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maternal to zygote transition

Junhao Ning, Chengwen Song, Danli Luo, Yuan Liu, Hourong Liu, Zhaoxia Cui
The maternal genome directs almost all aspects of early animal development. As development proceeds, the elimination of maternal gene products and zygotic genome activation (ZGA) occur during the maternal to zygotic transition (MZT). To study the molecular mechanisms regulating this developmental event in Eriocheir sinensis, RNA-Seq technology was applied to generate comprehensive information on transcriptome dynamics during early embryonic stages. In total, 32,088 annotated unigenes were obtained from the transcriptomes of fertilized eggs and embryos at the cleavage (2-4 cell) and blastula stage...
October 12, 2018: Gene
Guillem Ylla, Maria-Dolors Piulachs, Xavier Belles
The success of neopteran insects, with 1 million species described, is associated with developmental innovations such as holometaboly and the evolution from short to long germband embryogenesis. To unveil the mechanisms underlining these innovations, we compared gene expression during the ontogeny of two extreme neopterans, the cockroach Blattella germanica (polyneopteran, hemimetabolan, and short germband species) and the fly Drosophila melanogaster (endopterygote, holometabolan, and long germband species)...
June 29, 2018: iScience
Christina Zakas, Jennifer M Deutscher, Alex D Kay, Matthew V Rockman
Evolutionary transitions from indirect to direct development involve changes in both maternal and zygotic genetic factors, with distinctive population-genetic implications, but empirical data on the genetics of such transitions are lacking. The polychaete Streblospio benedicti provides an opportunity to dissect a major transition in developmental mode using forward genetics. Females in this species produce either small eggs that develop into planktonic larvae or large eggs that develop into benthic juveniles...
September 10, 2018: ELife
Sara M Vliet, Subham Dasgupta, David C Volz
Niclosamide is an antihelminthic drug used worldwide for the treatment of tapeworm infections. Recent drug repurposing screens have revealed that niclosamide exhibits diverse mechanisms of action and, as a result, demonstrates promise for a number of applications, including the treatment of cancer, bacterial infections, and Zika virus. As new applications of niclosamide will require non-oral delivery routes that may lead to exposure in utero, the objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism of niclosamide toxicity during early stages of embryonic development...
August 27, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Jocelyn M Cuthbert, Stewart J Russell, Kenneth L White, Abby D Benninghoff
In mammals, small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) have been reported to be important during early embryo development. However, a comprehensive assessment of the inventory of sncRNAs during the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) has not been performed in an animal model that better represents the sncRNAs biogenesis pathway in human oocytes and embryos. The objective of this study was to examine dynamic changes in expression of sncRNAs during the MZT in bovine embryos produced by in vitro fertilization (IVF), which occurs at the 8-cell stage...
August 25, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Jiawei Sun, Lu Yan, Weimin Shen, Anming Meng
Maternal mRNAs and proteins dictate early embryonic development before zygotic genome activation. In the absence of transcription, elaborate control of maternal mRNA translation is of particular importance for oocyte maturation and early embryogenesis. By analyzing zebrafish ybx1 mutants with a null allele, we demonstrate an essential role of maternal ybx1 in repressing global translation in oocytes and embryos. Loss of maternal Ybx1 leads to impaired oocyte maturation and egg activation. Maternal ybx1 (M ybx1 ) mutant embryos fail to undergo normal cleavage and the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT)...
October 2, 2018: Development
Renato Martins, Newton Ruiz, Rodrigo Nunes da Fonseca, Itabajara da Silva Vaz Junior, Carlos Logullo
The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is an ectoparasite capable of transmitting a large number of pathogens, causing considerable losses in the cattle industry, with substantial damage to livestock. Over the years, important stages of its life cycle, such as the embryo, have been largely ignored by researchers. Tick embryogenesis has been typically described as an energy-consuming process, sustaining cell proliferation, differentiation, and growth. During the embryonic stage of arthropods, there is mobilization of metabolites of maternal origin for the development of organs and tissues of the embryo...
July 2018: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
Ricardo Fuentes, Mary C Mullins, Juan Fernández
Establishment and movement of cytoplasmic domains is of great importance for the emergence of cell polarity, germline segregation, embryonic axis specification and correct sorting of organelles and macromolecules into different embryonic cells. The zebrafish oocyte, egg and zygote are valuable material for the study of cytoplasmic domains formation and dynamics during development. In this review we examined how cytoplasmic domains form and are relocated during zebrafish early embryogenesis. Distinct cortical cytoplasmic domains (also referred to as ectoplasm domains) form first during early oogenesis by the localization of mRNAs to the vegetal or animal poles of the oocyte or radially throughout the cortex...
August 2, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Jean-Denis Beaudoin, Eva Maria Novoa, Charles E Vejnar, Valeria Yartseva, Carter M Takacs, Manolis Kellis, Antonio J Giraldez
RNA folding plays a crucial role in RNA function. However, knowledge of the global structure of the transcriptome is limited to cellular systems at steady state, thus hindering the understanding of RNA structure dynamics during biological transitions and how it influences gene function. Here, we characterized mRNA structure dynamics during zebrafish development. We observed that on a global level, translation guides structure rather than structure guiding translation. We detected a decrease in structure in translated regions and identified the ribosome as a major remodeler of RNA structure in vivo...
August 2018: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
Pedro Prudêncio, Leonardo G Guilgur, João Sobral, Jörg D Becker, Rui Gonçalo Martinho, Paulo Navarro-Costa
The transition from fertilized oocyte to totipotent embryo relies on maternal factors that are synthetized and accumulated during oocyte development. Yet, it is unclear how oocytes regulate the expression of maternal genes within the transcriptional program of oogenesis. Here, we report that the Drosophila Trithorax group protein dMLL3/4 (also known as Trr) is essential for the transition to embryo fate at fertilization. In the absence of dMLL3/4, oocytes develop normally but fail to initiate the embryo mitotic divisions after fertilization...
August 2018: EMBO Reports
Fumei Chen, Qiang Fu, Liping Pu, Pengfei Zhang, Yulin Huang, Zhen Hou, Zhuangzhuang Xu, Dongrong Chen, Fengling Huang, Tingxian Deng, Xianwei Liang, Yangqing Lu, Ming Zhang
Maternal-effect genes are especially critical for early embryonic development after fertilization and until massive activation of the embryonic genome occurs. By applying a tandem mass tag (TMT)-labeled quantitative proteomics combined with RNA sequencing approach, the proteome of the buffalo was quantitatively analyzed during parthenogenesis of mature oocytes and the two-cell stage embryo. Of 1908 quantified proteins, 123 differed significantly. The transcriptome was analyzed eight stages (GV, MII, 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, 16-cell, morula, blastocyst) of Buffalo using the RNA sequencing approach, and a total of 3567 unique genes were identified to be differently expressed between all consecutive stages of pre-implantation development...
October 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Willian T A F Silva
The starting point of a new generation in sexually reproducing species is fertilization. In many species, fertilization is followed by cell divisions controlled primarily by maternal transcripts, with little to no zygotic transcription. The activation of the zygotic genome (ZGA) is part of a process called maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT), during which transcripts from the zygotic genome take control of development, setting the conditions for cellular specialization. While we know that epigenetic processes (e...
2018: PloS One
Cecilia Lanny Winata, Vladimir Korzh
Since their discovery, the study of maternal mRNAs has led to the identification of mechanisms underlying their spatiotemporal regulation within the context of oogenesis and early embryogenesis. Following synthesis in the oocyte, maternal mRNAs are translationally silenced and sequestered into storage in cytoplasmic granules. At the same time, their unique distribution patterns throughout the oocyte and embryo are tightly controlled and connected to their functions in downstream embryonic processes. At certain points in oogenesis and early embryogenesis, maternal mRNAs are translationally activated to perform their functions in a timely manner...
July 4, 2018: FEBS Letters
Ken-Ichiro Abe, Satoshi Funaya, Dai Tsukioka, Machika Kawamura, Yutaka Suzuki, Masataka G Suzuki, Richard M Schultz, Fugaku Aoki
In mice, transcription initiates at the mid-one-cell stage and transcriptional activity dramatically increases during the two-cell stage, a process called zygotic gene activation (ZGA). Associated with ZGA is a marked change in the pattern of gene expression that occurs after the second round of DNA replication. To distinguish ZGA before and after the second-round DNA replication, the former and latter are called minor and major ZGA, respectively. Although major ZGA are required for development beyond the two-cell stage, the function of minor ZGA is not well understood...
July 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jenna E Haines, Michael B Eisen
As the Drosophila embryo transitions from the use of maternal RNAs to zygotic transcription, domains of open chromatin, with relatively low nucleosome density and specific histone marks, are established at promoters and enhancers involved in patterned embryonic transcription. However it remains unclear how regions of activity are established during early embryogenesis, and if they are the product of spatially restricted or ubiquitous processes. To shed light on this question, we probed chromatin accessibility across the anterior-posterior axis (A-P) of early Drosophila melanogaster embryos by applying a transposon based assay for chromatin accessibility (ATAC-seq) to anterior and posterior halves of hand-dissected, cellular blastoderm embryos...
May 2018: PLoS Genetics
Melanie A Eckersley-Maslin, Celia Alda-Catalinas, Wolf Reik
A remarkable epigenetic remodelling process occurs shortly after fertilization, which restores totipotency to the zygote. This involves global DNA demethylation, chromatin remodelling, genome spatial reorganization and substantial transcriptional changes. Key to these changes is the transition from the maternal environment of the oocyte to an embryonic-driven developmental expression programme, a process termed the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT). Zygotic genome activation occurs predominantly at the two-cell stage in mice and the eight-cell stage in humans, yet the dynamics of its control are still mostly obscure...
July 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
Xiaolan Deng, Rui Su, Hengyou Weng, Huilin Huang, Zejuan Li, Jianjun Chen
N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A), the most abundant internal modification in eukaryotic messenger RNAs (mRNAs), has been shown to play critical roles in various normal bioprocesses such as tissue development, stem cell self-renewal and differentiation, heat shock or DNA damage response, and maternal-to-zygotic transition. The m6 A modification is deposited by the m6 A methyltransferase complex (MTC; i.e., writer) composed of METTL3, METTL14 and WTAP, and probably also VIRMA and RBM15, and can be removed by m6 A demethylases (i...
May 2018: Cell Research
Te-Sha Tsai, Justin C St John
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deficient metaphase II porcine oocytes are less likely to fertilize and more likely to arrest during preimplantation development. However, they can be supplemented with autologous populations of mitochondria at the time of fertilization, which significantly increases mtDNA copy number by the 2-cell stage due to the modulation of DNA methylation at a CpG island of the gene encoding the mtDNA-specific polymerase, POLG, and promotes preimplantation development. Although mitochondrial supplementation does not increase development rates or mtDNA copy number in oocytes with normal levels of mtDNA copy number, we tested whether this approach would also impact on chromosomal gene expression patterns in these oocytes at each stage of preimplantation development...
June 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Hyeshik Chang, Jinah Yeo, Jeong-Gyun Kim, Hyunjoon Kim, Jaechul Lim, Mihye Lee, Hyun Ho Kim, Jiyeon Ohk, Hee-Yeon Jeon, Hyunsook Lee, Hosung Jung, Kyu-Won Kim, V Narry Kim
During the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT), maternal RNAs are actively degraded and replaced by newly synthesized zygotic transcripts in a highly coordinated manner. However, it remains largely unknown how maternal mRNA decay is triggered in early vertebrate embryos. Here, through genome-wide profiling of RNA abundance and 3' modification, we show that uridylation is induced at the onset of maternal mRNA clearance. The temporal control of uridylation is conserved in vertebrates. When the homologs of terminal uridylyltransferases TUT4 and TUT7 (TUT4/7) are depleted in zebrafish and Xenopus, maternal mRNA clearance is significantly delayed, leading to developmental defects during gastrulation...
April 5, 2018: Molecular Cell
Fabio Alexis Lefebvre, Éric Lécuyer
Early development is punctuated by a series of pervasive and fast paced transitions. These events reshape a differentiated oocyte into a totipotent embryo and allow it to gradually mount a genetic program of its own, thereby framing a new organism. Specifically, developmental transitions that ensure the maternal to embryonic control of developmental events entail a deep remodeling of transcriptional and transcriptomic landscapes. Drosophila provides an elegant and genetically tractable system to investigate these conserved changes at a dazzling developmental pace...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
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