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Rupak Desai, Sandeep Singh, Maryam Baikpour, Hemant Goyal, Abhijeet Dhoble, Abhishek Deshmukh, Gautam Kumar, Rajesh Sachdeva
BACKGROUND: It is well known that obesity can lead to increased oxidative stress, which is one of the proposed mechanisms in the etiopathogenesis of Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy (TCM). However, it is unknown if the presence of obesity affects the outcomes in patients with TCM. METHODS: We queried the National Inpatient Sample database from 2010-2014 to identify adult patients who admitted with a principal diagnosis of TCM with and without obesity. We compared the categorical and continuous variables by Pearson's chi-square and Student's t-test respectively in propensity-score matched cohorts...
June 19, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
Mojtaba Ameli, Mohaddeseh Sadat Hashemi, Maryam Moghimian, Majid Shokoohi
OBJECTIVE: This study used a rat model to investigate the protective effect of tadalafil and verapamil on testicular function and oxidative stress after torsion/detorsion. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Animals were randomly divided into five groups: G1, Sham group; G2, testicular torsion followed by detorsion (TD); G3, testicular torsion/detorsion received 0/4 mg/kg of tadalafil (TDT); G4, testicular torsion/detorsion received 0/1 mg/kg of verapamil (TDV); and G5, testicular torsion/detorsion received 0/1 mg/kg of verapamil and 0/4 mg/kg of tadalafil (TDTV)...
June 19, 2018: Andrologia
V Brunelli, P Perillo, S Milione
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
X-X Wang, L Cai
OBJECTIVE: In the current study, the effect of glucosamine methyl ester on cartilage degeneration in osteoarthritis rat model was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into 5 groups of 8 animals each. Osteoarthritis was induced in 4 groups using medial parapatellar incision followed by anterior cruciate ligament transection and meniscectomy. Normal and model osteoarthritis groups were given normal saline. The three treatment groups received 2, 5 and 10 mg/kg doses of glucosamine methyl ester daily for one month...
June 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
L-L Zhang, Z-J Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Oxidative injury is an essential part of the pathological changes of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. Sestrin2 (Sesn2), a conserved antioxidant protein, is activated under stress to protect cells against oxidative stress. This study mainly explored the function and mechanism of Sesn2 during cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) model of primary neurons was established. MTS and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) kit were used to detect cell viability and cell damage by colorimetric method...
June 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Tatsuya Matsuoka, Aya Onozawa, Kintake Sonoike, Shin Kore-Eda
Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, which switches the mode of photosynthesis from C3 to crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) upon high salt stress, was shown here to exhibit diurnal changes in not only CO2 fixation pathway but also chlorophyll fluorescence parameters under CAM-induced conditions. We conducted comprehensive time course measurements of M. crystallinum leaf chlorophyll fluorescence using the same leaf through the CAM-induction period. By doing so, we were able to distinguish the effect of CAM induction from that of photoinhibition and avoid the possible effects of differences in foliar age...
June 15, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Zhi-Jun Shen, Juan Chen, Kabir Ghoto, Wen-Jun Hu, Gui-Feng Gao, Mei-Rong Luo, Zan Li, Martin Simon, Xue-Yi Zhu, Hai-Lei Zheng
Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh is one of the most salt-tolerant mangrove species. Our previous study revealed that nitric oxide (NO) enhanced the salt tolerance of A. marina by promoting salt secretion and Na+ sequestration under salt stress. However, little is known about the regulation of NO on proteomic profiling for this mangrove species. In this study, we used sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO donor, to investigate the regulatory mechanism of NO on salt tolerance of A. marina according to physiological and proteomic aspects...
June 15, 2018: Tree Physiology
Emanuele Barca, Rebecca D Ganetzky, Prasanth Potluri, Marti Juanola-Falgarona, Xiaowu Gai, Dong Li, Chaim Jalas, Yoel Hirsch, Valentina Emmanuele, Saba Tadesse, Marcello Ziosi, Hasan O Akman, Wendy K Chung, Kurenai Tanji, Elizabeth McCormick, Emily Place, Mark Consugar, Eric A Pierce, Hakon Hakonarson, Douglas C Wallace, Michio Hirano, Marni J Falk
Leigh syndrome is a frequent, heterogeneous pediatric presentation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) disease, manifesting with psychomotor retardation and necrotizing lesions in brain deep gray matter. OXPHOS occurs at the inner mitochondrial membrane through the integrated activity of 5 protein complexes, of which complex V (CV) functions in a dimeric form to directly generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Mutations in several different structural CV subunits cause Leigh syndrome; however, dimerization defects have not been associated with human disease...
June 18, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Carmen Campino, Rene Baudrand, Carolina Valdivia, Cristian Carvajal, Andrea Vecchiola, Alejandra Tapia-Castillo, Alejandro Martínez-Aguayo, Hernán Garcia, Lorena García, Fidel Allende, Sandra Solari, Cristóbal Fuentes, Calos F Lagos, Maria Paulina Rojas, Doris Muñoz, Carlos Fardella
Background: Mounting evidence has associated high sodium intake with hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. We investigated whether high sodium intake modulates the parameters of endothelial damage, inflammation and oxidative stress. Methods: We used a cross-sectional study design including 223 Chilean subjects (6.9-65.0 years old). We measured aldosterone, renin activity, cortisol, cortisone, adiponectin, leptin, hs-CRP, IL-6, TNF-alpha, PAI-1, metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-2 activity and malondialdehyde (MDA)...
June 16, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
Anna-Kaisa Ruotsalainen, Jari P Lappalainen, Emmi Heiskanen, Mari Merentie, Virve Sihvola, Juha Näpänkangas, Line Lottonen-Raikaslehto, Emilia Kansanen, Simone Adinolfi, Kai Kaarniranta, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala, Matti Jauhiainen, Eija Pirinen, Anna-Liisa Levonen
Aims: Oxidative stress and inflammation play an important role in the progression of atherosclerosis. Transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in the vessel wall, but paradoxically, global loss of Nrf2 in apoE deficient mice alleviates atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of global Nrf2 deficiency on early and advanced atherogenesis in alternative models of atherosclerosis, LDL receptor deficient mice (LDLR-/-) and LDLR-/- mice expressing apoB-100 only (LDLR-/-ApoB100/100) having a humanized lipoprotein profile...
June 18, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Benjamin Woodhams, Laura Ansel-Bollepalli, Jakub Surmacki, Helena Knowles, Laura Maggini, Michael de Volder, Mete Atatüre, Sarah Bohndiek
Nanodiamonds have demonstrated potential as powerful sensors in biomedicine, however, their translation into routine use requires a comprehensive understanding of their effect on the biological system being interrogated. Under normal fabrication processes, nanodiamonds are produced with a graphitic carbon shell, but are often oxidized in order to modify their surface chemistry for targeting to specific cellular compartments. Here, we assessed the biological impact of this purification process, considering cellular proliferation, uptake, and oxidative stress for graphitic and oxidized nanodiamond surfaces...
June 19, 2018: Nanoscale
Robert H Thiele, Keita Ikeda, Hari P Osuru, Zhiyi Zuo
BACKGROUND: Cytochrome aa3, the terminal component of the electron transport chain, absorbs near-infrared radiation (NIR) differentially depending on its oxidation state (Cytox), which can in theory be measured using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) by relating light absorption at specific wavelengths to chromophore concentrations. Some NIRS algorithms use discrete wavelengths, while others analyze a band of NIR (broadband NIRS). The purpose of this study was to test the ability of discrete wavelength and broadband algorithms to measure changes in Cytox (primary outcome), and to determine whether or not a discreet wavelength NIRS algorithm could perform similarly to a broadband NIRS algorithm for the measurement of Cytox in a staged hypoxia-cyanide model (hypoxia and cyanide have oppositional effects on tissue saturation, but both cause cytochrome reduction)...
June 14, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Etienne A Hodille, Yves Ferro, Zachary Piazza, Cédric Pardanaud
The behavior of hydrogen in perfect wurtzite beryllium oxide is herein investigated by means of electronic structure calculations based on Density functional theory. The formation energies of the following set of states of hydrogen (H0, H+, H-, H2, H2+, H2-) are computed and their solubility is established as a function of temperature and pressure with emphasis given to conditions relevant for hydrogen-implanted materials. It is found that all magnetic states H0, H2+, H2- are unstable, while the relative stability of the non-magnetic states depends on the thermodynamic conditions: H2 prevails above temperatures around 900K at standard pressure, which is the lowest temperature in experiments measuring the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in wurtzite beryllium oxide...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Danbi Lee, Gibaek Lee, Yongsug Tak
Aluminum-ion batteries are considered to be a promising post lithium-ion battery system in energy storage devices because aluminum is earth-abundant, has a high theoretical capacity, and is of low cost. We report on the chemical activities and stabilities of chloroaluminate anions [Al<sub>n</sub>Cl<sub>n+1</sub>]<sup>‒</sup> with aluminum metal using a different mole ratio of AlCl<sub>3</sub> and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride...
June 19, 2018: Nanotechnology
Hui Xu, Pingping Song, Jin Wang, Yukou Du
Well-defined noble metal nanomaterials are attractive as catalysts for various applications due to abundant surface active sites. However, the shape-controlled synthesis of high-performance Pt-based nanocatalysts remains a forbidden challenge. We herein demonstrate a versatile approach for realizing the systemically controlled syntheses of bimetallic Pt-Cu nanocrystals from concave nanocubes (CNCs), to excavated nanocubes (ENCs), to tripods (TRPs) via simply switching the amount of glycine (reducing agent)...
June 19, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Honggang Huang, Tracy L Scheffler, David E Gerrard, Martin R Larsen, Rene Lametsch
Pigs with the Halothane (HAL) and/or Rendement Napole (RN) gene mutations demonstrate abnormal muscle energy metabolism patterns and produce meat with poor quality, classified as pale, soft and exudative (PSE) meat, but it is not well understood how HAL and RN mutations regulate glucose and energy metabolism in porcine muscle. In order to investigate the potential signaling pathways and phosphorylation events related to these mutations, muscle samples were collected from four genotypes of pigs: wildtype, RN, HAL and RN-HAL double mutations and subjected to quantitative proteomic and phosphoproteomic analysis using the TiO2 enrichment strategy...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Arjan Geersing, Nathalie Ségaud, Monique G P van der Wijst, Marianne G Rots, Gerard Roelfes
Metal coordination complexes can display interesting biological activity, as illustrated by the bleomycins (BLMs), a family of natural antibiotics that when coordinated to a redox-active metal ion, show antitumor activity. Yet, which metal ion is required for the activity in cells is still subject to debate. In this study, we described how different metal ions affect the intracellular behavior and activity of the synthetic BLM-mimic N, N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)- N-bis(2-pyridyl)methylamine (N4Py). Our study shows that a mixture of iron(II), copper(II), and zinc(II) complexes can be generated when N4Py is added to cell cultures but that the metal ion can also be exchanged by other metal ions present in cells...
June 19, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Thora Lieke, Xuchao Zhang, Christian E W Steinberg, Bo Pan
In recent years, biochars have gained increasing interest in mitigating climate changes and revitalizing contaminated or drained soil. Studies determining their impact on the ecosystem, especially on soil invertebrates, however, are still scarce and the neurotoxic potential of biochars has never been evaluated before. Using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans we determined the neurotoxic effect of biochar produced from rice straw by pyrolysis at 500 °C at concentrations ranging from 0 to 2000 mg C∙L-1...
June 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Yuan Chen, Xu Zhang, Shixiang Feng
Contributions of excited triplet state of humic acid (3HA*) and superoxide radical anion (O2•-), which is mainly generated via the reaction of O2 with HA-derived reducing intermediates (HA•-), to phenol transformation were revealed using acetaminophen, 2,4,6-trimethylphenol and tyrosine as probe molecules. Phenol transformation was initiated by 3HA*, leading to the formation of the phenoxyl radical (PhO•), but the distribution of transformation intermediates was co-determined by 3HA* and HA•-. The influence of HA•- essentially resulted from the production of O2•-, which affected the fate of PhO•...
June 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Lei Kong, Carmen C Mayorga-Martinez, Jianguo Guan, Martin Pumera
Nitroaromatic explosives such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (2,4,6-TNT) and 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) are two common nitroaromatic compounds in ammunition. Their leakage leads to serious environmental pollution and threatens human health. It is important to remove or decompose them rapidly and efficiently. In this work, we present that light-powered TiO2 /Pt Janus micromotors have high efficiency for the "on-the-fly" photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-DNT and 2,4,6-TNT in pure water under UV irradiation...
June 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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