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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528433/hydrolysis-of-phosphatidylcholine-isoprostanes-ptdcho-ip-by-peripheral-human-group-iia-v-and-x-secretory-phospholipases-a2-spla2
#1
Arnis Kuksis, Waldemar Pruzanski
Biologically active F- and E/D-type-prostane ring isomers (F2-IP and E2/D2-IP, respectively) are produced in situ by non-enzymatic peroxidation of arachidonic acid esterified to GroPCho (PtdCho-IP) and are universally distributed in tissue lipoproteins and cell membranes. Previous work has shown that platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolases (PAF-AH) are the main endogenous PLA2 involved in degradation of PtdCho-IP. The present study shows that the PtdCho-IP are also subject to hydrolysis by group IIA, V and X secretory PLA2, which also have a wide peripheral tissue distribution...
May 20, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528415/oxidative-stress-in-shellfish-sinonovacula-constricta-exposed-to-the-water-accommodated-fraction-of-zero-sulfur-diesel-oil-and-pinghu-crude-oil
#2
Mei Jiang, Lei Li, Yingren Li, Gongming Shen, Xinqiang Shen
This study investigated the oxidative stress of the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of zero sulfur diesel oil and Pinghu crude oil on Sinonovacula constricta, respectively. The oxidative stress of oil pollutants on organisms was measured by typical antioxidases, such as SOD, CAT, GST, and POD. Toxicity was quantitatively evaluated by combining IBR (integrated biomarker responses). Results demonstrated that different concentrations of oil caused different degrees of induction to the four antioxidases. Compared with the control group, all test groups presented enzyme induction or inhibition during exposure period...
May 20, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528322/very-low-doses-of-heavy-oxygen-ion-radiation-induce-premature-ovarian-failure
#3
Birendra Mishra, Ryan Ripperdan, Laura Ortiz, Ulrike Luderer
Astronauts are exposed to charged particles during space travel, and charged particles are also used for cancer radiotherapy. Premature ovarian failure is a well-known side-effect of conventional, low linear energy transfer (LET) cancer radiotherapy, but little is known about the effects of high LET charged particles on the ovary. We hypothesized that lower LET (16.5 keV/µm) oxygen particles would be less damaging to the ovary than we previously found for iron (LET=179 keV/µm). Adult female mice were irradiated with 0, 5, 30, or 50 cGy oxygen ions or 50 cGy oxygen plus dietary supplementation with the antioxidant alpha lipoic acid (ALA)...
May 20, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528318/metabolic-profiling-of-goldfish-carassius-auratis-after-long-term-glyphosate-based-herbicide-exposure
#4
Ming-Hui Li, Ling-Yu Ruan, Jin-Wei Zhou, Yong-Hong Fu, Lei Jiang, He Zhao, Jun-Song Wang
Glyphosate is an efficient herbicide widely used worldwide. However, its toxicity to non-targeted organisms has not been fully elucidated. In this study, the toxicity of glyphosate-based herbicide was evaluated on goldfish (Carassius auratus) after long-term exposure. Tissues of brains, kidneys and livers were collected and submitted to NMR-based metabolomics analysis and histopathological inspection. Plasma was collected and the blood biochemical indexes of AST, ALT, BUN, CRE, LDH, SOD, GSH-Px, GR and MDA were measured...
May 13, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528308/hyperlipidemia-is-involved-in-apoptosis-in-rat-submandibular-glands
#5
Koichiro Irie, Takaaki Tomofuji, Daisuke Ekuni, Tetsuji Azuma, Toshiki Yoneda, Yoshihiro Shimazaki, Manabu Morita
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of hyperlipidemia on histological changes and apoptosis in submandibular glands using apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficient rats. DESIGN: Histopathological findings related to induced apoptosis in the submandibular glands were compared between apoE-deficient rats (n=6; male; age, 16 weeks) and the corresponding wild-type rats (n=6). RESULTS: ApoE-deficient rats showed significantly higher plasma levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol, very LDL and LDL, and lower plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein when compared to control rats (P<0...
May 17, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528297/biogenic-aldehydes-as-therapeutic-targets-for-cardiovascular-disease
#6
REVIEW
Margaret-Ann M Nelson, Shahid P Baba, Ethan J Andersonc
Aldehydes are continuously formed in biological systems through enzyme-dependent and spontaneous oxidation of lipids, glucose, and primary amines. These highly reactive, biogenic electrophiles can become toxic via covalent modification of proteins, lipids and DNA. Thus, agents that scavenge aldehydes through conjugation have therapeutic value for a number of major cardiovascular diseases. Several commonly-prescribed drugs (e.g., hydralazine) have been shown to have potent aldehyde-conjugating properties which may contribute to their beneficial effects...
May 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528294/isoliquiritigenin-reduces-oxidative-damage-and-alleviates-mitochondrial-impairment-by-sirt1-activation-in-experimental-diabetic-neuropathy
#7
Veera Ganesh Yerra, Anil Kumar Kalvala, Ashutosh Kumar
Sirtuin (SIRT1) inactivation underlies the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia-associated vascular complications, but its role in diabetic neuropathy (DN) has not been yet explored. We have evaluated hyperglycaemia-induced alteration of SIRT1 signalling and the effect of isoliquiritigenin (ILQ) on SIRT1-directed AMP kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) signalling in peripheral nerves of streptozotocin (STZ) (55 mg/kg, ip)-induced diabetic rats and in high glucose (30 mM)-exposed neuro2a (N2A) cells...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528274/angiopoietin-like-8-angptl8-controls-adipocyte-lipolysis-and-phospholipid-composition
#8
Raghavendra Mysore, Gerhard Liebisch, You Zhou, Vesa M Olkkonen, P A Nidhina Haridas
Angiopoietin-like 8 (Angptl8) inhibits lipolysis in the circulation together with Angplt3 and controls post-prandial fat storage in white adipose tissue (WAT). It is strongly induced by insulin in vivo in WAT and in vitro in adipocytes. In this study we addressed the function of Angptl8 in adipocytes by its stable lentivirus-mediated knock-down in 3T3-L1 cells, followed by analyses of triglyceride (TG) storage, lipid droplet (LD) morphology, the cellular lipidome, lipolysis, and gene expression. Depletion of Angptl8 did not drastically affect the adipocytic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells but resulted in a moderate (18-19%) reduction of stored TGs...
May 17, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528260/hexavalent-chromium-induced-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-in-pycnoporus-sanguineus
#9
Mi Feng, Hua Yin, Hui Peng, Zehua Liu, Guining Lu, Zhi Dang
White rot fungi have been proved to be a promising option for the removal of heavy metals, understanding their toxic response to heavy metals is conducive to developing and popularizing fungi-based remediation technologies so as to lessen the hazard of heavy metals. In this study, Cr(VI)-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in Pycnoporus sanguineus, a species of white rot fungi were investigated. The results suggested that high level of Cr(VI) promoted the formation of ROS, including H2O2, O2(•-) and ·OH...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528217/citrus-maxima-pomelo-juice-mediated-eco-friendly-synthesis-of-zno-nanoparticles-applications-to-photocatalytic-electrochemical-sensor-and-antibacterial-activities
#10
N S Pavithra, K Lingaraju, G K Raghu, G Nagaraju
In the present work, Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO Nps) have been successfully prepared through a simple, effective and low cost solution combustion method using Zn (NO3)2·6H2O as an oxidizer, chakkota (Common name=Pomelo) fruit juice as novel fuel. X-ray diffraction pattern indicates the hexagonal wurtzite structure with average crystallite size of ~22nm. ZnO Nps were characterized with the aid of different spectroscopic techniques such as Raman spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, Photoluminescence and UV-Visible spectroscopy...
May 16, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528201/x-linked-carriers-of-chronic-granulomatous-disease-illness-lyonization-and-stability
#11
Beatriz E Marciano, Christa S Zerbe, E Liana Falcone, Li Ding, Suk See DeRavin, Janine Daub, Samantha Kreuzburg, Lynne Yockey, Sally Hunsberger, Ladan Foruraghi, Lisa A Barnhart, Kabir Matharu, Victoria Anderson, Dirk N Darnell, Cathleen Frein, Danielle L Fink, Karen P Lau, Debra A Long Priel, John I Gallin, Harry L Malech, Gulbu Uzel, Alexandra F Freeman, Douglas B Kuhns, Sergio D Rosenzweig, Steven M Holland
BACKGROUND: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is characterized by recurrent life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections and aberrant inflammation. Mutations in CYBB cause X-linked CGD and account for 65%-70% of cases in western countries. OBJECTIVE: To understand the clinical manifestations associated with the X-linked CGD carrier state. METHODS: We undertook a comprehensive retrospective study of 162 affected females. We examined dihydrorhodamine oxidation (DHR) data for percent (%) X chromosome inactivation...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528187/anticonvulsant-activity-of-pseudospondias-microcarpa-a-rich-engl-hydroethanolic-leaf-extract-in-mice-the-role-of-excitatory-inhibitory-neurotransmission-and-nitric-oxide-pathway
#12
Donatus W Adongo, Priscilla K Mante, Kennedy K E Kukuia, Robert P Biney, Eric Boakye-Gyasi, Charles K Benneh, Elvis O Ameyaw, Eric Woode
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Pseudospondias microcarpa (A. Rich) Engl. is a plant used for managing various diseases including central nervous system disorders. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study explored the anticonvulsant activity of P. microcarpa hydroethanolic leaf extract (PME) as well as possible mechanism(s) of action in animal models. METHODS: Effects of PME was assessed in electroconvulsive (the maximal electroshock and 6-Hz seizures) and chemoconvulsive (pentylenetetrazole-, picrotoxin-, isoniazid-, 4-aminopyridine-, and strychnine-induced seizures) models of epilepsy...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528183/effects-of-quercetin-on-proliferation-and-migration-of-human-glioblastoma-u251-cells
#13
Yue Liu, Zhen-Gang Tang, Yi Lin, Xin-Guo Qu, Wei Lv, Guo-Bin Wang, Cai-Li Li
Quercetin is a flavonoid that has been shown to have anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, anti-allergic, anti-viral, and anti-cancer activities. Here, we examined the effects of quercetin on cell viability, cell cycle progression, and migration in U251 cells, a human glioblastoma cell line. We found that quercetin inhibited cell proliferation after treating cells for 24 (IC50 of 113.65μg/ml) or 48h (IC50 of 48.61μg/ml). Quercetin treatment also induced apoptosis via deregulating the expression of apoptotic genes, including Bax and Bcl-2, and arrested cell cycle at G2/M phases...
May 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528133/chemical-synthesis-of-flower-like-hybrid-cu-oh-2-cuo-electrode-application-of-polyvinyl-alcohol-and-triton-x-100-to-enhance-supercapacitor-performance
#14
S K Shinde, V J Fulari, D-Y Kim, N C Maile, R R Koli, H D Dhaygude, G S Ghodake
In this research article, we report hybrid nanomaterials of copper hydroxide/copper oxide (Cu(OH)2/CuO). A thin films were prepared by using a facile and cost-effective successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. As-synthesized and hybrid Cu(OH)2/CuO with two different surfactants polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and triton-X 100 (TRX-100) was prepared having distinct morphological, structural, and supercapacitor properties. The surface of the thin film samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
May 9, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528123/quantitative-biology-of-hydrogen-peroxide-signaling
#15
REVIEW
Fernando Antunes, Paula Matos Brito
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) controls signaling pathways in cells by oxidative modulation of the activity of redox sensitive proteins denominated redox switches. Here, quantitative biology concepts are applied to review how H2O2 fulfills a key role in information transmission. Equations described lay the foundation of H2O2 signaling, give new insights on H2O2 signaling mechanisms, and help to learn new information from common redox signaling experiments. A key characteristic of H2O2 signaling is that the ratio between reduction and oxidation of redox switches determines the range of H2O2 concentrations to which they respond...
May 8, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528109/the-hypoglycemic-effects-of-guava-leaf-psidium-guajava-l-extract-are-associated-with-improving-endothelial-dysfunction-in-mice-with-diet-induced-obesity
#16
Elixabet Díaz-de-Cerio, Alba Rodríguez-Nogales, Francesca Algieri, Miguel Romero, Vito Verardo, Antonio Segura-Carretero, Juan Duarte, Julio Galvez
Obesity is associated with a low-grade inflammatory status that affects vascular function. Previous studies have reported the beneficial effects of Psidium guajava L. (guava) on diabetes. Here we evaluate the how guava leaf extract at the dose of 5 mg/kg, affects vascular dysfunction in obese mice fed a high-fat diet for 7 weeks. Extract intake did not alter weight over time, although it reduced glycemia and insulin resistance, improving the serum lipid profile in obese mice. Additionally, guava leaf extract reversed the endothelial dysfunction found in obese mice in terms of endothelium- and NO (nitric oxide)-dependent vasodilatation induced by acetylcholine in aortic rings...
June 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528080/toxicological-aspects-of-interesterified-fat-brain-damages-in-rats
#17
Lívia Ferraz D'avila, Verônica Tironi Dias, Luciana Taschetto Vey, Laura Hautrive Milanesi, Karine Roversi, Tatiana Emanuelli, Marilise Escobar Bürger, Fabíola Trevizol
In recent years, interesterified fat (IF) has been used to replace hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF), rich in trans isomers, being found in processed foods. Studies involving IF have shown deleterious influences on the metabolic system, similarly to HVF, whereas no studies regarding its influence on the central nervous system (CNS) were performed. Rats from first generation born and maintained under supplementation (3g/Kg, p.o.) of soybean-oil or IF until adulthood were assessed on memory, biochemical and molecular markers in the hippocampus...
May 17, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527997/zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-mediated-cytotoxicity-mitochondrial-membrane-potential-and-level-of-antioxidants-in-presence-of-melatonin
#18
Sruthi S, N Millot, Mohanan Pv
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are widely used in a variety of products and are currently being investigated for biomedical applications. However, they have the potential to interact with macromolecules like proteins, lipids and DNA within the cells which makes the safe biomedical application difficult. The toxicity of the ZnO NP is mainly attributed reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Different strategies like iron doping, polymer coating and external supply of antioxidants have been evaluated to minimize the toxic potential of ZnO NPs...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527991/lignosulfonate-stabilized-selenium-nanoparticles-and-their-deposition-on-spherical-silica
#19
Anna Modrzejewska-Sikorska, Emilia Konował, Łukasz Klapiszewski, Grzegorz Nowaczyk, Stefan Jurga, Teofil Jesionowski, Grzegorz Milczarek
We report a novel room-temperature synthesis of selenium nanoparticles, which for the first time uses lignosulfonate as a stabilizer. Various lignosulfonates obtained both from hardwood and softwood were tested. Selenium oxide was used as the precursor of zero-valent selenium. Three different reducers were tested - sodium borohydride, hydrazine and ascorbic acid - and the latter proved most effective in terms of the particle size and stability of the final colloid. The lignosulfonate-stabilized selenium nanoparticles had a negative zeta potential, dependent on pH, which for some lignosulfonates reached -50mV, indicating the excellent stability of the colloid...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527979/degradation-of-chloramphenicol-by-uv-chlorine-treatment-kinetics-mechanism-and-enhanced-formation-of-halonitromethanes
#20
Huiyu Dong, Zhimin Qiang, Jun Hu, Jiuhui Qu
Ultraviolet (UV)/chlorine process is considered as an emerging advanced oxidation process for the degradation of micropollutants. This study investigated the degradation of chloramphenicol (CAP) and formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during the UV/chlorine treatment. It was found that CAP degradation was enhanced by combined UV/chlorine treatment compared to that of UV and chlorination treatment alone. The pseudo-first-order rate constant of the UV/chlorine process at pH 7.0 reached 0.016 s(-1), which was 10...
May 17, 2017: Water Research
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