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Neurocognitive impairment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340619/physical-exercise-and-cognitive-engagement-outcomes-for-mild-neurocognitive-disorder-a-group-randomized-pilot-trial
#1
Liselotte De Wit, Deirdre O'Shea, Melanie Chandler, Tripti Bhaskar, Jared Tanner, Prashanthi Vemuri, Julia Crook, Miranda Morris, Glenn Smith
BACKGROUND: Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is considered a risk state for the development of dementia due to Alzheimer's disease. It is also a period in which interventions may be most effective in slowing progression to dementia. Computerized cognitive training and increased physical activity have shown to be among the most promising interventions. However, current evidence from randomized controlled trials comparing cognitive training, physical activity, and an active control is inconsistent...
October 19, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30339791/effects-of-craniopharyngioma-cyst-fluid-on-neurons-and-glial-cells-cultured-from-rat-brain-hypothalamus
#2
Mausam Ghosh, Sanjay Das, K V L Narasinga Rao, Nupur Pruthi, V J Ramesh, Trichur R Raju, T N Sathyaprabha
Craniopharyngiomas (CPs) are rare, epithelial tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) that could lead to manifestation of multiple post-operative symptoms, ranging from hormonal imbalance to obesity, diabetes, visual, neurological and neurocognitive impairments. CP is more frequent in children, and has been reported in middle aged adults as well. In fact, arterial laceration and/or brain stroke which may occur following the removal of some CPs is mainly due to calcification of that CPs along with strong attachments to the blood vessels...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30338047/links-between-looking-and-speaking-in-autism-and-first-degree-relatives-insights-into-the-expression-of-genetic-liability-to-autism
#3
Kritika Nayar, Peter C Gordon, Gary E Martin, Abigail L Hogan, Chelsea La Valle, Walker McKinney, Michelle Lee, Elizabeth S Norton, Molly Losh
Background: Rapid automatized naming (RAN; naming of familiar items presented in an array) is a task that taps fundamental neurocognitive processes that are affected in a number of complex psychiatric conditions. Deficits in RAN have been repeatedly observed in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and also among first-degree relatives, suggesting that RAN may tap features that index genetic liability to ASD. This study used eye tracking to examine neurocognitive mechanisms related to RAN performance in ASD and first-degree relatives, and investigated links to broader language and clinical-behavioral features...
2018: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30337889/cognitive-remediation-interventions-in-schizoaffective-disorder-a-systematic-review
#4
Ester Lopez-Fernandez, Brisa Sole, Esther Jimenez, Estela Salagre, Anna Gimenez, Andrea Murru, Caterina Del Mar Bonnín, Benedikt Lorenz Amann, Iria Grande, Eduard Vieta, Anabel Martínez-Aran
Background: Patients with schizoaffective disorder (SAD) suffer from cognitive impairment, which negatively influences their functionality. Cognitive remediation (CR) interventions have been shown to be effective in patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD), but evidence in SAD is limited so far. The aim of this study is to systematically review the published data on CR interventions, either in neurocognition or social cognition, in patients with SAD. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive, computerized literature search using terms related to CR interventions in psychotic and affective disorders, and particularly in SAD...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30336844/recommendations-for-the-nomenclature-of-cognitive-change-associated-with-anaesthesia-and-surgery-2018
#5
REVIEW
L Evered, B Silbert, D S Knopman, D A Scott, S T DeKosky, L S Rasmussen, E S Oh, G Crosby, M Berger, R G Eckenhoff
Cognitive change affecting patients after anaesthesia and surgery has been recognised for more than 100 yr. Research into cognitive change after anaesthesia and surgery accelerated in the 1980s when multiple studies utilised detailed neuropsychological testing for assessment of cognitive change after cardiac surgery. This body of work consistently documented decline in cognitive function in elderly patients after anaesthesia and surgery, and cognitive changes have been identified up to 7.5 yr afterwards. Importantly, other studies have identified that the incidence of cognitive change is similar after non-cardiac surgery...
November 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30336573/emotional-prosody-processing-in-schizophrenic-patients-a-selective-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Yi Lin, Hongwei Ding, Yang Zhang
Emotional prosody (EP) has been increasingly recognized as an important area of schizophrenic patients' dysfunctions in their language use and social communication. The present review aims to provide an updated synopsis on emotional prosody processing (EPP) in schizophrenic disorders, with a specific focus on performance characteristics, the influential factors and underlying neural mechanisms. A literature search up to 2018 was conducted with online databases, and final selections were limited to empirical studies which investigated the prosodic processing of at least one of the six basic emotions in patients with a clear diagnosis of schizophrenia without co-morbid diseases...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30336207/effect-of-long-term-administration-of-antiretroviral-drugs-tenofovir-and-nevirapine-on-neuroinflammation-and-neuroplasticity-in-mouse-hippocampi
#7
Simo S Zulu, Nicola Simola, Musa V Mabandla, William M U Daniels
The use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has been successful in suppressing HIV-1 replication and restoring peripheral immune functioning in HIV-infected individuals. Despite these advances in the management of HIV, neurocognitive impairments continue to be diagnosed in HIV-infected patients on treatment, even when the viral load is low. Of interest is the observation that deficiencies in brain function in these individuals are marked by a persistent presence of neuroinflammation. Therefore, in this study we investigated whether long-term exposure to ART could contribute to neuroinflammation...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333522/newly-validated-biomarkers-of-brain-damage-may-shed-light-into-the-role-of-oxidative-stress-in-the-pathophysiology-of-neurocognitive-impairment-in-dietary-restricted-phenylketonuria-patients
#8
REVIEW
Dolores Rausell, Ana García-Blanco, Patricia Correcher, Isidro Vitoria, Máximo Vento, Consuelo Cháfer-Pericás
Despite a strict dietary control, patient with hyperphenylalaninemia or phenylketonuria may show cognitive and/or behavioral disorders. These comorbid deficits are of great concern to patients, families, and health organizations. However, biomarkers capable of detecting initial stages of neurological damage are not commonly employed. The pathogenesis of phenylketonuria is complex in nature. Increasingly, the role of oxidative stress has gained acceptance and biomarkers reflecting oxidative damage to the brain and easily accessible in peripheral biofluids have been validated using mass spectrometry techniques...
October 17, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333160/who-should-undergo-a-comprehensive-cognitive-assessment-after-a-stroke-a-cognitive-risk-score
#9
Olivier Godefroy, Hugo Yaïche, Hervé Taillia, Flavie Bompaire, Claudine Nédélec-Ciceri, Camille Bonnin, Jérôme Varvat, Françoise Vincent-Grangette, Momar Diouf, Jean-Louis Mas, Sandrine Canaple, Chantal Lamy, Audrey Arnoux, Claire Leclercq, Sophie Tasseel-Ponche, Martine Roussel, Mélanie Barbay
OBJECTIVE: To validate the ability of a specifically developed cognitive risk score to identify patients at risk of poststroke neurocognitive disorders (NCDs) who are eligible for a comprehensive cognitive assessment. METHODS: After assessing 404 patients (infarct 91.3%) in the Groupe de Réflexion pour l'Evaluation Cognitive VASCulaire (GRECogVASC) cross-sectional study with the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Canadian Stroke Network battery 6 months after stroke, we used multivariable logistic regression and bootstrap analyses to determine factors associated with NCDs...
October 17, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30328665/social-motivational-processing-and-interpersonal-function-in-aging-cocaine-smokers
#10
Gillinder Bedi, Xuejun Hao, Nicholas T Van Dam, Ziva D Cooper, Eric Rubin, Nehal P Vadhan, Leslie Marino, Margaret Haney
Illicit drug use among aging cohorts is increasing, yet little is known about functional impairments in older drug users. Given the importance of social integration for aging and documented social decrements in cocaine users, we examined social function and its neurocognitive substrates in aging cocaine users relative to carefully matched non-cocaine users. Regular (≥twice/week), long-term (≥15 years) cocaine smokers 50-60 years old (COCs; n = 22; four women) and controls (CTRLs; n = 19; four women) underwent standardized probes of social reward and threat processing during functional magnetic resonance imaging and a behavioral facial affect recognition task...
October 17, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30327964/why-do-individuals-with-cirrhosis-fall-a-mechanistic-model-for-fall-assessment-treatment-and-research
#11
REVIEW
Susan L Murphy, Elliot B Tapper, Jennifer Blackwood, James K Richardson
Falls are prevalent for people with cirrhosis and commonly lead to loss of independence, reduced quality of life, and mortality. Despite a critical need for fall prevention in this population, cirrhosis-specific fall-related mechanisms are not well understood. We posit that most falls in this patient population are due to a coalescence of discrete subclinical impairments that are not typically detected at the point of care. The combined effect of these subtle age- and disease-related neurocognitive and muscular impairments leads to the inability to respond successfully to a postural perturbation within the available 300 to 400 ms...
October 16, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326979/neurococognitive-and-neuroimaging-correlates-of-obesity-and-components-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review
#12
Emre Bora, Roger S McIntyre, Aysegul Ozerdem
BACKGROUND: Individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) have a higher prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) compared with the general population. Obesity and MetS are associated with cognitive deficits and brain imaging abnormalities in the general population. Obesity and components of MetS might potentially associate with neuroimaging and neurocognitive findings in BD. METHODS: A literature search of studies investigating the association between obesity (and other components of MetS) and neurocognitive and neuroimaging findings in BD was conducted...
October 17, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325806/recommendations-for-the-nomenclature-of-cognitive-change-associated-with-anaesthesia-and-surgery-2018
#13
L Evered, B Silbert, D S Knopman, D A Scott, S T DeKosky, L S Rasmussen, E S Oh, G Crosby, M Berger, R G Eckenhoff
Cognitive change affecting patients after anaesthesia and surgery has been recognised for more than 100 yr. Research into cognitive change after anaesthesia and surgery accelerated in the 1980s when multiple studies utilised detailed neuropsychological testing for assessment of cognitive change after cardiac surgery. This body of work consistently documented decline in cognitive function in elderly patients after anaesthesia and surgery, and cognitive changes have been identified up to 7.5 yr afterwards. Importantly, other studies have identified that the incidence of cognitive change is similar after non-cardiac surgery...
November 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325766/atrophic-brain-signatures-of-mild-forms-of-neurocognitive-impairment-in-virally-suppressed-hiv-infection
#14
Madeleine J Nichols, Thomas M Gates, James R Soares, Kirsten J Moffat, Caroline D Rae, Bruce J Brew, Lucette A Cysique
OBJECTIVE: There is a lack of evidence for the neurobiological underpinning of Asymptomatic Neurocognitive Impairment (ANI) and Mild Neurocognitive disorders (MND) in virally-suppressed HIV + persons. We hypothesized that such mild impairment would be associated with focal brain atrophy. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. METHODS: 85 virally-suppressed HIV + and 44 geographically, demographically, and lifestyle comparable HIV- men underwent anatomical MRI, neuropsychological evaluation, and HIV laboratory tests...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325748/recommendations-for-the-nomenclature-of-cognitive-change-associated-with-anaesthesia-and-surgery-2018
#15
L Evered, B Silbert, D S Knopman, D A Scott, S T DeKosky, L S Rasmussen, E S Oh, G Crosby, M Berger, R G Eckenhoff
Cognitive change affecting patients after anaesthesia and surgery has been recognised for more than 100 yr. Research into cognitive change after anaesthesia and surgery accelerated in the 1980s when multiple studies utilised detailed neuropsychological testing for assessment of cognitive change after cardiac surgery. This body of work consistently documented decline in cognitive function in elderly patients after anaesthesia and surgery, and cognitive changes have been identified up to 7.5 yr afterwards. Importantly, other studies have identified that the incidence of cognitive change is similar after non-cardiac surgery...
October 16, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325063/hiv-tat-causes-synapse-loss-in-a-mouse-model-of-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder-that-is-independent-of-the-classical-complement-cascade-component-c1q
#16
Jennetta W Hammond, Wen Q Qiu, Daniel F Marker, Jeffrey M Chamberlain, Will Greaves-Tunnell, Matthew J Bellizzi, Shao-Ming Lu, Harris A Gelbard
Microglial activation, increased proinflammatory cytokine production, and a reduction in synaptic density are key pathological features associated with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Even with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), more than 50% of HIV-positive individuals experience some type of cognitive impairment. Although viral replication is inhibited by cART, HIV proteins such as Tat are still produced within the nervous system that are neurotoxic, involved in synapse elimination, and provoke enduring neuroinflammation...
October 16, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325016/recommendations-for-the-nomenclature-of-cognitive-change-associated-with-anaesthesia-and-surgery-2018
#17
Lis Evered, Brendan Silbert, David S Knopman, David A Scott, Steven T DeKosky, Lars S Rasmussen, Esther S Oh, Greg Crosby, Miles Berger, R G Eckenhoff
Cognitive change affecting patients after anaesthesia and surgery has been recognised for more than 100 yr. Research into cognitive change after anaesthesia and surgery accelerated in the 1980s when multiple studies utilised detailed neuropsychological testing for assessment of cognitive change after cardiac surgery. This body of work consistently documented decline in cognitive function in elderly patients after anaesthesia and surgery, and cognitive changes have been identified up to 7.5 yr afterwards. Importantly, other studies have identified that the incidence of cognitive change is similar after non-cardiac surgery...
November 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324989/the-cognitive-remediation-therapy-program-among-children-with-adhd-tunisian-experience
#18
Meriem Hamza, Zeineb Abbes, Houda Ben Yahyia, Radhouane Fakhfekh, Isabelle Amado, Asma Bouden
BACKGROUND: Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with neuropsychological deficits including executive and attentional impairments. The cognitive remediation therapy is a new promising technique designed to improve the neurocognitive abilities damaged in ADHD. AIM: Adapt and apply the cognitive remediation program CRT (Cognitive Remediation Therapy) for children and adolescents with ADHD and to evaluate its effectiveness on attentional and executive abilities...
January 2018: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324338/recommendations-for-the-nomenclature-of-cognitive-change-associated-with-anaesthesia-and-surgery-2018
#19
L Evered, B Silbert, D S Knopman, D A Scott, S T DeKosky, L S Rasmussen, E S Oh, G Crosby, M Berger, R G Eckenhoff
Cognitive change affecting patients after anaesthesia and surgery has been recognised for more than 100 yr. Research into cognitive change after anaesthesia and surgery accelerated in the 1980s when multiple studies utilised detailed neuropsychological testing for assessment of cognitive change after cardiac surgery. This body of work consistently documented decline in cognitive function in elderly patients after anaesthesia and surgery, and cognitive changes have been identified up to 7.5 yr afterwards. Importantly, other studies have identified that the incidence of cognitive change is similar after non-cardiac surgery...
October 16, 2018: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30319260/hpa-axis-genes-as-potential-risk-variants-for-neurocognitive-decline-in-trauma-exposed-hiv-positive-females
#20
Sean Jacobs, Karis Moxley, Jacqueline S Womersley, Georgina Spies, Sian Mj Hemmings, Soraya Seedat
Purpose: Previous studies have independently provided evidence for the effects of HIV infection, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction and early life trauma on neurocognitive impairment (NCI). This study examined the interaction between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of two HPA axis genes, corticotrophin-releasing hormone receptor 1 ( CRHR1 ; rs110402, rs242924, rs7209436, and rs4792888) and corticotrophin-releasing hormone-binding protein ( CRHBP ; rs32897, rs10062367, and rs1053989), childhood trauma, and HIV-associated NCI...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
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