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Neurocognitive impairment

Jose Gutierrez, Desiree Byrd, Michael T Yin, Susan Morgello
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus-positive (HIV+) individuals have higher rates of cognitive impairment and cerebrovascular disease compared with uninfected populations. We hypothesize that cerebrovascular disease, specifically brain large artery disease, may play a role in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Methods: Participants (N = 94) in the Manhattan HIV Brain Bank study were followed on average 32 ± 33 months with repeated neuropsychological examinations until death...
August 11, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Matías Niikado, Patricio Chrem-Méndez, Micaela Barbieri-Kennedy, Ismael Calandri, Horacio Martinetto, Mercedes Serra, Jorge Calvar, Jorge Campos, María Julieta Russo, Lucía Pertierra, Ricardo Allegri, Gustavo Sevlever, Ezequiel I Surace
Systematic evaluation of biomarkers in representative populations is needed to validate their clinical utility. In this work, we assessed the diagnostic performance of cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament light chain (NfL) in a neurocognitive clinical setting. A total of 51 patients with different cognitive clinical syndromes and 11 cognitively normal individuals were evaluated in a memory clinic in Argentina. Clinical conditions included: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n=12), Dementia of Alzheimer's Type (DAT, n=14), Behavioral variant Frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD, n=13), and Primary Progressive Aphasia [logopenic (lvPPA, n=6), semantic (svPPA, n=2), and non-fluent (nfvPPA, n=4)]...
August 10, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Er-Cui Feng, Li Jiang
Preterm infants face lifelong disabilities, including learning disorders, as well as visual, auditory and behavioral problems. Recent studies have demonstrated that leptin, an adipocytokine encoded by a gene associated with obesity and expressed in adipose tissue, affects neurocognitive and motor function; however, the mechanisms of brain damage in preterm infants are unclear. In the present study, the neuroprotective effects of leptin in a rat model of preterm hypoxic‑ischemic brain damage were investigated...
August 14, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Timothy W Churchill, Supriya Krishnan, Marc Weisskopf, Brandon Yates, Frank E Speizer, Jonathan H Kim, Lee E Nadler, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Ross Zafonte, Aaron L Baggish
BACKGROUND: Professional American-style football players are among the largest athletes across contemporary sporting disciplines, and weight gain during the years of football participation is common. At present, the health implications of this early-life weight gain remain incompletely understood. We sought to define weight trajectories of former professional American-style football athletes and to establish their relationship with 5 health afflictions common in this population (cardiovascular disease, cardiometabolic disease, neurocognitive impairment, sleep apnea, and chronic pain)...
August 10, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
Jessica A Vanderlinden, Amanda Ross-White, Rachel Holden, M Khaled Shamseddin, Andrew Day, J Gordon Boyd
IMPORTANCE: Cognitive dysfunction is reportedly highly prevalent among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. A variety of screening tools and neuropsychiatric batteries are utilized to quantify the magnitude and nature of this dysfunction in CKD patients. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the neurocognitive testing used and determine what degree cognitive dysfunction is reported in CKD patients. METHODS: Articles published in English containing consenting age of majority participants who were either: pre-dialysis patients, hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, or renal transplant recipients were considered...
August 10, 2018: Nephrology
Susan Morgello, Michelle Jacobs, Jacinta Murray, Desiree Byrd, Eric Neibart, Letty Mintz, Gregory Meloni, Christina Chon, John Crary
With aging of HIV populations, there is concern that Alzheimer's disease (AD) may become prevalent and difficult to distinguish from HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. To date, there are no reports documenting histologically verified Alzheimer's neuropathology in individuals with HIV and dementia. Herein, we report two antiretroviral-treated, virally suppressed, HIV-infected individuals autopsied by the Manhattan HIV Brain Bank. Subject A presented to study at 52 years, already dependent in instrumental activities of daily living (ADLs), with severe cognitive impairment inclusive of learning and memory dysfunction...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Sabine Hellwig, Lars Frings, Tobias Bormann, Werner Vach, Ralph Buchert, Philipp T Meyer
PURPOSE: Cerebral beta-amyloid and regional glucose metabolism assessed by positron emission tomography (PET) are used as diagnostic biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study validates the incremental diagnostic value of amyloid PET in addition to clinical diagnosis and [18 F]FDG PET in a real-life memory clinic population. METHODS: Of 138 consecutive patients with cognitive impairment who received combined [18 F]FDG and [11 C]PIB PET, 84 were diagnosed with major neurocognitive disorder (DSM-5) and included...
August 10, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Mirjam Bloemendaal, Monja Isabel Froböse, Joost Wegman, Bram Bastiaan Zandbelt, Ondine van de Rest, Roshan Cools, Esther Aarts
The aging brain is characterized by altered dopamine signaling. The amino acid tyrosine, a catecholamine precursor, is known to improve cognitive performance in young adults, especially during high environmental demands. Tyrosine administration might also affect catecholamine transmission in the aging brain, thereby improving cognitive functioning. In healthy older adults, impairments have been demonstrated in two forms of response inhibition: reactive inhibition (outright stopping) and proactive inhibition (anticipatory response slowing) under high information load...
March 2018: ENeuro
Willem J A Witlox, Bram L T Ramaekers, Jaap D Zindler, Daniëlle B P Eekers, Judith G M van Loon, Lizza E L Hendriks, Anne-Marie C Dingemans, Dirk K M De Ruysscher
Background: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients frequently develop brain metastases (BM), even though the initial imaging with brain CT or MRI was negative. Stage III patients have the highest risk to develop BM, with an incidence of approximately 30%. BM can lead to neurocognitive disorders, loss of quality of life (QoL), and they are the most important factors influencing patient's overall survival (OS). Although a radical local treatment of BM may be possible with primary radiosurgery or after resection, the prognosis often remains poor...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Patrick J Smith, James A Blumenthal, Alan L Hinderliter, Lana L Watkins, Benson M Hoffman, Andrew Sherwood
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and endothelial dysfunction have been associated independently with poorer neurocognition in middle-aged adults, particularly on tests of frontal lobe function. However, to our knowledge, no studies have examined markers of microvascular dysfunction on neurocognition or the potential interaction between macro- and microvascular biomarkers on neurocognition in middle-aged and older adults with major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: Participants included 202 adults with MDD who were not receiving mental health treatment...
June 28, 2018: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Joseph P Schacht
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Kara M Smith, David N Caplan
Communication impairment is common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and may have both motor speech control and cognitive-linguistic underpinnings. The neurobiology of communication impairment in PD is poorly understood, and work is needed to disentangle the relative contributions of motor and cognitive dysfunction. In clinical practice, cognitive-linguistic impairments are often overlooked despite the large body of research on this topic in neurocognitive and linguistics literature. In this review, we will discuss the roles of motor speech changes, cognitive and linguistic impairment, and other related functions in the communication disabilities of individuals with PD...
August 6, 2018: Brain and Language
Isabelle Mosnier, Antoine Vanier, Damien Bonnard, Geneviève Lina-Granade, Eric Truy, Philippe Bordure, Benoit Godey, Mathieu Marx, Emmanuel Lescanne, Frédéric Venail, Christine Poncet, Olivier Sterkers, Joël Belmin
OBJECTIVES: To analyze long-term cognitive status and function after cochlear implantation in profoundly deaf individuals. DESIGN: Prospective observational longitudinal study. SETTING: Ten academic medical centers referent for cochlear implantation. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 65 and older who qualified for cochlear implantation (N=70). MEASUREMENTS: Cognitive tests were administered before cochlear implantation and 1 and 5 or more years after cochlear implantation...
August 8, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Anne Laure Bernat, Sophie Bonnin, Moujahed Labidi, Nouman Aldahak, Damien Bresson, Schahrazed Bouazza, Sebastien Froelich
Purpose: To report on the medical management of meningioma with compression of the optic chiasm associated with the use of cyproterone acetate (CA). Case Report: A 65-year-old woman who was being treated with CA presented with a recent decrease in visual function, leading to discovery of a giant olfactory groove meningioma with compression of the optic chiasm. CA was discontinued immediately, and her visual function improved dramatically. At 13 months, in addition to a significant improvement in visual and neurocognitive symptoms, the tumor volume was reduced by 50%...
July 2018: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
A J Bowyer, J Heiberg, D I Sessler, S Newman, A G Royse, C F Royse
Patients with pre-surgery cognitive impairment cannot currently be assessed for cognitive recovery after surgery using the Postoperative Quality of Recovery Scale (PostopQRS), as they would mathematically be scored as recovered. We aimed to validate a novel method to score cognitive recovery in patients with low-baseline cognition, using the number of low-score tests rather than their numerical values. Face validity was demonstrated in 86 participants in whom both the Postoperative Quality of Recovery Scale and an 11-item neuropsychological battery were performed...
August 7, 2018: Anaesthesia
Elad Mazor, Eyal Sheiner, Tamar Wainstock, Monic Attias, Asnat Walfisch
OBJECTIVE:  Maternal amnesia is a transitional cognitive impairment occurring during pregnancy and the postpartum period. We evaluated the prevalence and extent of this suggested cognitive decline and the role of postpartum depression. STUDY DESIGN:  A cross-sectional study was performed in women during the immediate postpartum period. Eligible women completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Cognitive function was assessed using an objective neurocognitive test (Symbol Digit Modalities Test, SDMT90, and SDMT4) and a subjective self-estimation questionnaire (Attention Function Index [AFI])...
August 6, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Barry Willer, Robert Zivadinov, Mohammad N Haider, Jeffrey C Miecznikowski, John J Leddy
OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of 3 studies of the same population of retired professional contact sport athletes compared with age-matched noncontact sport athlete controls on cognition, executive function, behavior, and advanced brain imaging. SETTING: University Concussion Management Clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-two retired professional hockey and football athletes (average age 56 years) and 21 age-matched noncontact sport athlete controls...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
M van Lieshout, M Luman, L J S Schweren, J W R Twisk, S V Faraone, D J Heslenfeld, C A Hartman, P J Hoekstra, B Franke, J K Buitelaar, N N J Rommelse, J Oosterlaan
Longitudinal studies on the course of neurocognitive functioning of children with ADHD and their unaffected siblings are scarce. Also, it is unclear to what extent that course is related to ADHD outcomes. A carefully phenotyped large sample of 838 Caucasian participants (ADHD-combined type: n = 339, unaffected siblings: n = 271, controls: n = 228; mean age at baseline = 11.4 years, mean age at follow-up = 17.3 years, SD = 3.2) was used to investigate differences in the course of neurocognitive functioning of ADHD affected and unaffected siblings versus controls, and to investigate the relationship between neurocognitive change and ADHD outcomes...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Hae Lim Kim, Dae-Keun Kim, Seung Wan Kang, Yoo Kyoung Park
This study attempted to investigate whether nutrient and food intake were related with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in adults and elderly over 50 years of age in Korea. Questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were conducted on general aspects of the research, and food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) were conducted to determine nutritional status. The relative theta power (RTP) through electroencephalography (EEG) measurements, neurocognitive function test (NFT; CNS Vital Signs), and cognitive function was measured...
July 2018: Clinical Nutrition Research
Eva Velthorst, Eric C Meyer, Anthony J Giuliano, Jean Addington, Kristin S Cadenhead, Tyrone D Cannon, Barbara A Cornblatt, Thomas H McGlashan, Diana O Perkins, Ming T Tsuang, Elaine F Walker, Scott W Woods, Carrie E Bearden, Larry J Seidman
BACKGROUND: Most studies of neurocognitive functioning in Clinical High Risk (CHR) cohorts have examined group averages, likely concealing heterogeneous subgroups. We aimed to identify neurocognitive subgroups and to explore associated outcomes. METHODS: Data were acquired from 324 participants (mean age 18.4) in the first phase of the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS-1), a multi-site consortium following individuals for up to 2 1/2 years. We applied Ward's method for hierarchical clustering data to 8 baseline neurocognitive measures, in 166 CHR individuals, 49 non-CHR youth with a family history of psychosis, and 109 healthy controls...
August 2, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
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