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Neurocognitive impairment

Jason W Allen, Milad Yazdani, Jian Kang, Marcus J Magnussen, Deqiang Qiu, William Hu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a prevalent disorder, with a subset of patients progressing to dementia each year. Although MCI may be subdivided into amnestic or vascular types as well as into single or multiple cognitive domain involvement, most prior studies using advanced diffusion imaging have not accounted for these categories. The purpose of the current study was to determine if the pattern of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) metrics in patients with amnestic MCI (aMCI) correlate to specific cognitive domain impairments...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
Whitney D Fosco, Michael J Kofler, R Matt Alderson, Stephanie J Tarle, Joseph S Raiker, Dustin E Sarver
Inhibition is a key neurocognitive domain in ADHD that is commonly assessed with the stop-signal task. The stop-signal involves both "go" and "stop" trials; previous research indicates that response times are reliably slower to "go" trials during tasks with vs. without intermittent "stop" trials. However, it is unclear whether this pattern reflects deliberate slowing to maximize inhibitory success (performance adjustment hypothesis) and/or disrupted bottom-up information processing due to increased cognitive demands (dual-task hypothesis)...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Anushka Tandon, Sunny A Linnebur, Maria V Vejar
A 78-year-old Hispanic woman presented to an ambulatory care clinic for older adults describing memory impairment and requesting an assessment of her cognitive status. A Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was performed and found to be 29/30 (normal). One year later, the same situation occurred and her MMSE was again found to be 29/30 (normal). However, a Saint Louis University Mental Status (SLUMS) examination administered that same day demonstrated a different result: a score of 19/30 (dementia). Fourteen months later, the patient returned again and scored 26/30 (normal) on the MMSE and 22/30 (mild neurocognitive disorder) on the SLUMS...
December 1, 2018: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVEPituitary adenomas and the treatment required for the underlying neuropathology have frequently been associated with cognitive dysfunction. However, the mechanisms for these impairments remain the subject of much debate. The authors evaluated cognitive outcomes in patients treated with or without Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for an underlying pituitary adenoma.METHODSThis was a retrospective, institutional review board-approved, single-institution study. A total of 51 patients (23 male, 28 female) treated for pituitary adenoma were included in this neurocognitive study...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Georgette D Kanmogne, Julius Y Fonsah, Bin Tang, Roland F Doh, Anne M Kengne, Anya Umlauf, Claude T Tagny, Emilienne Nchindap, Léopoldine Kenmogne, Donald Franklin, Dora M Njamnshi, Dora Mbanya, Alfred K Njamnshi, Robert K Heaton
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are frequently associated with impaired executive function and verbal fluency. Given limited knowledge concerning HAND in Sub-Saharan-Africa and lack of Cameroonian adult neuropsychological (NP) test norms, we administered four executive function [Halstead Category Test (HCT), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Color Trails-II (CTT2), and Stroop Color-Word-Interference (SCWT)] and three verbal fluency (Category, Action, and Letter Fluency) tests to 742 adult Cameroonians (395 HIV-, 347 HIV+)...
December 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Pariya L Fazeli, Jessica L Montoya, Chastity N McDavid, David J Moore
Background and Objective: As HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals age, there is a need to understand successful aging (SA) from the patient perspective. This study compared SA definitions between HIV+ and HIV-uninfected (HIV-) older adults and then examined correlates of SA categories. Research Design and Methods: Ninety-three HIV+ and 46 HIV- older (aged 50+) adults provided brief definitions of SA, which was examined using content analysis. We then compared the frequency of SA categories by serostatus and examined the correlates of SA categories within both groups...
December 12, 2018: Gerontologist
Gil Bar-Sela, Dina Tauber, Inbal Mitnik, Hedva Sheinman-Yuffe, Tatiana Bishara-Frolova, Judith Aharon-Peretz
OBJECTIVES: In patients with cancer, the use of medical cannabis has increased significantly during the recent years. There is evidence that cannabis consumption may affect cognitive performance; however, this potential effect has not been investigated prospectively in patients with cancer to date. We aimed to evaluate the effect of cannabis consumption on cognitive abilities as well as on symptom relief in patients with cancer during chemotherapy treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective study was carried out on a group of 17 patients on cannabis treatment (case) who were compared with 17 patients not on cannabis treatment (control)...
January 2019: Anti-cancer Drugs
David J Berlowitz, Rachel Schembri, Marnie Graco, Jacqueline M Ross, Najib Ayas, Ian Gordon, Bonne Lee, Allison Graham, Susan V Cross, Martin McClelland, Paul Kennedy, Pradeep Thumbikat, Cynthia Bennett, Andrea Townson, Timothy J Geraghty, Sue Pieri-Davies, Raj Singhal, Karen Marshall, Deborah Short, Andrew Nunn, Duncan Mortimer, Doug Brown, Robert J Pierce, Peter A Cistulli
RATIONALE: Highly prevalent and severe sleep-disordered breathing caused by acute cervical spinal cord injury (quadriplegia) is associated with neurocognitive dysfunction and sleepiness and is likely to impair rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether 3 months of autotitrating CPAP would improve neurocognitive function, sleepiness, quality of life, anxiety and depression more than usual care in acute quadriplegia. METHODS AND MEASUREMENTS: Multinational, randomised controlled trial (11 centres) from July 2009 to October 2015...
December 11, 2018: Thorax
Hanaa Khalaf Fath-Elbab, Elham Ahmed, Dina Fathy Mansour, Wail Talaat Soliman
Context: Chronic infection by hepatitis C virus causes impairment in neurocognitive function in up to 50% of patients which may not be detected by clinical tests. Aim: Early detection of neurocognitive impairment in chronic hepatitis C patients and investigating the cognitive function in HCV patient by p300 and clinical test. Materials and methods: The study included 60 patients with chronic hepatitis C and 30 healthy controls. Participants were subjected to a biochemical, hematological assessment, mini-mental state examination, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, P300, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and fibroscan made for hepatitis C patients...
2018: The Egyptian journal of neurology, psychiatry and neurosurgery
Todd Hulgan, Asha R Kallianpur, Yan Guo, Jill S Barnholtz-Sloan, Haley Gittleman, Todd T Brown, Ronald Ellis, Scott Letendre, Robert K Heaton, David C Samuels
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number varies by cell type and energy demands. Blood mtDNA copy number has been associated with neurocognitive function in persons without HIV. Low mtDNA copy number may indicate disordered mtDNA replication; high copy number may reflect a response to mitochondrial dysfunction. We hypothesized that blood mtDNA copy number estimated from genome-wide genotyping data is related to neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in persons with HIV. METHODS: In the CNS HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) study, peripheral blood mtDNA copy number was obtained from genome-wide genotyping data as a ratio of mtDNA SNP probe intensities relative to nuclear DNA SNPs...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Knut A Hestad, Jonathan Chinyama, Menon J Anitha, Mary S Ngoma, J Allen McCutchan, Donald R Franklin, Robert K Heaton
BACKGROUND: HIV infection may result in neurocognitive deficits, but the effects of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB+), a common comorbid condition in HIV infection, on cognition in HIV infections are unknown. Accordingly, we examined the effects of TB+, on neurocognitive functioning in HIV-infected (HIV+) Zambian adults. SETTING: All participants were drawn from HIV clinics in and around Lusaka, the capital of Zambia. METHODS: Participants were 275 HIV+, of whom 237 were HIV+ and TB-negative (HIV+/TB-), and 38 also had pulmonary TB+ (HIV+/TB+)...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Thea Marianne Grützner, Anuradha Sharma, Lena Listunova, Marina Bartolovic, Matthias Weisbrod, Daniela Roesch-Ely
Cognitive impairment in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) has been postulated to persist into remission. However, inconsistent definitions of clinical remission, patterns and influencing factors, isolated cognitive tasks, and the lack of appropriately matched controls (HCs) present significant limitations of previous studies. Furthermore, studies investigating cognition in partially remitted patients are particularly scarce. This study compares the cognition of MDD patients (N = 65) and HCs (N = 65), matched by one-to-one recruitment strategy for age, sex, and education (ages 19-60)...
November 20, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Amra Memic, Fabian Streit, Lejla Hasandedic, Stephanie H Witt, Jana Strohmaier, Marcella Rietschel, Lilijana Oruc
Introduction: Schizophrenia(SCZ) and Bipolar disorder (BD) are frequently occurring and impairing disorders that affect around 1% of the population. Important endophenotypes in the genetic research of SCZ and BD are cognitive functions. Core symptoms for SCZ and BD are impairments in working memory, declarative memory and attention, all of which fulfill the criteria for an endophenotype. The FK506 Binding Protein 5 (FKBP5) gene codes for a co-chaperone of the glucocorticoid receptor and has been reported to be associated with cognition...
November 2018: Medical Archives
Daniela Gomez, Christopher Power, Esther Fujiwara
HIV enters the central nervous system (CNS) early after infection. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain a serious complication of HIV infection despite available antiretroviral therapy (ART). Neurocognitive deficits observed in HAND are heterogeneous, suggesting a variability in individuals' susceptibility or resiliency to the detrimental CNS effects of HIV infection. This chapter reviews primary host genomic changes (immune-related genes, genes implicated in cognitive changes in primary neurodegenerative diseases), epigenetic mechanisms, and genetic interactions with ART implicated in HIV progression or HAND/neurocognitive complications of HIV...
December 7, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Maren Cecilie Strand, Vigdis Vindenes, Hallvard Gjerde, Jørg Gustav Mørland, Johannes G Ramaekers
AIMS: The present study assessed the acute effects of methadone and buprenorphine on actual on-road driving performance and neurocognitive function. METHODS: Methadone (5 and 10 mg per oral) and buprenorphine (0.2 and 0.4 mg sublingual) were administered to 22 healthy volunteers in a five-way, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-dummy, cross-over study. Driving performance was assessed with an on-road driving test. The primary outcome measure was standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), a measure of road tracking control...
December 4, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Anna-Karin Olsson, Fredrik Hjärthag, Lars Helldin
People with schizophrenia often demonstrate an impaired ability to assess and report aspects of their everyday functioning, and the aim of this study is to investigate how patients' self-rating ability regarding functional performance relates to neurocognitive performance and real-world functional performance. A total of 222 outpatients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder participated in this study. They were divided into groups based on their self-rating ability (determined using self-rating questions) and their observed functional capacity (the UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment-Brief, UPSA-B)...
December 1, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Ching-Hua Lin, Li-Shiu Chou, Shu-Hui Tang, Chun-Jen Huang
This study aimed to determine whether baseline WAIS-III subtests could be associated with treatment outcomes for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) receiving a 6-week fluoxetine treatment. A total of 131 acutely ill MDD inpatients were enrolled to receive 20 mg of fluoxetine daily for 6 weeks. Eight WAIS-III subtests were administered at baseline. Symptom severity and functional impairment were assessed at baseline, and again at weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) and the Modified Work and Social Adjustment Scale (MWSAS), respectively...
September 14, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Chao Chai, Huiying Wang, Zhiqiang Chu, Jinping Li, Tianyi Qian, E Mark Haacke, Shuang Xia, Wen Shen
The purpose of this study was to noninvasively evaluate the changes of regional cerebral venous oxygen saturation (rSvO2 ) in hemodialysis patients using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and investigate the relationship with clinical risk factors and neuropsychological testing. Fifty four (54) hemodialysis patients and 54 age, gender and education matched healthy controls (HCs) were recruited in this prospective study. QSM data were reconstructed from the original phase data of susceptibility weighted imaging to measure the susceptibility of cerebral regional major veins in all subjects and calculate their rSvO2 ...
December 4, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Shu-Chin Kung, Yu-Chih Shen, En-Ting Chang, Ya-Ling Hong, Ling-Yi Wang
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a sleep disorder involving repeated nocturnal desaturation and sleep fragmentation. OSA can result in decreased daytime alertness and neurocognitive dysfunction. Hypercapnia status is also related to neurocognitive dysfunction in patients with pulmonary diseases. We evaluated the effects of hypercapnia on cognitive performance and memory function in a prospective case-controlled study. We enrolled thirty-nine obese patients with OSA and collected their arterial blood samples...
December 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Simon T Schaefer, Stephan Koenigsperger, Cynthia Olotu, Thomas Saller
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurocognitive dysfunction after surgery is highly relevant in the elderly. The multifactorial manner of this syndrome has made it hard to define an ideal biomarker to predict individual risk and assess diagnosis and severity of delirium [postoperative delirium (POD)] and subsequent postoperative cognitive decline (POCD). This review summarizes recent literature on blood biomarkers for POD/POCD. RECENT FINDINGS: Markers for delirium have been searched for in the cerebrospinal fluid to examine the pathologic cascade...
November 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
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