integrated into all aspects of a school community, the CASEL School Guide implementation model was developed to guide school leadership teams in establishing a vision; selecting, implementing, and sustaining evidence-based programs; and integrating SEL schoolwide...
November 10, 2018: Evaluation and Program Planning
Mala D Naraine, Deborah I Fels, Margot Whitfield
Audio description (AD) is one of the main methods that people who are blind or low vision (B/LV) use to access film, television, and theatre content. AD is a second audio track inserted into the space(s) where speech is absent, which tends to be only a few seconds. Contained in that second track is an audio description of the important visual information contained within a specific scene. However, as there is insufficient time to describe all visual information, decisions about what is important to describe and how to present that information (style) to optimize a B/LV viewer's entertainment experience are required...
2018: PloS One
Hermine Chatoux, Noel Richard, Francois Lecellier, Christine Fernandez-Maloigne
Gradient extraction is important for a lot of metrological applications such as Control Quality by Vision. In this work, we propose a full-vector gradient for multi-spectral sensors. The full-vector gradient extends Di Zenzo expression to take into account the non-orthogonality of the acquisition channels thanks to a Gram matrix. This expression is generic and independent from channel count. Results are provided for a color and a multi-spectral snapshot sensor. Then, we show the accuracy improvement of the gradient calculation by creating a dedicated objective test and from real images...
November 28, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Mirella T S Barboni, Zsuzsanna Récsán, Zsuzsanna Szepessy, Mónika Ecsedy, Balázs Vince Nagy, Dora F Ventura, Zoltán Zsolt Nagy, János Németh
Biofeedback training has been used to improve fixation stability in subjects with central vision loss, but the psychophysiological mechanisms underlying the functional improvements resulted was not reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of microperimetric biofeedback training on different visual functions and self-reported quality of vision in subjects with age-related macular degeneration. This case-control study included six subjects (72.0 ± 6.1 years of age) diagnosed with age-related macular degeneration (wet or dry) with low vision (best corrected visual acuity ranging from 0...
November 30, 2018: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
Susanne Menzel, Thomas Hummel, Laura Schäfer, Cornelia Hummel, Ilona Croy
The human olfactory system is characterized by poor temporal and spatial resolution. When determining changes in the environment, humans rather rely on visual than on olfactory information. Against this background, we developed a test in order to investigate the human capacity to detect changes in the olfactory environment and to determine potential modulators of olfactory change detection. Participants consecutively received four odors (2 odor qualities in 2 concentrations each) which were presented via a computer-controlled olfactometer...
November 27, 2018: Biological Psychology
N G Dediashvili, V M Sheludchenko
Spectral light filters - glasses and intraocular lenses - are widely used in ophthalmology and optometry. Light filters help increase vision clarity, contrast and quality in patients with ocular media opacities and other eye diseases. The article describes the types of light filters and the methods of their clinical application, and presents data on the influence of intra- and extraocular spectral correction on electrophysiological parameters of the retina.
2018: Vestnik Oftalmologii
Shizuka Koh
Visual disturbances were included in the definition of dry eye disease in the 2007 Dry Eye Workshop report. As a result, quality of vision (QoV) in dry eye patients has received increased attention. Corneal topography and wavefront sensors have been used to objectively and quantitatively evaluate optical quality, with data showing increases in irregular astigmatism and higher-order aberrations (HOAs) in dry eye patients. Furthermore, ocular optical characteristics are influenced by the tear film, which constantly fluctuates over time...
November 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Minako Kaido
Dry eye (DE) causes irregularity of the ocular surface and reduces the quality of vision. An intact, regular tear film is essential for high-quality retinal images; however, visual tasks requiring sustained gazing can disrupt the tear film, eventually degrading visual function. A functional visual acuity (FVA) measurement system has been uniquely developed in Japan to evaluate visual function related to tear stability in patients with DE. FVA has been shown to correlate with optical quality. The system measures the change in visual acuity (VA) over time automatically in aqueous-deficient DE and short tear breakup tear film DE characterized by decreased tear stability and minimal epithelial damage...
November 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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