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Moses Okee, Alice Bayiyana, Carol Musubika, Moses Joloba, Fred Ashaba-Katabazi, Bernard Ssentalo Bagaya, Misaki Wayengera
Efficiency of artificial restriction enzymes (AREs) towards curing HIV has only been separately examined, using differing delivery vehicles. We compared the in-vitro transduction and target-mutagenesis efficiency of consortium-plasmid and adenoviral vector delivered HIV-1<i> pol </i>gene targeting ZFN with CRISPER/Cas. Custom-ZFN, CRISPER-Cas-9, plasmids and vectors (murCTSD_pZFN, pGS-U-gRNA, pCMV-Cas-D01A, Ad5-RGD); cell-lines (TZM-bl and ACH-2/J-Lat cells); and the latency reversing agents Prostatin, SAHA, and PMA were used...
November 28, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Churamani Khanal, Edward C McGawley, Charles Overstreet, Sally Stetina
The reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford and Oliveira) has emerged as the most important plant parasitic nematode of cotton in the United States cotton belt. Success in the development of reniform nematode resistant upland cotton cultivars (Gossypium hirsutum L.) has not been realized despite over three decades of breeding efforts. Research approaches ranging from conventional breeding to triple species hybrids to marker-assisted selection have been employed to introgress reniform nematode resistance from other species of cotton into upland cultivars...
November 8, 2017: Phytopathology
Kartesh Singla, Simarpreet Virk Sandhu, Rana A G K Pal, Himanta Bansal, Ramanpreet Kaur Bhullar, Preetinder Kaur
OBJECTIVES: Tissue processing for years is carried out by the conventional method, which is a time-consuming technique resulting in 1-day delay in diagnosis. However, in this area of modernization and managed care, rapid diagnosis is increasingly desirable to fulfill the needs of clinicians. The objective of the present study was to compare and determine the positive impact on turnaround times of different tissue processing methods by comparing the color intensity, cytoplasmic details, and nuclear details of the tissues processed by three methods...
April 2017: International Journal of Health Sciences
Kenneth I Berns, Nicholas Muzyczka
AAV has been studied for 55 years and has been developed as a vector for about 35 years. By now, there is a fairly good idea of the dimensions of what would be useful to know to employ AAV optimally as a vector, but there are still many unanswered questions within the system. As with all biological systems, each good experiment raises further questions to answer. This article provides an overview of those areas in which unknown information can be identified and of those questions that have not yet been recognized...
April 2017: Human Gene Therapy
Marko Wilke, Mekibib Altaye, Scott K Holland
Brain image spatial normalization and tissue segmentation rely on prior tissue probability maps. Appropriately selecting these tissue maps becomes particularly important when investigating "unusual" populations, such as young children or elderly subjects. When creating such priors, the disadvantage of applying more deformation must be weighed against the benefit of achieving a crisper image. We have previously suggested that statistically modeling demographic variables, instead of simply averaging images, is advantageous...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
J-M Drezen, J Gauthier, T Josse, A Bézier, E Herniou, E Huguet
Recent studies have highlighted that the accidental acquisition of DNA from other species by invertebrate genomes is much more common than originally thought. The transferred DNAs are of bacterial or eukaryote origin and in both cases the receiver species may end up utilising the transferred genes for its own benefit. Frequent contact with prokaryotic DNA from symbiotic endocellular bacteria may predispose invertebrates to incorporate this genetic material into their genomes. Increasing evidence also points to viruses as major players in transferring genes and mobile elements between the species they infect...
July 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Ouided Benslama, Abderrahmane Boulahrouf
Enterobacter sp. strain Bisph2 was isolated from a sandy soil from Biskra, Algeria and exhibits glyphosate-degrading activity. Multilocus sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA, rpoB, hsp60, gyrB and dnaJ genes demonstrated that Bisph2 might be a member of a new species of the genus Enterobacter. Genomic sequencing of Bisph2 was used to better clarify the relationships among Enterobacter species. Annotation and analysis of the genome sequence showed that the 5.535.656 bp genome of Enterobacter sp. Bisph2 consists in one chromosome and no detectable plasmid, has a 53...
June 2016: Genomics Data
HyunJun Kang, Petra Minder, Mi Ae Park, Walatta-Tseyon Mesquitta, Bruce E Torbett, Igor I Slukvin
The chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5) serves as an HIV-1 co-receptor and is essential for cell infection with CCR5-tropic viruses. Loss of functional receptor protects against HIV infection. Here, we report the successful targeting of CCR5 in GFP-marked human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) using CRISPR/Cas9 with single and dual guide RNAs (gRNAs). Following CRISPER/Cas9-mediated gene editing using a single gRNA, 12.5% of cell colonies demonstrated CCR5 editing, of which 22.2% showed biallelic editing as determined by a Surveyor nuclease assay and direct sequencing...
December 15, 2015: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Dalit Landesman-Milo, Srinivas Ramishetti, Dan Peer
Metastatic lung cancer is one of the most common cancers leading to mortality worldwide. Current treatment includes chemo- and pathway-dependent therapy aiming at blocking the spread and proliferation of these metastatic lesions. Nanomedicine is an emerging multidisciplinary field that offers unprecedented access to living cells and promises the state of the art in cancer detection and treatment. Development of nanomedicines as drug carriers (nanocarriers) that target cancer for therapy draws upon principles in the fields of chemistry, medicine, physics, biology, and engineering...
June 2015: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Danfeng Xue, Quanxin Wang, Ziheng Chen, Lei Cai, Li Bao, Qiuyue Qi, Lei Liu, Xiaohui Wang, Haijing Jin, Jun Wang, Hao Wu, Hongwei Liu, Quan Chen
Autophagy is defined as an evolutionarily conserved process responsible for degradation of the cytoplasmic components including protein aggregates via the lysosomal machinery. Increasing evidence has linked defective autophagic degradation of protein aggregates with the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, and it is suggested that promotion of autophagy is regarded as a potential therapeutic for these diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we identified, 3-anhydro-6-hydroxy-ophiobolin A (X15-2), an ophiobolin derivative from Bipolaris oryzae that can strongly induce autophagic degradation of α-synuclein, the major constituent of Lewy bodies...
April 1, 2015: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Zata Vickers, Amanda Peck, Theodore Labuza, Guangwei Huang
UNLABELLED: The objectives of this study were to measure sensory texture attributes of 5 types of almonds (blanched slivered, natural sliced, whole blanched, whole dry roasted, and natural whole) conditioned at 4 different moisture levels, to measure liking of a subset of these products, and to compare the sensory texture measurements with consumer liking ratings. Thirteen panelists trained to evaluate almond texture rated the texture attributes of the 20 almond samples. A panel of 113 almond consumers rated their liking of a subset of 8 of these almonds...
July 2014: Journal of Food Science
Shaode Yu, Rui Zhang, Shibin Wu, Jiani Hu, Yaoqin Xie
BACKGROUND: Fetal spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a prenatal routine for proper assessment of fetus development, especially when suspected spinal malformations occur while ultrasound fails to provide details. Limited by hardware, fetal spine MR images suffer from its low resolution.High-resolution MR images can directly enhance readability and improve diagnosis accuracy. Image interpolation for higher resolution is required in clinical situations, while many methods fail to preserve edge structures...
2013: Biomedical Engineering Online
Christiane Essoh, Yann Blouin, Guillaume Loukou, Arsher Cablanmian, Serge Lathro, Elizabeth Kutter, Hoang Vu Thien, Gilles Vergnaud, Christine Pourcel
Phage therapy may become a complement to antibiotics in the treatment of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. To design efficient therapeutic cocktails, the genetic diversity of the species and the spectrum of susceptibility to bacteriophages must be investigated. Bacterial strains showing high levels of phage resistance need to be identified in order to decipher the underlying mechanisms. Here we have selected genetically diverse P. aeruginosa strains from cystic fibrosis patients and tested their susceptibility to a large collection of phages...
2013: PloS One
Mara Damian, Matthew H Porteus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2013: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Justyna Cybulska, Artur Zdunek, Katarzyna M Psonka-Antonczyk, Bjørn T Stokke
In this study, the relation of the nanostructure of cell walls with their texture was investigated for six different apple cultivars. Cell wall material (CWM) and cellulose microfibrils were imaged by atomic force microscope (AFM). The mean diameter of cellulose microfibrils for each cultivar was estimated based on the AFM height topographs obtained using the tapping mode of dried specimens. Additionally, crystallinity of cellulose microfibrils and pectin content was determined. Texture of apple cultivars was evaluated by sensory and instrumental analysis...
January 30, 2013: Carbohydrate Polymers
Joanna M Wardlaw, Will Brindle, Ana M Casado, Kirsten Shuler, Moira Henderson, Brenda Thomas, Jennifer Macfarlane, Susana Muñoz Maniega, Katherine Lymer, Zoe Morris, Cyril Pernet, William Nailon, Trevor Ahearn, Abdul Nashirudeen Mumuni, Carlos Mugruza, John McLean, Goultchira Chakirova, Yuehui Terry Tao, Johanna Simpson, Andrew C Stanfield, Harriet Johnston, Jehill Parikh, Natalie A Royle, Janet De Wilde, Mark E Bastin, Nick Weir, Andrew Farrall, Maria C Valdes Hernandez
OBJECTIVE: MRI at 3 T is said to be more accurate than 1.5 T MR, but costs and other practical differences mean that it is unclear which to use. METHODS: We systematically reviewed studies comparing diagnostic accuracy at 3 T with 1.5 T. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and other sources from 1 January 2000 to 22 October 2010 for studies comparing diagnostic accuracy at 1.5 and 3 T in human neuroimaging. We extracted data on methodology, quality criteria, technical factors, subjects, signal-to-noise, diagnostic accuracy and errors according to QUADAS and STARD criteria...
November 2012: European Radiology
Melinda Moore
The globalization of public health is both real and relevant throughout the United States and to Americans traveling or residing abroad. US public policy responses are evolving, but a crisper and more comprehensive global perspective is needed. I suggest four timely US actions to address today's competing realities of globalization and economic austerity: raise awareness among clinicians and local health departments; capture and share exemplary disaster management practices across countries; ensure that US global health investments are effective, efficient, and sustainable; and think globally while acting locally to enhance US health security...
June 2012: American Journal of Public Health
Husain Saleh, Nader Bassily, M Jamal Hammoud
OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively compare the diagnostic accuracy and cytomorphologic features of thyroid lesions on ThinPrep (TP) (Cytyc Corporation, Boxborough, Massachusetts, U.S.A.) monolayer preparations with those of the conventional smear (CS) method on fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). STUDY DESIGN: Slides of 145 TP and 145 CS consecutive cases of thyroid FNAB were retrospectively reviewed for the following features: amount and architecture of follicular cells, nuclear and cytoplasmic details, amount and quality of colloid, background blood, cyst fluid and macrophages, and lymphocytes and plasma cells...
March 2009: Acta Cytologica
Michael O Zenge, Florian M Vogt, Katja Brauck, Michaela Jökel, Joerg Barkhausen, Stephan Kannengiesser, Mark E Ladd, Harald H Quick
Continuously-moving-table MRI, in contrast to traditional multistation techniques, potentially can improve the scan time efficiency of whole-body applications and provide seamless images of an extended field of view (FOV). Contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA) in particular requires high spatial resolution and at the same time has rigid scan time constraints due to the limited arterial contrast window. In this study a reconstruction method for continuously acquired 3D data sets during table movement was combined with a self-calibrated partial parallel imaging algorithm (generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisitions (GRAPPA))...
October 2006: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Marios S Fourakis, John W Hawks, Laura K Holden, Margaret W Skinner, Timothy A Holden
Two speech processor programs (MAPs) differing only in electrode frequency boundary assignments were created for each of eight Nucleus 24 Cochlear Implant recipients. The default MAPs used typical frequency boundaries, and the experimental MAPs reassigned one additional electrode to vowel formant regions. Four objective speech tests and a questionnaire were used to evaluate speech recognition with the two MAPs. Results for the closed-set vowel test and the formant discrimination test showed small but significant improvement in scores with the experimental MAP...
April 2004: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
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