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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228468/characterization-of-forsythoside-a-metabolites-in-rats-by-a-combination-of-uhplc-ltq-orbitrap-mass-spectrometer-with-multiple-data-processing-techniques
#1
Fei Wang, Guang-Shang Cao, Yun Li, Lu-Lu Xu, Zhi-Bin Wang, Ying Liu, Jian-Qiu Lu, Jia-Yu Zhang
Forsythoside A (FTA), the main active constituent isolated from Fructus Forsythiae, has various biological functions including anti-oxidant, anti-viral and anti-microbial activities. However, while researches on FTA have been mainly focused on the treatment of diseases on material basis, FTA metabolites in vivo have not been comprehensively evaluated. Here, a rapid and sensitive method using UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer with multiple data processing techniques including high-resolution extracted ion chromatograms (HREICs), multiple mass defect filters (MMDFs) and diagnostic product ions (DPIs) was developed for screening and identification of FTA metabolites in rats...
December 11, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228345/mechanisms-and-mediators-of-hypertension-induced-by-erythropoietin-and-related-molecules
#2
Rajiv Agarwal
Hypertension is a common but frequently overlooked adverse effect of erythropoietin (EPO) therapy. Underreporting of hypertension with EPO is likely due to either more aggressively managing hypertension through the prescription of antihypertensive drugs or closer attention to dry weight. The purpose and focus of this review is to critically evaluate the mechanisms of EPO-induced hypertension. Preclinical data are considered first, followed by clinical data where available. Mediated by a variety of molecules, there is an imbalance in the vascular tone favoring net vasoconstriction that mediates EPO-induced hypertension...
December 8, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228322/tlr9-stimulation-induces-increase-in-fungicidal-activity-of-human-dendritic-cells-challenged-with-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis
#3
Ivy Rafacho Vieira, Reginaldo Keller Fernandes, Daniela Ramos Rodrigues, Carolina Mendonça Gorgulho, Ramon Kaneno, Ângela Maria Victoriano Campos Soares
Microorganisms killing by dendritic cells (DCs) is an important effector mechanism during innate immune response, as it can avoid dissemination of infection during migration of these cells toward draining lymph nodes. However, this function depends on pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to which the microorganism will bind in these cells. Regarding this, TLR9 activation, by stimulating the oxidative metabolism, induces increase in microbicidal activity of these cells. Accordingly, we showed that DCs treatment with a TLR9 agonist results in an increase in fungicidal activity of these cells against the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb), which however, was not associated to higher H2O2 levels...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228272/an-investigation-into-the-possible-regulation-of-the-expression-of-genes-by-yapa-in-talaromyces-marneffei-using-the-qrt-pcr-method
#4
Wiyada Dankai, Monsicha Pongpom, Nongnuch Vanittanakom
The pathogenic dimorphic fungus Talaromyces marneffei is known to cause a fatal systemic mycosis in immunocompromised patients, especially in HIV patients in Southeast Asia. The basic leucine-zipper (bZip) transcription factor gene, yapA, has been identified in T. marneffei. A prior study described that yapA was involved in the oxidative and nitrosative stress response in T. marneffei. Interestingly, an essential role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yap1p in the oxidative stress response is the activation of the transcription of its target genes...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228266/editing-activity-for-eliminating-mischarged-trnas-is-essential-in-mammalian-mitochondria
#5
Taru Hilander, Xiao-Long Zhou, Svetlana Konovalova, Fu-Ping Zhang, Liliya Euro, Dmitri Chilov, Matti Poutanen, Joseph Chihade, En-Duo Wang, Henna Tyynismaa
Accuracy of protein synthesis is enabled by the selection of amino acids for tRNA charging by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs), and further enhanced by the proofreading functions of some of these enzymes for eliminating tRNAs mischarged with noncognate amino acids. Mouse models of editing-defective cytoplasmic alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS) have previously demonstrated the importance of proofreading for cytoplasmic protein synthesis, with embryonic lethal and progressive neurodegeneration phenotypes. Mammalian mitochondria import their own set of nuclear-encoded ARSs for translating critical polypeptides of the oxidative phosphorylation system, but the importance of editing by the mitochondrial ARSs for mitochondrial proteostasis has not been known...
December 8, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228240/contrast-of-positively-charged-oxide-precipitate-in-out-lens-in-lens-and-in-column-se-image
#6
Šárka Mikmeková, Haruo Nakamichi, Masayasu Nagoshi
Modern scanning electron microscopes are usually equipped with multiple detectors and enable simultaneous collection of two or even three secondary electron images. The secondary electrons become divided between the detectors in dependence on their initial kinetic energy and emission angle. In this study, sharing of the secondary electrons by out-lens, in-lens and in-column detectors has been systematically investigated. Energy filtering of the signal electrons is demonstrated by separation of the voltage and the topographical contrast in the micrographs obtained by out-lens and in-lens/in-column detectors...
December 8, 2017: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228192/quantitative-analysis-of-o2-and-fe2-profiles-in-gradient-tubes-for-cultivation-of-microaerophilic-iron-ii-oxidizing-bacteria
#7
U Lueder, G Druschel, D Emerson, A Kappler, C Schmidt
The classical approach for cultivation of neutrophilic microaerophilic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria are agar-based gradient tubes where these bacteria find optimal growth conditions in opposing gradients of oxygen (O2) and dissolved Fe(II) (Fe2+). The goals of this study were to quantify the temporal development of O2 and Fe2+ concentrations over time, to compare abiotic and microbially-inoculated tubes, and to test the suitability of different Fe(II)-sources for cultivation of freshwater and marine microaerophilic Fe(II)-oxidizers...
December 5, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228169/endothelial-permeability-ldl-deposition-and-cardiovascular-risk-factors-a-review
#8
Santa Mundi, Marika Massaro, Egeria Scoditti, Maria Annunziata Carluccio, Victor W M van Hinsbergh, M Luisa Iruela-Arispe, Raffaele De Caterina
Early atherosclerosis features functional and structural changes in the endothelial barrier function that affect the traffic of molecules and solutes between the vessel lumen and the vascular wall. Such changes are mechanistically related to the development of atherosclerosis.Proatherogenic stimuli and cardiovascular risk factors, such as dyslipidemias, diabetes, obesity, and smoking, all increase endothelial permeability sharing a common signalling denominator: an imbalance in the production/disposal of reactive oxygen species (ROS), broadly termed oxidative stress...
December 8, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228063/what-matters-in-chronic-burkholderia-cenocepacia-infection-in-cystic-fibrosis-insights-from-comparative-genomics
#9
Jaroslav Nunvar, Vaclav Capek, Karel Fiser, Libor Fila, Pavel Drevinek
Burkholderia cenocepacia causes severe pulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Since the bacterium is virtually untreatable by antibiotics, chronic infections persist for years and might develop into fatal septic pneumonia (cepacia syndrome, CS). To devise new strategies to combat chronic B. cenocepacia infections, it is essential to obtain comprehensive knowledge about their pathogenesis. We conducted a comparative genomic analysis of 32 Czech isolates of epidemic clone B. cenocepacia ST32 isolated from various stages of chronic infection in 8 CF patients...
December 11, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228039/biochemical-studies-of-two-lytic-polysaccharide-monooxygenases-from-the-white-rot-fungus-heterobasidion-irregulare-and-their-roles-in-lignocellulose-degradation
#10
Bing Liu, Åke Olson, Miao Wu, Anders Broberg, Mats Sandgren
Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMO) are important redox enzymes produced by microorganisms for the degradation of recalcitrant natural polysaccharides. Heterobasidion irregulare is a white-rot phytopathogenic fungus that causes wood decay in conifers. The genome of this fungus encodes 10 putative Auxiliary Activity family 9 (AA9) LPMOs. We describe the first biochemical characterization of H. irregulare LPMOs through heterologous expression of two CBM-containing LPMOs from this fungus (HiLPMO9H, HiLPMO9I) in Pichia pastoris...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228015/development-of-an-iron-selective-antioxidant-probe-with-protective-effects-on-neuronal-function
#11
Olimpo García-Beltrán, Natalia P Mena, Pabla Aguirre, Germán Barriga-González, Antonio Galdámez, Edgar Nagles, Tatiana Adasme, Cecilia Hidalgo, Marco T Núñez
Iron accumulation, oxidative stress and calcium signaling dysregulation are common pathognomonic signs of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson´s and Alzheimer's diseases, Friedreich ataxia and Huntington's disease. Given their therapeutic potential, the identification of multifunctional compounds that suppress these damaging features is highly desirable. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of N-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)propan-2-yl)-2-(7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl)acetamide, named CT51, which exhibited potent free radical neutralizing activity both in vitro and in cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228011/characterization-of-the-giardia-intestinalis-secretome-during-interaction-with-human-intestinal-epithelial-cells-the-impact-on-host-cells
#12
Showgy Y Ma'ayeh, Jingyi Liu, Dimitra Peirasmaki, Katarina Hörnaeus, Sara Bergström Lind, Manfred Grabherr, Jonas Bergquist, Staffan G Svärd
BACKGROUND: Giardia intestinalis is a non-invasive protozoan parasite that causes giardiasis in humans, the most common form of parasite-induced diarrhea. Disease mechanisms are not completely defined and very few virulence factors are known. METHODOLOGY: To identify putative virulence factors and elucidate mechanistic pathways leading to disease, we have used proteomics to identify the major excretory-secretory products (ESPs) when Giardia trophozoites of WB and GS isolates (assemblages A and B, respectively) interact with intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in vitro...
December 11, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227996/generation-and-phenotypic-characterisation-of-a-cytochrome-p450-4x1-knockout-mouse
#13
Himanshu Kharkwal, Farhat Batool, Frank Koentgen, David R Bell, David A Kendall, Francis J P Ebling, Ian R Duce
Cytochrome P450 4x1 (Cyp4x1) is expressed at very high levels in the brain but the function of this protein is unknown. It has been hypothesised to regulate metabolism of fatty acids and to affect the activity of endocannabinoid signalling systems, which are known to influence appetite and energy metabolism. The objective of the present investigation was to determine the impact of Cyp4x1 on body weight and energy metabolism by developing a line of transgenic Cyp4x1-knock out mice. Mice were developed with a global knock-out of the gene; the full-length RNA was undetectable, and mice were viable and fertile...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227935/hematite-%C3%AE-fe2o3-a-potential-ce4-carrier-in-red-mud
#14
Ralph M Bolanz, Stefan Kiefer, Jörg Göttlicher, Ralph Steininger
Cerium is the most abundant rare earth element (REE) within the waste product of alumina production (red mud), but its speciation in this complex material is still barely understood. Previous studies showed evidence for a correlation between Ce and the main constituent of red mud, iron oxides, which led us to investigate the most abundant iron oxide in red mud, hematite, as possible carrier phase for Ce. Synthetic hematite can incorporate up to 1.70±0.01wt% Ce, which leads to a systematical increase of all unit cell parameters...
December 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227934/gabaa-receptor-activity-modulating-piperine-analogs-in-vitro-metabolic-stability-metabolite-identification-cyp450-reaction-phenotyping-and-protein-binding
#15
Volha Zabela, Timm Hettich, Götz Schlotterbeck, Laurin Wimmer, Marko D Mihovilovic, Fabrice Guillet, Belkacem Bouaita, Bénédicte Shevchenko, Matthias Hamburger, Mouhssin Oufir
In a screening of natural products for allosteric modulators of GABAA receptors (γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor), piperine was identified as a compound targeting a benzodiazepine-independent binding site. Given that piperine is also an activator of TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1) receptors involved in pain signaling and thermoregulation, a series of piperine analogs were prepared in several cycles of structural optimization, with the aim of separating GABAA and TRPV1 activating properties...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227929/green-approach-for-the-synthesis-of-thiophenyl-pyrazoles-and-isoxazoles-by-adopting-1-3-dipolar-cycloaddition-methodology-and-their-antimicrobial-activity
#16
D V Sowmya, G Lakshmi Teja, A Padmaja, V Kamala Prasad, V Padmavathi
A variety of N-((1,3-diphenyl-5-aryl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)sulfonyl)thiophene-2-carboxamides (7) and N-((5-aryl-3-phenylisoxazol-4-yl)sulfonyl)thiophene-2-carboxamides (8) were prepared from (E)-N-(arylethenesulfonyl)thiophene-2-carboxamides (4) adopting 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of nitrile imines and nitrile oxides generated from araldehyde phenylhydrazones and araldoximes in the presence of iodosobenzene and CTAB followed by oxidation with I2 in DMSO. The compounds 4f, 7e, 7f, 8e and 8f showed potential antibacterial activity against B...
December 5, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227924/metal-interactions-with-the-transmembrane-region-of-hupe-ni2-transporter-explain-its-efficiency
#17
Magdalena Rowińska-Żyrek
Efficient nickel transport is crucial for the survival and virulence of various bacteria and fungi, with Ni2+ being required for the activity of nine enzymes such as [NiFe] hydrogenase, which catalyzes the reversible oxidation of molecular hydrogen for energy production. This work focuses on a region of transmembrane domain I from the HupE nickel transporter, highly conserved in the HupE/UreJ and NiCoT permease families, analyzing its interactions with native Ni2+ and two other metal ions (Cu2+ and Zn2+), which might interfere with nickel binding...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227916/development-of-optimized-conditions-for-glaser-hay-bioconjugations
#18
Zachary M Nimmo, John F Halonski, Lindsay E Chatkewitz, Douglas D Young
The efficient preparation of protein bioconjugates represents a route to novel materials, diagnostics, and therapeutics. We previously reported a novel bioorthogonal Glaser-Hay reaction for the preparation of covalent linkages between proteins and a reaction partner; however, deleterious protein degradation was observed under extended reaction conditions. Herein, we describe the systematic optimization of the reaction to increase coupling efficiency and decrease protein degradation. Two optimized conditions were identified varying either the pH of the reaction or the bidentate ligand employed, allowing for more rapid conjugations and/or less protein oxidation...
December 5, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227906/to-disinfect-or-not-to-disinfect-in-postharvest-research-on-the-fungal-decay-of-apple
#19
Matthias Naets, Mattias van Dael, Els Vanstreels, Dirk Daelemans, Pieter Verboven, Bart Nicolaï, Wannes Keulemans, Annemie Geeraerd
Postharvest losses of fruit and vegetables can reach up to 30%, the main cause being microbial decay. For apple fruit, mostly fungal pathogens, such as Penicillium expansum, Colletotrichum spp., Neofabraea spp. and Botrytis cinerea, are important. As such losses are unsustainable in many ways, it is necessary that research is conducted to prevent them. Generally, for plants and fruit grown under non-sterile field conditions, disinfection is carried out prior to the start of a phytopathological experiment. The motivation for this practice is the removal of background contamination so that it will not affect the experimental outcome and its interpretation...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227872/low-levels-of-iron-enhance-uv-h2o2-efficiency-at-neutral-ph
#20
Sydney L Ulliman, Garrett McKay, Fernando L Rosario-Ortiz, Karl G Linden
While the presence of iron is generally not seen as favorable for UV-based treatment systems due to lamp fouling and decreased UV transmittance, we show that low levels of iron can lead to improvements in the abatement of chemicals in the UV-hydrogen peroxide advanced oxidation process. The oxidation potential of an iron-assisted UV/H2O2 (UV254 + H2O2 + iron) process was evaluated at neutral pH using iron levels below USEPA secondary drinking water standards (<0.3 mg/L). Para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA) was used as a hydroxyl radical (HO) probe to quantify HO steady state concentrations...
November 21, 2017: Water Research
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