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Ceramide signaling pathway

Mario A Rodríguez, Aarón Martínez-Higuera, Martha I Valle-Solis, Mario Hernandes-Alejandro, Bibiana Chávez-Munguía, Ana H Figueroa-Gutiérrez, Andrés Salas-Casas
Calcium regulates many cellular processes in protozoa, including growth, differentiation, programmed cell death, exocytosis, endocytosis, phagocytosis, fusion of the endosomes of distinct stages with phagosomes, fusion of phagosomes with lysosomes, and recycling the membrane. In Entamoeba histolytica, the protozoa responsible for human amoebiasis, calcium ions are essential for signaling pathways that lead to growth and development. In addition, calcium is crucial in the modulation of gene expression in this microorganism...
August 6, 2018: Parasitology Research
Max C Petersen, Gerald I Shulman
The 1921 discovery of insulin was a Big Bang from which a vast and expanding universe of research into insulin action and resistance has issued. In the intervening century, some discoveries have matured, coalescing into solid and fertile ground for clinical application; others remain incompletely investigated and scientifically controversial. Here, we attempt to synthesize this work to guide further mechanistic investigation and to inform the development of novel therapies for type 2 diabetes (T2D). The rational development of such therapies necessitates detailed knowledge of one of the key pathophysiological processes involved in T2D: insulin resistance...
October 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Megan M Young, Hong-Gang Wang
Macroautophagy (herein referred to as autophagy) is a highly conserved stress response that engulfs damaged proteins, lipids, and/or organelles within double-membrane vesicles called autophagosomes for lysosomal degradation. Dysregulated autophagy is a hallmark of cancer; and thus, there is great interest in modulating autophagy for cancer therapy. Sphingolipids regulate each step of autophagosome biogenesis with roles for sphingolipid metabolites and enzymes spanning from the initial step of de novo ceramide synthesis to the sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase 1-mediated exit from the sphingolipid pathway...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
Antonio Gomez-Muñoz
Ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) is a pleiotropic bioactive sphingolipid metabolite capable of regulating key physiologic cell functions and promoting pathologic processes. Concerning pathology, C1P or ceramide kinase (CerK), the enzyme responsible for its biosynthesis in mammalian cells, has been implicated in cancer cell growth, survival, and dissemination and is involved in inflammatory responses associated with different types of cancer cells. The mechanisms or signaling pathways mediating these C1P actions have only been partially described...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
Kristen A Jeffries, Natalia I Krupenko
Ceramides, important players in signal transduction, interact with multiple cellular pathways, including p53 pathways. However, the relationship between ceramide and p53 is very complex, and mechanisms underlying their coregulation are diverse and not fully characterized. The role of p53, an important cellular regulator and a transcription factor, is linked to its tumor suppressor function. Ceramides are involved in the regulation of fundamental processes in cancer cells including cell death, proliferation, autophagy, and drug resistance...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
Ahmed Elsherbini, Erhard Bieberich
Exosomes are secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs) that carry micro RNAs and other factors to reprogram cancer cells and tissues affected by cancer. Exosomes are exchanged between cancer cells and other tissues, often to prepare a premetastatic niche, escape immune surveillance, or spread multidrug resistance. Only a few studies investigated the function of lipids in exosomes although their lipid composition is different from that of the secreting cells. Ceramide is one of the lipids critical for exosome formation, and it is also enriched in these EVs...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
Aneta Rogalska, Arkadiusz Gajek, Małgorzata Łukawska, Irena Oszczapowicz, Agnieszka Marczak
Chemical modification of known, effective drugs are one method to improve the chemotherapy of tumors. We reported ability of oxazoline analogs of doxorubicin (O-DOX) and daunorubicin (O-DAU) to induce apoptosis and autophagy in ovarian and liver cancer cells. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively), together with intracellular calcium-mediated downstream signaling, are essential for the anticancer effect of these new anthracycline analogs. The changes of mitochondrial membrane potential and induction of the ceramide pathway suggests that these compounds induce cell death by apoptosis...
2018: PloS One
Asaf A Qureshi, Dilshad A Khan, Shahida Mushtaq, Shui Qing Ye, Min Xiong, Nilofer Qureshi
BACKGROUND: δ-Tocotrienol is a naturally occurring proteasome inhibitor, which has the capacity to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in several cancer cells obtained from several organs of humans, and other cancer cell lines. Moreover, results of plasma total mRNAs after δ-tocotrienol feeding to hepatitis C patients revealed significant inhibition in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, VCAM1, proteasome subunits) and induction in the expression of ICAM1 and IFN-γ after post-treatment...
July 21, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Dharmendra K Yadav, Surendra Kumar, Eun-Ha Choi, Praveen Sharma, Sanjeev Misra, Mi-Hyun Kim
In recent years, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in regulating cancer cell apoptosis, inflammation, cell ischemia, and cell signaling pathways has been well established. The most common sources of intracellular ROS are the mitochondrial electron transport system, NADH oxidase, and cytochrome P450. In this study, we investigated the dynamics and permeability of ROS using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on native skin-lipid bilayer membranes. Native skin-lipid bilayers are composed of ceramide, cholesterol, and free fatty acid in an almost equal molar ratio (1:1:1)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Andrew K Rudd, Neal K Devaraj
Mammalian cells synthesize thousands of distinct lipids, yet the function of many of these lipid species is unknown. Ceramides, a class of sphingolipid, are implicated in several cell-signaling pathways but poor cell permeability and lack of selectivity in endogenous synthesis pathways have hampered direct study of their effects. Here we report a strategy that overcomes the inherent biological limitations of ceramide delivery by chemoselectively ligating lipid precursors in vivo to yield natural ceramides in a traceless manner...
July 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Nanbing Qin, Ali-Reza Bayat, Erminio Trevisi, Andrea Minuti, Piia Kairenius, Sirja Viitala, Mervi Mutikainen, Heidi Leskinen, Kari Elo, Tuomo Kokkonen, Johanna Vilkki
To investigate the metabolic changes in the adipose tissue (AT) of dairy cows under milk fat depression (MFD), 30 cows were randomly allocated to a control diet, a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-supplemented diet, or a high-starch diet supplemented with a mixture of sunflower and fish oil (2:1; as HSO diet) from 1 to 112 d in milk. Performance of animals, milk yield, milk composition, energy balance, and blood metabolites were measured during lactation. Quantitative PCR analyses were conducted on the AT samples collected at wk 3 and 15 of lactation...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Sara Grassi, Elena Chiricozzi, Laura Mauri, Sandro Sonnino, Alessandro Prinetti
Ceramide, sphingomyelin, and glycosphingolipids (both neutral and acidic) are characterized by the presence in the lipid moiety of an aliphatic base known as sphingosine. Altogether, they are sphingolipids particularly abundant in neuronal plasma membranes, where, via interactions with the other membrane lipids and membrane proteins, they play a specific role in modulating the cell signaling processes. The metabolic pathways determining the plasma membrane sphingolipid composition are thus the key point for functional changes of the cell properties...
June 30, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
An Nguyen, Anabel Guedan, Aurelie Mousnier, Dawid Swieboda, Qifeng Zhang, Dorottya Horkai, Nicolas Le Novere, Roberto Solari, Michael J O Wakelam
In patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease rhinovirus infections can provoke acute worsening of disease and limited treatment options exist. Viral replication in the host cell induces significant remodeling of intracellular membranes, but few studies have explored this mechanistically or as a therapeutic opportunity. We performed unbiased lipidomic analysis on human bronchial epithelial cells infected over a 6 hour period with the RV-A1b strain of rhinovirus to determine changes in 493 distinct lipid species...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
José A Martina, Rosa Puertollano
Adaptations and responses to stress conditions are fundamental processes that all cells must accomplish to maintain or restore cellular homeostasis. Cells have a plethora of response pathways to mitigate the effect of different environmental stressors. The transcriptional regulators transcription factor EB (TFEB) and transcription factor binding to IGHM enhancer 3 (TFE3) play a key role in the control of these stress pathways. Therefore, understanding their regulation under different stress conditions is of great interest...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Tomasz Konończuk, Bartłomiej Łukaszuk, Agnieszka Mikłosz, Adrian Chabowski, Małgorzata Żendzian-Piotrowska, Krzysztof Kurek
OBJECTIVES: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common and severe gastrointestinal inflammatory disease with poorly understood pathogenesis. We adopted cerulein-induced pancreatitis, a well-established rat model shearing similarities with human AP, to determine the disease background. Special interest was placed on sphingolipids, because their signaling pathways are involved in many pathological states including hepatic steatosis, heart infarction, or pancreatic origin type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Sphingolipid levels in the blood and pancreas were determined by the means of chromatography (thin-layer and high-performance liquid chromatography)...
August 2018: Pancreas
Lodewijk J A Toonen, Maurice Overzier, Melvin M Evers, Leticia G Leon, Sander A J van der Zeeuw, Hailiang Mei, Szymon M Kielbasa, Jelle J Goeman, Kristina M Hettne, Olafur Th Magnusson, Marion Poirel, Alexandre Seyer, Peter A C 't Hoen, Willeke M C van Roon-Mom
BACKGROUND: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by expansion of the polyglutamine repeat in the ataxin-3 protein. Expression of mutant ataxin-3 is known to result in transcriptional dysregulation, which can contribute to the cellular toxicity and neurodegeneration. Since the exact causative mechanisms underlying this process have not been fully elucidated, gene expression analyses in brains of transgenic SCA3 mouse models may provide useful insights...
June 22, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Alexander Simonis, Alexandra Schubert-Unkmeir
Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) is a key enzyme in sphingolipid metabolism that converts sphingomyelin to ceramide, thereby modulating membrane structures and signal transduction. Bacterial pathogens can manipulate ASM activity and function, and use host sphingolipids during multiple steps of their infection process. An increase in ceramides upon infection results in the formation of ceramide-enriched membrane platforms that serve to cluster receptor molecules and organize intracellular signaling molecules, thus facilitating bacterial uptake...
July 20, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Julian Fink, Jürgen Seibel
Sphingolipids and glycosphingolipids can regulate cell recognition and signalling. Ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate are major players in the sphingolipid pathways and are involved in the initiation and regulation of signalling, apoptosis, stress responses and infection. Specific chemically synthesised sphingolipid derivatives containing small functionalities like azide or alkyne can mimic the biological properties of natural lipid species, which turns them into useful tools for the investigation of the highly complex sphingolipid metabolism by rapid and selective 'click chemistry' using sensitive tags like fluorophores...
June 19, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Moon Jung Back, Hae Chan Ha, Zhicheng Fu, Jong Min Choi, Yongwei Piao, Jong Hoon Won, Ji Min Jang, In Chul Shin, Dae Kyong Kim
Autophagy is essential for optimal cell function and survival, and the entire process accompanies membrane dynamics. Ceramides are produced by different enzymes at different cellular membrane sites and mediate differential signaling. However, it remains unclear which ceramide-producing pathways/enzymes participate in autophagy regulation under physiological conditions such as nutrient starvation, and what the underlying mechanisms are. In this study, we demonstrate that among ceramide-producing enzymes, neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2) plays a key role in autophagy during nutrient starvation...
June 4, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Nicolas J Pillon, Scott Frendo-Cumbo, Maya R Jacobson, Zhi Liu, Paul L Milligan, Hai Hoang Bui, Juleen R Zierath, Philip J Bilan, Joseph T Brozinick, Amira Klip
Ceramides contribute to obesity-linked insulin resistance and inflammation in vivo, but whether this is a cell-autonomous phenomenon is debated, particularly in muscle, which dictates whole-body glucose uptake. We comprehensively analyzed lipid species produced in response to fatty acids and examined the consequence to insulin resistance and pro-inflammatory pathways. L6 myotubes were incubated with BSA-adsorbed palmitate or palmitoleate in the presence of myriocin, fenretinide, or fumonisin B1. Lipid species were determined by lipidomic analysis...
July 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
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