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Systematic Review and Neurology

Melissa Knott, Sherrilene Classen, Sarah Krasniuk, Marisa Tippett, Liliana Alvarez
BACKGROUND: The majority of shift workers experience insufficient sleep as a result of their employment. Insufficient sleep is associated with impaired neurocognitive functioning, affecting key skills required for driving, resulting in shift workers experiencing a disproportionate burden of RTC injuries and fatalities. Yet, to our knowledge, no systematic literature review (SLR) exists to critically appraise and synthesise evidence on the determinants of fitness to drive (assessed on-road) and driving performance (assessed in a driving simulator) in shift workers with insufficient sleep...
December 15, 2018: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
Amer Harky, Chris Ho Ming Wong, Jeffrey Shi Kai Chan, Shady Zaki, Saied Froghi, Mohamad Bashir
OBJECTIVE: The innominate artery is considered an alternative site for establishing cardiopulmonary bypass in surgical procedures involving the thoracic aorta. This systematic review examines the use of innominate artery cannulation in aortic surgery. METHODS: A systematic literature search was undertaken among the four major databases (PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Ovid) to identify all studies that utilized innominate artery cannulation for establishing cardiopulmonary bypass and providing cerebral perfusion in thoracic aortic surgery...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Cardiac Surgery
Qiang Zhang, Bo Liu, Zhijiang Qi, Chunsheng Li
OBJECTIVE: We systematically reviewed the literature to investigate whether gasping could predict short and long outcomes in patients with out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched for observational studies regarding the prognostic effect of gasping on short and long outcomes in adults with OHCA. The primary outcome was return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The secondary outcomes were favorable neurological outcome at discharge or at 30 days after cardiac arrest;long term (≥6 months) survival; initial shockable rhythm...
December 14, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Xiong-Gang Yang, Deng-Xing Lun, Yong-Cheng Hu, Yong-Heng Liu, Feng Wang, Jiang-Tao Feng, Kun-Chi Hua, Li Yang, Hao Zhang, Ming-You Xu, Hao-Ran Zhang
BACKGROUND: Cancer patients' survival time has obviously improved, with the development of systemic treatment techniques. However, the probability of metastases to the vertebrae has also been increased which makes some adverse effects on patients' quality of life. The prediction of survival plays a key role in choosing therapeutic modality, and Tokuhashi Score was established as one of the most commonly used predictive systems for spinal metastases. Thus, this study was conducted to identify the prognostic effect of factors involved in revised Tokuhashi Score (RTS)...
December 13, 2018: BMC Cancer
Robert Harper, Eric Klineberg
PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to review the evidence-based approach for surgical complications following disc herniation. METHODS: A search of the primary English literature was conducted for research examining the outcomes and complications of surgical discectomy. Special regard was given to high-quality prospective randomized studies. RESULTS: The most commonly reported complications of surgical treatment of disc herniation are included in this review...
December 12, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Caspar Godthaab Sørensen, William Kristian Karlsson, Faisal Mohammad Amin, Mette Lindelof
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Metronidazole, a commonly used antibiotic drug, can cause adverse effects in the central nervous system termed metronidazole-induced encephalopathy, leading to diagnostic challenges. The condition is rare and a detailed description of its phenotype is lacking. In this systematic review we investigated the clinical features of metronidazole-induced encephalopathy to promote recognition and elaborate the description. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search using PubMed...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Shaotao Weng, Wanqi Wang, Quantang Wei, Huanzhen Lan, Jing Su, Yimin Xu
OBJECTIVE: Tranexamic acid (TXA) reduces hemorrhage volume and consequently the need for operative intervention. However, its effectiveness and safety in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients is unclear. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the safety and efficacy of TXA in TBI patients. METHODS: In July 2018, a systematic search for studies including TBI patients treated with TXA was conducted using PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases...
December 6, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Dabin Ji, Steven L Goudy, Mehul V Raval, Nikhila Raol
BACKGROUND: Pediatric surgical risk assessment tools use patient- and procedure-specific variables to predict postoperative complications. These tools assist clinicians in preoperative counseling and surgical decision-making. The objective of this systematic literature review was to compile and compare existing pediatric surgical risk tools that are broadly applicable across pediatric surgical specialties. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) guidelines...
February 2019: Journal of Surgical Research
Ornella Ciccone, Chishala Chabala, Owen Tembo, Manoj Mathew, Alice K Grollnek, Archana A Patel, Gretchen L Birbeck
Objective: Despite the heavy burden of epilepsy in Sub-Saharan Africa, there remains a relative paucity of neurophysiology services and limited published data on electroencephalography (EEG) features among African children. The aim of this study was to describe clinical characteristics, EEG findings, and antiepileptic drug (AED) use among children referred for EEG to the University Teaching Hospital in Zambia. Methods: EEG referrals and reports from 2013-2015 were reviewed...
December 2018: Epilepsia Open
Mark Howard, Christina Ramsenthaler
BACKGROUND: Driving is a complex activity that requires physical abilities and adequate executive and cognitive functioning. There is concern among specialist palliative care services about patients continuing to drive despite having progressive incurable illnesses, comorbidities and medications to manage their symptoms. OBJECTIVES: To determine the quality of literature available about driving that would apply to palliative care patients, specifically in relation to road test or simulated driving scores and neurocognitive testing...
December 6, 2018: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
Ian A Harris, Adrian Traeger, Ralph Stanford, Christopher G Maher, Rachelle Buchbinder
Lumbar spine fusion is a common procedure associated with a high cost burden and risk of serious complications. We aimed to summarise systematic reviews on the effectiveness of lumbar spine fusion for most diagnoses. We found no high-quality systematic reviews and the risk of bias of the randomised controlled trials in the reviews was generally high. The available evidence does not support a benefit from spine fusion compared to non-operative alternatives for back pain associated with degeneration. The available evidence does not support a clinical benefit from spine fusion compared to non-operative treatment or stabilisation without fusion for thoracolumbar burst fractures...
December 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
Alexander J Martin, Christopher I Price
BACKGROUND: Early neurological deterioration (END) following acute stroke is associated with poorer long-term outcomes. Identification of patients at risk could assist early monitoring and treatment decisions. This review summarised the evidence describing non-radiological biomarkers for END. SUMMARY: Electronic searches from January 1990 to March 2017 identified studies reporting a blood/cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/urine biomarker measurement within 24 h of acute stroke and at least 2 serial assessments of clinical neurological status (< 24 h and < 7 days)...
December 5, 2018: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Sniya Valsa Sudhakar, Karthik Muthusamy, Manohar Shroff
Brain has been considered as an immune-privileged site for centuries owing to the presence of blood-brain barrier, absent lymphatic drainage, and antigen-presenting cells. However, the present prevailing concept is of immune surveillance where brain is continuously surveyed by immune cells. However, the presence of immune cells in central nervous system (CNS) brings the risk of inflammation and autoimmunity involving both T and B cell mediated pathways. These mechanisms form the underlying pathology in a wide spectrum of pediatric CNS diseases manifesting as acquired neurological deficits...
December 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Alejandro A Rabinstein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article discusses the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to patients who are comatose and reviews the current knowledge on prognosis from various causes of coma. This article also provides an overview of the principles for determination of brain death as well as advice on how to avoid common pitfalls. RECENT FINDINGS: Technologic advances have refined our understanding of the physiology of consciousness and the spectrum of disorders of consciousness; they also promise to improve our prognostic accuracy...
December 2018: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Sophie O'Keefe, Mandy Stanley, Kerry Adam, Natasha A Lannin
Purpose Addressing return to work early after neurological impairment from stroke or moderate and severe traumatic brain injury may improve likelihood of returning to employment, yet little is known about how best to organize work interventions for delivery in the inpatient hospital setting. The purpose of this scoping review was to identify knowledge gaps and inform program development in hospital-based work interventions. Method We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, OTSeeker and Embase for English-language articles published from database inception until March 2018...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation
Thais Massetti, Talita Dias da Silva, Tânia Brusque Crocetta, Regiani Guarnieri, Bruna Leal de Freitas, Priscila Bianchi Lopes, Suzanna Watson, James Tonks, Carlos Bandeira de Mello Monteiro
Background: Virtual reality (VR) experiences (through games and virtual environments) are increasingly being used in physical, cognitive, and psychological interventions. However, the impact of VR as an approach to rehabilitation is not fully understood, and its advantages over traditional rehabilitation techniques are yet to be established. Method: We present a systematic review which was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA)...
2018: Journal of Central Nervous System Disease
A C Panayi, A R Orkaby, D Sakthivel, Y Endo, D Varon, D Roh, D P Orgill, R L Neppl, H Javedan, S Bhasin, I Sinha
IMPORTANCE: Age has historically been used to predict negative post-surgical outcomes. The concept of frailty was introduced to explain the discrepancies that exist between patients' chronological and physiological age. The efficacy of the modified frailty index (mFI) to predict surgical risk is not clear. OBJECTIVE: We sought to synthesize the current literature to quantify the impact of frailty as a prognostic indicator across all surgical specialties. DATA SOURCES: Pubmed and Cochrane databases were screened from inception to 1 January 2018...
November 27, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
Amey R Savardekar, Devi P Patra, Vinayak Narayan, Jai D Thakur, Anil Nanda
BACKGROUND: Complications arising from cerebral venous occlusion/sacrifice during neurosurgical procedures have received comparatively less attention in the neurosurgical literature. Consequently, cerebral venous complications are not given due recognition, even though most practicing neurosurgeons would agree that they are not uncommon. We present a review of complications arising from venous sacrifice/occlusion during neurosurgery and discuss strategies described in the literature to prevent such occurrences...
November 2018: World Neurosurgery
Saiyun Hou, Billy Huh, Hee Kee Kim, Kyung-Hoon Kim, Salahadin Abdi
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a commonly encountered disease entity following chemotherapy for cancer treatment. Although only duloxetine is recommended by the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) for the treatment of CIPN in 2014, the evidence of the clinical outcome for new pharmaceutic therapies and non-pharmaceutic treatments has not been clearly determined. OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive review and evidence-based recommendations on the treatment of CIPN...
November 2018: Pain Physician
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