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Systematic Review and Neurology

Gustavo Noffs, Thushara Perera, Scott Camaron Kolbe, Camille Jessica Shanahan, Frederique Maria Christina Boonstra, Andrew Evans, Helmut Butzkueven, Anneke van der Walt, Adam Phillip Vogel
IMPORTANCE: Multiple sclerosis produces neurological impairments that are variable in duration, severity and quality. Speech is frequently impaired, resulting in decreased communication skills and quality of life. Advancements in technology now makes it possible to use quantitative acoustic assessment of speech as biomarkers of disease progression. OBSERVATIONS: Four domains of speech have been identified: articulation (slow articulation and imprecise consonants), voice (pitch and loudness instability), respiration (decreased phonatory time and expiratory pressure) and prosody (longer and frequent pauses, deficient loudness control)...
October 11, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
David Michelson, Emma Ciafaloni, Stephen Ashwal, Elliot Lewis, Pushpa Narayanaswami, Maryam Oskoui, Melissa J Armstrong
OBJECTIVE: To identify the level of evidence for use of nusinersen to treat spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and review clinical considerations regarding use. METHODS: The author panel systematically reviewed nusinersen clinical trials for patients with SMA and assigned level of evidence statements based on the American Academy of Neurology's 2017 therapeutic classification of evidence scheme. Safety information, regulatory decisions, and clinical context were also reviewed...
October 12, 2018: Neurology
Snehil Dixit, Jaya Shankar Tedla
PURPOSE: the primary focus of this review was to find out the effectiveness of robotics in improving upper extremity functions among people with neurological problems in the arena of physical rehabilitation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two reviewers independently scrutinized the included studies. The selected studies underwent quality assessment by PEDro scale. Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) having a score of 4 or more were included in the review. A search was conducted in PUBMED, MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PROQUEST, science direct, Cochrane Library, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and Google Scholar...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
Eric Albrecht, Leon Vorobeichik, Alain Jacot-Guillarmod, Nicolas Fournier, Faraj W Abdallah
BACKGROUND: Both dexamethasone and dexmedetomidine are effective peripheral nerve block (PNB) perineural adjuncts that prolong block duration. However, each is associated with side effects. With paucity of head-to-head comparisons of these adjuncts, the question of the best adjunct to mix with local anesthetics (LA) for PNB is unanswered. This meta-analysis aims to inform current practice and future research by identifying the superior adjunct by comparing dexamethasone and dexmedetomidine...
October 9, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Dalila Masic, Edith Liang, Christina Long, Ethan J Sterk, Brian Barbas, Megan A Rech
The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of intravenous (IV) lidocaine for the treatment of acute pain in adult patients. The PubMed database was searched for randomized controlled trials, retrospective cohort studies, case series, and case reports evaluating use of IV lidocaine for the treatment of acute pain in adult patients, published between January 1970 and January 2018. The primary outcome was pain reduction via Visual Analog Scale, Verbal Rating Scale, or Numeric Rating Scale among patients treated with IV lidocaine and placebo or active controls...
October 10, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
Ann Monahan, Joanne Guay, John Hajduk, Santhanam Suresh
BACKGROUND: The aim of this systematic review was to compare the effects of regional analgesic (RA) techniques with systemic analgesia on postoperative pain, nausea and vomiting, resources utilization, reoperation, death, and complications of the analgesic techniques in children undergoing cardiac surgery. METHODS: A search was done in May 2018 in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomized controlled trials comparing RA techniques with systemic analgesia...
October 8, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
John H Chi, Kurt M Eichholz, Paul A Anderson, Paul M Arnold, Andrew T Dailey, Sanjay S Dhall, James S Harrop, Daniel J Hoh, Sheeraz Qureshi, Craig H Rabb, P B Raksin, Michael G Kaiser, John E O'Toole
BACKGROUND: Treatment of thoracolumbar burst fractures has traditionally involved spinal instrumentation with fusion performed with standard open surgical techniques. Novel surgical strategies, including instrumentation without fusion and percutaneous instrumentation alone, have been considered less invasive and more efficient treatments. OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature and determine the role of fusion in instrumented fixation, as well as the role of percutaneous instrumentation, in the treatment of patients with thoracolumbar burst fractures...
October 8, 2018: Neurosurgery
Jack S Bell, Jonathan I Spencer, Richard L Yates, Sydney A Yee, Benjamin M Jacobs, Gabriele C DeLuca
Inflammation and neurodegeneration are key features of many chronic neurological diseases, yet the causative mechanisms underlying these processes are poorly understood. There has been mounting interest in the role of the human microbiome in modulating the inflammatory milieu of the central nervous system in health and disease. To date, most research has focussed on a gut-brain axis, with other mucosal surfaces being relatively neglected. We herein take the novel approach of comprehensively reviewing the roles of the microbiome across several key mucosal interfaces - the nose, mouth, lung, and gut - in health and in Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and multiple sclerosis (MS)...
October 8, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
Marlène Guillon, Lise Rochaix, Jean-Claude K Dupont
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to review evidence on the cost-effectiveness of exercise-based interventions in the treatment of chronic conditions a decade after the publication of Roine et al. in 2009 (Roine E, Roine RP, Räsänen P, et al. Int J Technol Assess Health Care. 2009;25:427-454). METHODS: We carried out a review of published articles in PUBMED and JSTOR between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2016. Full economic evaluations of exercise programs targeting patients with a chronic condition were eligible for inclusion...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
Angela O'Rourke, Emma Power, Robyn O'Halloran, Rachael Rietdijk
BACKGROUND: Communication partner training (CPT) programmes for health and care staff working with people with the neurologically based communication disorders associated with stroke, traumatic brain injury (TBI) and dementia are efficacious in improving communication. However, current programmes are lengthy and disorder specific, and therefore may not be suitable as staff training tools in environments with people with multiple communication disorders, and services with a variety of neurological populations...
October 7, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
Leigh White, Thomas Melhuish, Rhys Holyoak, Thomas Ryan, Hannah Kempton, Ruan Vlok
OBJECTIVES: To assess the difference in survival and neurological outcomes between endotracheal tube (ETT) intubation and supraglottic airway (SGA) devices used during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). METHODS: A systematic search of five databases was performed by two independent reviewers until September 2018. Included studies reported on (1) OHCA or cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and (2) endotracheal intubation versus supraglottic airway device intubation...
September 26, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Molly O Regelmann, Manmohan Kamboj, Bradley S Miller, Jon M Nakamoto, Kyriakie Sarafoglou, Sejal Shah, Takara L Stanley, Rose Marino
Context: Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a peroxisomal disorder associated with neurologic decompensation and adrenal insufficiency. Newborn screening for ALD has recently been implemented in five states with plans to expand to all 50 states in the US. Adrenal insufficiency ultimately develops in most males with ALD but the earliest age of onset is not well established. Objective: These clinical recommendations are intended to address screening for adrenal insufficiency in boys identified to have ALD by newborn screen...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Farzad Fatehi, Aude-Marie Grapperon, Davood Fathi, Emilien Delmont, Shahram Attarian
The need for a valid biomarker for assessing disease progression and for use in clinical trials on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has stimulated the study of methods that could measure the number of motor units. Motor unit number index (MUNIX) is a newly developed neurophysiological technique that was demonstrated to have a good correlation with the number of motor units in a given muscle, even though it does not necessarily accurately express the actual number of viable motor neurons. Several studies demonstrated the technique is reproducible and capable of following motor neuron loss in patients with ALS and peripheral polyneuropathies...
October 1, 2018: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
Emmanuel Touzé, Andrew M Southerland, Marion Boulanger, Paul-Emile Labeyrie, Michel Azizi, Nabila Bouatia-Naji, Stéphanie Debette, Heather L Gornik, Shazam M Hussain, Xavier Jeunemaitre, Julien Joux, Adam Kirton, Claire Le Hello, Jennifer J Majersik, J Mocco, Alexandre Persu, Aditya Sharma, Bradford B Worrall, Jeffrey W Olin, Pierre-François Plouin
Importance: Data on neurologic manifestations of fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) are rare, and current knowledge remains limited. Objectives: To present a comprehensive review of the epidemiologic characteristics, management, and prognosis of the neurologic manifestations associated with cerebrovascular FMD (ie, involving cervical or intracranial arteries) and to guide future research priorities. Evidence Review: References were identified through searches of PubMed from inception to December 2017 using both the medical subject headings and text words...
October 1, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Keylla da Conceição Machado, Muhammad Torequl Islam, Eunüs S Ali, Razina Rouf, Shaikh Jamal Uddin, Shrabanti Dev, Jamil A Shilpi, Manik Chandra Shill, Hasan Mahmud Reza, Asish Kumar Das, Subrata Shaw, Mohammad S Mubarak, Siddhartha Kumar Mishra, Ana Amelia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante
Beta (β)-caryophyllene (BCAR) is a major sesquiterpene of various plant essential oils reported for several important pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, nephroprotective, antimicrobial, and immune-modulatory activity. Recent studies suggest that it also possesses neuroprotective effect. This study reviews published reports pertaining to the neuropharmacological activities of BCAR. Databases such as PubMed, Scopus, MedLine Plus, and Google Scholar with keywords "beta (β)-caryophyllene" and other neurological keywords were searched...
October 3, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Maria C De Cola, Francesco Corallo, Deborah Pria, Viviana Lo Buono, Rocco S Calabrò
INTRODUCTION: Cranioplasty is a surgical technique applied for the reconstruction of the skullcap removed during decompressive craniectomy (DC). Cranioplasty improves rehabilitation from a motor and cognitive perspective. However, it may increase the possibility of postoperative complications, such as seizures and infections. Timing of cranioplasty is therefore crucial even though literature is controversial. In this study, we compared motor and cognitive effects of early cranioplasty after DC and assess the optimal timing to perform it...
October 2, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Adeel Ilyas, Colin Przybylowski, Ching-Jen Chen, Dale Ding, Paul M Foreman, Thomas J Buell, Davis G Taylor, M Yashar Kalani, Min S Park
Neoadjuvant endovascular embolization of skull base meningiomas may facilitate surgical resection, thereby potentially decreasing operative morbidity. However, due to variation in the reported efficacy and complication rates, the utility of embolization remains incompletely defined. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the outcomes of preoperative embolization for skull base meningiomas. A literature review was performed to identify studies reporting outcomes of patients with skull base meningiomas who underwent preoperative embolization...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Frank Musiek, Stephanie Nagle
BACKGROUND: The middle latency response (MLR) first came to light as an auditory evoked potential in 1958. Since then, it has aroused substantial interest and investigation by clinicians and researchers alike. In recent history, its use and popularity have dwindled in tandem with various other auditory evoked potentials in audiology. One area for which MLR research and application has been overlooked is its potential value in measuring the neural integrity of the auditory thalamocortical pathway...
October 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
Chun-Hung Lin, Wei-Haiang Su, Ying-Chun Chen, Po-Hao Feng, Wan-Chen Shen, Jiann-Ruey Ong, Mei-Yi Wu, Chung Shun Wong
BACKGROUND: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning may result in acute neurological sequelae, cognitive sequelae, and delay neurological sequelae. The administration of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) to prevent the development of delayed neurological sequelae in CO poisoning have extensively investigated but conflicting results have been reported. We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating HBO treatment and its effect on neuropsychometric dysfunction after CO poisoning...
September 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
William B Feldman, Spencer Phillips Hey, Aaron S Kesselheim
In 1996 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) created an "exception from informed consent" (EFIC) pathway for trials conducted on people incapacitated by life-threatening conditions with a therapeutic time window too narrow for reliable surrogate consent. The goals were to promote therapeutic innovation and encourage rigorous but ethical experimentation on this vulnerable population. To evaluate outcomes of this pathway, we reviewed the complete FDA docket of EFIC trials from the past two decades, encompassing forty-one trials...
October 2018: Health Affairs
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