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Application of polymer

Alan F Godwin, Tobias Starborg, David J Smith, Michael J Sherratt, Alan M Roseman, Clair Baldock
Fibrillin microfibrils are evolutionarily ancient, structurally-complex extracellular polymers found in mammalian elastic tissues where they endow elastic properties, sequester growth factors and mediate cell signalling; thus, knowledge of their structure and organisation is essential for a more complete understanding of cell function and tissue morphogenesis. By combining multiple imaging techniques, we visualise three levels of hierarchical organisation of fibrillin structure ranging from micro-scale fibre bundles in the ciliary zonule to nano-scale individual microfibrils...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Nan Wang, Jizhou Duan, Weijie Shi, Xiaofan Zhai, Fang Guan, Lihui Yang, Baorong Hou
Various 3-dimensional C/CeO2 hollow nanostructure frameworks (3D C/CeO2 HNFs) were synthesized by using a polymer blowing process that is accelerated by adding a certain amount of cerium nitrate. Polyvinylpyrrolidone was used as the polymer. The resulting HNFs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The HNFs possess a large specific surface area, and the CeO2 nanocrystals consist of a single phase. The HNFs display intrinsic peroxidase-like activity and can catalyze the oxidation of the peroxidase substrate 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine in the presence of H2 O2 to produce a blue product...
August 17, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Ibrahim Abdalla, Jiali Shen, Jianyong Yu, Zhaoling Li, Bin Ding
Electromagnetic (EM) wave absorbing materials have been fabricated from diverse materials such as conductive polymers, carbon based nanostructures and magnetic metal oxides. Nevertheless, it has remained a great challenge to develop lightweight and high-efficiency EM wave absorbing materials with a broad frequency range. Herein, we report a scalable strategy to create Co3 O4 /carbon composite nanofibrous membrane by electrospinning technique followed by stabilization and carbonization processes. An optimal reflection loss (RL ) value of 36...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kosuke Mori, Koh Niinuma, Masaya Fujita, Naofumi Kamimura, Eiji Masai
Microbial conversion of lignin-derived aromatics is a promising strategy for industrial utilization of this large biomass resource. However, efficient application requires elucidation of relevant transport and catabolic pathways. In Sphingobium sp. strain SYK-6, most enzyme genes involved in 5,5'-dehydrodivanillate (DDVA) catabolism have been characterized but the transporter has not yet been identified. Here we identified SLG_07710 ( ddvK ) and SLG_07780 ( ddvR ), genes encoding a putative major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporter and MarR-type transcriptional regulator, respectively...
August 17, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Payel Dowari, Shriya Saha, Bapan Pramanik, Sahnawaz Ahmed, Nilotpal Singha, Anindita Ukil, Debapratim Das
Development of biocompatible polymeric systems capable of cell adhesion and proliferation is a challenging task. Proper cross-linking of small cell adhesive peptide sequences is useful in this respect as it provides the inherent non-toxic environment as well as the cross-linked polymeric network to the cells for adhesion and proliferation. A multiple cross-linking strategy is applied to create a peptide based cross-linked polymer. Covalent linkage through disulfide bond formation, supramolecular linkage using homo-ternary complexation by CB[8], and enzymatic cross-linking by HRP mediated dimerization of Tyrosine are used to prepare the cross-linked peptide based polymer decorated with cell-adhesive RGDS sequence...
August 17, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Cheng-Kai Liu, Ching-Yen Tu, Yi-Xuan Liu, Wei-Hsuan Chen, Ko-Ting Cheng
General theory, which can completely describe the asymmetrical optics in a functional material (FM)-doped 90° twisted nematic liquid crystals (TNLCs), is proposed using Cayley-Hamilton theorem and Jones calculus. The FMs, whose shape and size are similar to those of the adopted NLCs, can be aligned along the long axes of the NLCs. The FMs discussed herein are dichroic dye (DD) and polymer. The experimental results of asymmetrical transmission in DD-doped 90° TNLCs are consistent with the theoretical calculation...
June 25, 2018: Optics Express
Xiao Xu, Lin Ma, Zuyuan He
We propose three-dimensional (3D) polymer directional couplers operating at 1550 nm for on-board optical interconnects. The proposed directional coupler can realize free-position light coupling and splitting in three dimension and can be cascaded to serve as an effective and scalable device for multi-layer and multi-channel interconnects. The 3D directional coupler was fabricated with commercially available UV-curable epoxies by combining the use of a needle-type liquid micro-dispenser and a 3-axis robot stage...
June 25, 2018: Optics Express
Fengjie Deng, Huajian Zhou, Junyu Chen, Hongye Huang, Jianwen Tian, Yuanqing Wen, Qiang Huang, Meiying Liu, Xiaoyong Zhang, Yen Wei
Tb3+ -doped layered double hydroxides (LDHs) exhibit excellent optical characteristics, uniform size and uniform morphologies when synthesized through a hydrothermal method. However, due to their lack of functional groups and poor dispersibility, applications of these fluorescent Tb3+ -doped LDHs have been largely impeded especially in the biomedical fields. In this work, a novel strategy was developed for the surface modification of these fluorescent Tb3+ -doped LDHs using photoinduced surface-initiated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization with hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) as the monomer...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Deng-Guang Yu, Jiao-Jiao Li, Gareth R Williams, Min Zhao
The development of oral dosage forms for poorly water-soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) is a persistent challenge. A range of methods has been explored to address this issue, and amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) have received increasing attention. ASDs are typically prepared by starting with a liquid precursor (a solution or melt) and applying energy for solidification. Many techniques can be used, with the emergence of electrospinning as a potent option in recent years. This method uses electrical energy to induce changes from liquid to solid...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Cheng Zhang, Shehzahdi Shebbrin Moonshi, Wenqian Wang, Hang Thu Ta, Yanxiao Han, Felicity Y Han, Hui Peng, Petr Král, Barbara E Rolfe, John Justin Gooding, Katharina Gaus, Andrew Keith Whittaker
Two important challenges in the field of 19F magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the maintenance of high fluorine content without compromising imaging performance, and effective targeting of small particles to diseased tissue. To address these challenges, we have developed a series of perfluoropolyether (PFPE)-based hyperbranched (HBPFPE) nanoparticles with attached peptide aptamer as targeting ligands for specific in vivo detection of breast cancer with high 19F MRI sensitivity. A detailed comparison of the HBPFPE nanoparticles (NPs) with the previously reported trifluoroethyl acrylate (TFEA)-based polymers demonstrates that the mobility of fluorinated segments of the HBPFPE nanoparticles is significantly enhanced (19F T2 > 80 ms vs...
August 17, 2018: ACS Nano
Zhongmou Chao, Brian P Radka, Ke Xu, Garrison M Crouch, Donghoon Han, David B Go, Paul W Bohn, Susan K Fullerton-Shirey
Materials with reconfigurable optical properties are candidates for applications such as optical cloaking and wearable sensors. One approach to fabricate these materials is to use external fields to form and dissolve nanoscale conductive channels in well-defined locations within a polymer. In this study, conductive atomic force microscopy is used to electrochemically form and dissolve nanoscale conductive filaments at spatially distinct points in a polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA)-based electrolyte blended with varying amounts of ionic liquid (IL) and silver salt...
August 17, 2018: Small
Tao Chen, Kai Hou, Qianyi Ren, Guoyin Chen, Peiling Wei, Meifang Zhu
Hydrogels are an important class of soft materials with high water retention that exhibit intelligent and elastic properties and have promising applications in the fields of biomaterials, soft machines, and artificial tissue. However, the low mechanical strength and limited functions of traditional chemically cross-linked hydrogels restrict their further applications. Natural materials that consist of stiff and soft components exhibit high mechanical strength and functionality. Among artificial soft materials, nanocomposite hydrogels are analogous to these natural materials because of the synergistic effects of nanoparticle (NP) polymers in hydrogels construction...
August 17, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Chen Zhang, Fang Wang, Rahul S Patil, Charles L Barnes, Tao Li, Jerry L Atwood
Controlling the self-assembly of giant molecular building blocks into complex architectures with similar hierarchy to biological species remains a major challenge in supramolecular chemistry. Akin to protein structure, here we present the self-assembly of giant molecular nanocapsules into supramolecular coordination polymers with controlled hierarchy from primary to secondary and tertiary structures. First, we successfully prepared discrete nanocapsules (secondary structures) consisting of multicomponents such as organic macrocycles and metal-based secondary building units (primary structures)...
August 16, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Chanaka Sandaruwan, H M P C K Herath, T S E F Karunarathne, S P Ratnayake, G A J Amaratunga, D P Dissanayake
Palladium nanoparticles display fascinating electronic, optical and catalytic properties, thus they can be used for various applications such as sensor fabrication. Conducting polymers such as polyaniline have also been widely used in sensor technology due to its cost effectiveness, versatility, and ease of synthesis. In this research, attention was given to unify the exceptional properties of these two materials and construct palladium nanoparticle coated polyaniline films to detect hydrogen and moisture. Electrochemical polymerization of aniline was carried out on gold sputtered epoxy resin boards...
August 16, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
Satoshi Ninomiya, Yuji Sakai, Lee Chuin Chen, Kenzo Hiraoka
Atmospheric pressure electrospray had been used in previous studies to generate massive water droplet ion beams, and the beams successfully achieved efficient desorption/ionization of biomolecules, low damage etching of polymers and nonselective etching of metal oxides. However, this droplet ion beam was not practical as a primary ion beam for surface analysis instruments because it required differential pumping and lacked adequate beam current and density. To improve the beam performance, we have proposed to use vacuum electrospray of aqueous solutions as a beam source, and developed a technique for producing a stable electrospray of aqueous solution in vacuum...
2018: Mass Spectrometry
Yazhen Shen, Changwen Du, Jianmin Zhou, Fei Ma
Development of controlled-release urea (CRU) has attracted research attention because of food scarcity problems and environmental concerns. To slow down the nutrient release of CRU coated with waterborne polyacrylate, conventional emulsion polymerization (CEP), conventional emulsion polymerization containing hexadecane (CEP + HD), and miniemulsion polymerization (MP) were carried out to discern the influence of polymerization technique and hexadecane on the properties of emulsions, films, and on the resultant nutrient release profiles of controlled-release urea...
August 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Asghar Dolatkhah, Purvil Jani, Lee D Wilson
Hybridization of metal NPs with redox-switchable polymer supports not only mitigates their aggregation, but also introduces interfacial electron pathways desirable for catalysis and numerous other applications. The large surface area and surface accessible atoms for noble metal nanoparticles (e.g., Ag, Au, Pt) offer promising opportunities to address challenges in catalysis and environmental remediation. Herein, Ag NPs were supported onto redox-switchable polyaniline (PANI) that acts as an advanced multifunctional conducting template for enhanced catalytic activity...
August 17, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Wei Jin, Kin Seng Chiang
We propose a three-dimensional (3D) long-period grating structure that has a controllable grating width and depth and can be formed at any chosen position on the surface of a waveguide core with a single photolithography process. The process relies on the partial etching of small structures on the surface of a polymer waveguide through a waveguide mask with narrow apertures that define the grating pattern. The 3D grating structure allows the design of mode converters for any nondegenerate guided modes of a waveguide, regardless of their symmetry properties, and thus relaxes the design constraint of conventional two-dimensional waveguide gratings...
June 11, 2018: Optics Express
Mengbi Wei, Xianhai Yang, Peter Watson, Feifei Yang, Huihui Liu
In recent years, extensive attention has been paid to the passive sampling technology of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) due to its growing application in the measurement of a widening variety of compounds. Within any DGT device, the binding phase is a key component, and seeking novel binding phases is an issue worth studying. Cyclodextrin polymer, as a green and eco-friendly material, may be a good choice for measuring organic chemicals. In this study, a novel DGT sampler with cyclodextrin polymer membrane (CDPM) as the binding phase was developed for measuring the concentrations of triclosan, triclocarban and methyl triclosan...
August 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Brandon Kurt Schabes, Rebecca Marie Altman, Geraldine L Richmond
The synergistic adsorption of polymers with surfactants at the oil/water interface has applications that range from oil remediation to targeted drug delivery. However, the inherent inaccessibility of the buried oil/water interface has challenged the development of a molecular-level understanding of these systems' structure-function relationship. This study uses vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy to examine molecular structure, orientation and electrostatic effects of synergistic adsorption of the surfactant cetrimonium bromide (CTAB) and polymer poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) at a planar oil/water interface...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
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