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Application of polymer

Ludmila Otilia Cinteza, Cristina Scomoroscenco, Sorina Nicoleta Voicu, Cristina Lavinia Nistor, Sabina Georgiana Nitu, Bogdan Trica, Maria-Luiza Jecu, Cristian Petcu
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are considered a promising alternative to the use of antibiotics in fighting multidrug-resistant pathogens. However, their use in medical application is hindered by the public concern regarding the toxicity of metallic nanoparticles. In this study, rationally designed AgNP were produced, in order to balance the antibacterial activity and toxicity. A facile, environmentally friendly synthesis was used for the electrochemical fabrication of AgNPs. Chitosan was employed as the capping agent, both for the stabilization and to improve the biocompatibility...
October 13, 2018: Nanomaterials
Alberto Sensini, Luca Cristofolini
Tendon and ligament tissue regeneration and replacement are complex since scaffolds need to guarantee an adequate hierarchical structured morphology, and non-linear mechanical properties. Moreover, to guide the cells' proliferation and tissue re-growth, scaffolds must provide a fibrous texture mimicking the typical of the arrangement of the collagen in the extracellular matrix of these tissues. Among the different techniques to produce scaffolds, electrospinning is one of the most promising, thanks to its ability to produce fibers of nanometric size...
October 12, 2018: Materials
Primiano Pio Di Mauro
A dual-targeting drug delivery system for paclitaxel (PTX) was developed by functionalizing novel polyester-based nanoparticles (NPs) with peptides possessing special affinity for low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), overcoming the limitations of the current chemotherapeutics, to transport drug from blood to brain, and then target glioma cells. Employing novel biodegradable block co-polymers (P and 2P), PTX loaded and peptide-functionalized nanoparticles were prepared by a modified nano-co-precipitation method, carried out in one step only without emulsifier, allowing to obtain spherical nanometric (<200 nm), monodisperse (PDI∼0...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Jihwan Son, Gawon Yi, Jihye Yoo, Changhee Park, Heebeom Koo, Hak Soo Choi
Nanoparticles (NPs) play a key role in nanomedicine in multimodal imaging, drug delivery and targeted therapy of human diseases. Consequently, due to the attractive properties of NPs including high stability, high payload, multifunctionality, design flexibility, and efficient delivery to target tissues, nanomedicine employs various types of NPs to enhance targeting and treatment efficacy. In this review, we primarily focus on light-responsive materials, such as fluorophores, photosensitizers, semiconducting polymers, carbon structures, gold particles, quantum dots, and upconversion crystals, for their biomedical applications...
October 12, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Chang-Hee Whang, Hyung Kyung Lee, Santanu Kundu, S Narasimha Murthy, Seongbong Jo
Thermo-sensitive hydrogels are considered ideal for applications in the biomedical fields for their biocompatibility, flexibility, tissue-like water content, and reversible gelation property. By adjusting sufficient hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance in block copolymer structure, thermogel's critical gelation temperature can be modified to be near the physiological temperature, which makes it an appealing candidate for in situ gel depot. In this study, we report successful syntheses of novel multiple block copolymer compounds, denoted as dual-stimuli sensitive polymers (DSSPs), by copolymerizing Pluronic® P104 (7,100 Da) and 2,2-bis(aminoethoxy)propane (BAP) using diisocyanate linkers, L-lysine ethyl ester diisocyanate (DSSP-1) and 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (DSSP-2)...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Polymer Science
Tom Kunde, Worarin Meesorn, Christoph Weder, Hans G Börner
A general strategy to modify the structurally interesting poly(lactonic sophorolipid) (Poly(LSL)), a polymer derived from the biobased sophorolipid monomer, is presented. Effective backbone modification is achieved via a triazolinedione (TAD)-ene-reaction. This enables the straightforward introduction of various functionalities to the double bond in the fatty acid segment of the Poly(LSL). The reaction occurs quantitatively in stoichiometric ratios up to a targeted functionalization degree of 50% and complete functionalization of all double bonds is feasible when three equivalents excess of the TAD moiety with respect to the double bonds are used...
October 15, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Safiya Allie, Ignacio Hegoburu, Min Jeong Shin, Jung Young Jung, Violeta Toader, Alejandro Rey, Ezequiel R Soule, Linda Reven
Liquid crystal (LC)-polymer blends are important stimuli responsive materials already employed in a wide range of applications whereas nanoparticle (NP)-LC blends are an emerging class of nanocomposites. Polymer ligands offer the advantages of synthetic simplicity along with chemical and molecular weight tunability. Here we compare the phase behavior of 5CB blended with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and with gold NPs functionalized with thiolated PEO (AuNP-PEO) as a function of PEO concentration by DSC, POM and 13C NMR spectroscopy...
October 15, 2018: Soft Matter
Lei Dai, Ting Cheng, Chao Duan, Wei Zhao, Weipeng Zhang, Xuejun Zou, Joseph Aspler, Yonghao Ni
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is classified as a revolutionary, disruptive manufacturing technology. Cellulose (the most abundant natural polymer) and its many derivatives have been widely studied for many applications. The combination of 3D printing with cellulose-based feedstocks is therefore of critical interest. This review highlights many studies on 3D printing applications of plant-derived cellulose and its derivatives. Potential materials include cellulose ethers/esters, microcrystalline cellulose, nanocellulosic materials, and other products...
January 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Silvia Raquel Bettani, Gabriel de Oliveira Ragazzo, Nathalia Leal Santos, Theo Guenter Kieckbusch, Reinaldo Gaspar Bastos, Marcio Roberto Soares, Mariana Altenhofen da Silva
High methoxyl pectin was used as biopolymeric matrix to produce a novel slow release soil fertilizer added with sugarcane vinasse and lipid extracted microalgal (Desmodesmus subspicatus) biomass residue (LMBR). Vinasse acted as the biopolymer solvent, providing greater stability to pectin gel, and as a source of nitrogen (N), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg). LMBR (0.5%) was considered a complementary source of N and micronutrients, copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn). Compared to blank pectin particles, the particles with vinasse and LMBR showed homogeneous polymer matrix, spherical shapes, higher soluble matter release and enhanced mechanical properties...
January 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Le Li, Rui-Ying Bao, Tao Gao, Zheng-Ying Liu, Bang-Hu Xie, Ming-Bo Yang, Wei Yang
Improving the physical properties of biobased polymers using bionanofillers is essential to preserve its biodegradability. This work presents a dopamine-induced functionalization of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) with polyethylene glycol (PEG), to enhance the crystallization, mechanical and barrier properties of poly(L -lactic acid) (PLLA) bionanocomposites. The effect of molecular weight of grafted PEG on the properties of PLLA is also studied. PEGylation of CNCs significantly enhance the crystallization of PLLA, especially for CNCs functionalized with PEG of lower molecular weight, which lead to balanced strength and ductility, and 66...
January 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Pravin K Shende, Drashti Desai, R S Gaud
The development of nanoscale particles offers tremendous potential for the formulation of nanobubbles, an area of great interest in therapeutic ultrasound, detection, diagnosis, and drug delivery systems. This review compiles information for designing nanobubbles tailored to various applications such as color Doppler imaging, multidrug-resistant treatment, cosmeceuticals, gene therapy, cancer treatment, water treatment, and so forth. Nanobubbles also extend a path for convenient and eco-friendly systems for cleaning conducting surfaces...
2018: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Muhammad Raisul Abedin, Siddesh Umapathi, Harika Mahendrakar, Tunyaboon Laemthong, Holly Coleman, Denise Muchangi, Santimukul Santra, Manashi Nath, Sutapa Barua
BACKGROUND: Engineered inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) are essential components in the development of nanotechnologies. For applications in nanomedicine, particles need to be functionalized to ensure a good dispersibility in biological fluids. In many cases however, functionalization is not sufficient: the particles become either coated by a corona of serum proteins or precipitate out of the solvent. We show that by changing the coating of magnetic iron oxide NPs using poly-L-lysine (PLL) polymer the colloidal stability of the dispersion is improved in aqueous solutions including water, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), PBS with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and cell culture medium, and the internalization of the NPs toward living mammalian cells is profoundly affected...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Dingcheng Zhu, Sathi Roy, Ziyao Liu, Horst Weller, Wolfgang Parak, Neus Feliu
Tremendous efforts have been devoted to the development of future nanomedicines that can be specifically designed to incorporate responsive elements that undergo modification in structural properties upon external triggers. One potential use of such stimuli-responsive materials is to release encapsulated cargo upon excitation by an external trigger. Today, such stimuli-response materials allow for spatial and temporal tunability, which enables the controlled delivery of compounds in a specific and dose-dependent manner...
October 10, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Alexandre Bordat, Tanguy Boissenot, Julien Nicolas, Nicolas Tsapis
Polymer nanocarriers allow drug encapsulation leading to fragile molecule protection from early degradation/metabolization, increased solubility of poorly soluble drugs and improved plasmatic half-life. However, efficiently controlling the drug release from nanocarriers is still challenging. Thermoresponsive polymers exhibiting either a lower critical solubility temperature (LCST) or an upper critical solubility temperature (UCST) in aqueous medium may be the key to build spatially and temporally controlled drug delivery systems...
October 10, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Kristin Robin Ko, Meng-Chiao Tsai, John P Frampton
Extracellular matrix-based hydrogels such as Matrigel are easy-to-use, commercially available, and offer environments for three-dimensional (3D) cell culture that mimic native tissue. However, manipulating small volumes of these materials to produce thin-layer 3D culture systems suitable for analysis is difficult due to air-liquid-substrate interfacial tension effects and evaporation. Here, we demonstrate two simple techniques that use standard liquid-handling tools and non-treated 96-well plates to produce uniform, thin-layer constructs for 3D culture of cells in Matrigel...
October 13, 2018: Biotechnology Progress
Thao P Nguyen, Ji Hoon Shim
The efficiency of charge transport mainly depends on the interfacial energy level alignment between the conjugated polymer and the inorganic substrate. It provides an accurate understanding, predicting as well as controlling the optimal power conversion efficiency of various type of hybrid photovoltaic systems. In this article, we use hybrid functional (HSE06) to study the electronic structures and properties at the interface of poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT)/CdS and P3HT/PbS for solar cell applications. We found that the dangling bonds at the inorganic surface introduce in-gap states and greatly reduce the device performance...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Bartolomeo Coppola, Nicola Cappetti, Luciano Di Maio, Paola Scarfato, Loredana Incarnato
In this study, the possibility of using a layered silicate-reinforced polylactic acid (PLA) in additive manufacturing applications was investigated. In particular, the aim of this work was to study the influence of printing temperature in the 3D printing process of PLA/clay nanocomposites. For this reason, two PLA grades (4032D and 2003D, D-isomer content 1.5 and 4, respectively) were melt-compounded by a twin screw extruder with a layered silicate (Cloisite 30B) at 4 wt %. Then, PLA and PLA/clay feedstock filaments (diameter 1...
October 11, 2018: Materials
Nives Vodišek, Andraž Šuligoj, Dorota Korte, Urška Lavrenčič Štangar
Self-cleaning and/or photocatalytic films on polymer substrates have found numerous applications during the past decades. However, the common demand for high-temperature post synthesis treatment limits the application to temperature resistant substrates only. Herein, we prepared self-cleaning photocatalytic films on four thermosensitive polymeric substrates: polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), and acryl coated polyester (PES) fabric (D2) with poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) containing lacquer (D1)...
October 11, 2018: Materials
Dong-Hyun Kim, Jinwoo Lee, Jinju Bae, Sungbum Park, Jihwan Choi, Jeong Hun Lee, Eoksoo Kim
3D printing technology has recently been highlighted as an innovative manufacturing process. Among various 3D printing methods, binder jetting (BJ) 3D printing is particularly known as technology used to produce the complex sand mold quickly for a casting process. However, high manufacturing costs, due to its expensive materials, need to be lowered for more industrial applications of 3D printing. In this study, we investigated mechanical properties of sand molds with a lightweight structure for low material consumption and short process time...
October 11, 2018: Materials
Yabin Wang, Li Zhou, Xiaoling Wang, Xiaokun Liu, Liwen Jiang, Jiahui Wang, Hainan Sun, Cuijuan Jiang, Xueci Xing, Yi Zhang, Bingcai Pan, Bing Yan
Nanomaterials, such as ZrO2 nanoparticles (ZrO2 NPs), are very effective in water remediation. However, the safety issues related to nanoparticle release and toxicity to humans remain to be resolved. Here we evaluated the cytotoxicity of ZrO2 NPs and their adducts with pollutants using a human cell panel containing stomach, intestine, liver and kidney cells. We found that different pollutants or ZrO2 NP/pollutant adducts targeted cells from different organs, suggesting the necessity of a cell panel to model oral exposures...
October 9, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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