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maternal to zygote transition

Ricardo Fuentes, Mary C Mullins, Juan Fernández
Establishment and movement of cytoplasmic domains is of great importance for the emergence of cell polarity, germline segregation, embryonic axis specification and correct sorting of organelles and macromolecules into different embryonic cells. The zebrafish oocyte, egg and zygote are valuable material for the study of cytoplasmic domains formation and dynamics during development. In this review we examined how cytoplasmic domains form and are relocated during zebrafish early embryogenesis. Distinct cortical cytoplasmic domains (also referred to as ectoplasm domains) form first during early oogenesis by the localization of mRNAs to the vegetal or animal poles of the oocyte or radially throughout the cortex...
August 2, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Jean-Denis Beaudoin, Eva Maria Novoa, Charles E Vejnar, Valeria Yartseva, Carter M Takacs, Manolis Kellis, Antonio J Giraldez
RNA folding plays a crucial role in RNA function. However, knowledge of the global structure of the transcriptome is limited to cellular systems at steady state, thus hindering the understanding of RNA structure dynamics during biological transitions and how it influences gene function. Here, we characterized mRNA structure dynamics during zebrafish development. We observed that on a global level, translation guides structure rather than structure guiding translation. We detected a decrease in structure in translated regions and identified the ribosome as a major remodeler of RNA structure in vivo...
August 2018: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
Pedro Prudêncio, Leonardo G Guilgur, João Sobral, Jörg D Becker, Rui Gonçalo Martinho, Paulo Navarro-Costa
The transition from fertilized oocyte to totipotent embryo relies on maternal factors that are synthetized and accumulated during oocyte development. Yet, it is unclear how oocytes regulate the expression of maternal genes within the transcriptional program of oogenesis. Here, we report that the Drosophila Trithorax group protein dMLL3/4 (also known as Trr) is essential for the transition to embryo fate at fertilization. In the absence of dMLL3/4, oocytes develop normally but fail to initiate the embryo mitotic divisions after fertilization...
August 2018: EMBO Reports
Fumei Chen, Qiang Fu, Liping Pu, Pengfei Zhang, Yulin Huang, Zhen Hou, Zhuangzhuang Xu, Dongrong Chen, Fengling Huang, Tingxian Deng, Xianwei Liang, Yangqing Lu, Ming Zhang
Maternal-effect genes are especially critical for early embryonic development after fertilization and until massive activation of the embryonic genome occurs. By applying a tandem mass tag (TMT)-labeled quantitative proteomics combined with RNA sequencing approach, the proteome of the buffalo was quantitatively analyzed during parthenogenesis of mature oocytes and the two-cell stage embryo. Of 1,908 quantified proteins, 123 differed significantly. The transcriptome was analyzed eight stages (GV, MII, 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, 16-cell, morula, blastocyst) of Buffalo using the RNA sequencing approach , and a total of 3567 unique genes were identified to be differently expressed between all consecutive stages of pre-implantation development...
July 12, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Willian T A F Silva
The starting point of a new generation in sexually reproducing species is fertilization. In many species, fertilization is followed by cell divisions controlled primarily by maternal transcripts, with little to no zygotic transcription. The activation of the zygotic genome (ZGA) is part of a process called maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT), during which transcripts from the zygotic genome take control of development, setting the conditions for cellular specialization. While we know that epigenetic processes (e...
2018: PloS One
Cecilia Lanny Winata, Vladimir Korzh
Since their discovery, the study of maternal mRNAs has led to the identification of mechanisms underlying their spatiotemporal regulation within the context of oogenesis and early embryogenesis. Following synthesis in the oocyte, maternal mRNAs are translationally silenced and sequestered into storage in cytoplasmic granules. At the same time, their unique distribution patterns throughout the oocyte and embryo are tightly controlled and connected to their functions in downstream embryonic processes. At certain points in oogenesis and early embryogenesis, maternal mRNAs are translationally activated to perform their functions in a timely manner...
July 4, 2018: FEBS Letters
Ken-Ichiro Abe, Satoshi Funaya, Dai Tsukioka, Machika Kawamura, Yutaka Suzuki, Masataka G Suzuki, Richard M Schultz, Fugaku Aoki
In mice, transcription initiates at the mid-one-cell stage and transcriptional activity dramatically increases during the two-cell stage, a process called zygotic gene activation (ZGA). Associated with ZGA is a marked change in the pattern of gene expression that occurs after the second round of DNA replication. To distinguish ZGA before and after the second-round DNA replication, the former and latter are called minor and major ZGA, respectively. Although major ZGA are required for development beyond the two-cell stage, the function of minor ZGA is not well understood...
July 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jenna E Haines, Michael B Eisen
As the Drosophila embryo transitions from the use of maternal RNAs to zygotic transcription, domains of open chromatin, with relatively low nucleosome density and specific histone marks, are established at promoters and enhancers involved in patterned embryonic transcription. However it remains unclear how regions of activity are established during early embryogenesis, and if they are the product of spatially restricted or ubiquitous processes. To shed light on this question, we probed chromatin accessibility across the anterior-posterior axis (A-P) of early Drosophila melanogaster embryos by applying a transposon based assay for chromatin accessibility (ATAC-seq) to anterior and posterior halves of hand-dissected, cellular blastoderm embryos...
May 2018: PLoS Genetics
Melanie A Eckersley-Maslin, Celia Alda-Catalinas, Wolf Reik
A remarkable epigenetic remodelling process occurs shortly after fertilization, which restores totipotency to the zygote. This involves global DNA demethylation, chromatin remodelling, genome spatial reorganization and substantial transcriptional changes. Key to these changes is the transition from the maternal environment of the oocyte to an embryonic-driven developmental expression programme, a process termed the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT). Zygotic genome activation occurs predominantly at the two-cell stage in mice and the eight-cell stage in humans, yet the dynamics of its control are still mostly obscure...
July 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
Xiaolan Deng, Rui Su, Hengyou Weng, Huilin Huang, Zejuan Li, Jianjun Chen
N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A), the most abundant internal modification in eukaryotic messenger RNAs (mRNAs), has been shown to play critical roles in various normal bioprocesses such as tissue development, stem cell self-renewal and differentiation, heat shock or DNA damage response, and maternal-to-zygotic transition. The m6 A modification is deposited by the m6 A methyltransferase complex (MTC; i.e., writer) composed of METTL3, METTL14 and WTAP, and probably also VIRMA and RBM15, and can be removed by m6 A demethylases (i...
May 2018: Cell Research
Te-Sha Tsai, Justin C St John
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deficient metaphase II porcine oocytes are less likely to fertilize and more likely to arrest during preimplantation development. However, they can be supplemented with autologous populations of mitochondria at the time of fertilization, which significantly increases mtDNA copy number by the 2-cell stage due to the modulation of DNA methylation at a CpG island of the gene encoding the mtDNA-specific polymerase, POLG, and promotes preimplantation development. Although mitochondrial supplementation does not increase development rates or mtDNA copy number in oocytes with normal levels of mtDNA copy number, we tested whether this approach would also impact on chromosomal gene expression patterns in these oocytes at each stage of preimplantation development...
June 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Hyeshik Chang, Jinah Yeo, Jeong-Gyun Kim, Hyunjoon Kim, Jaechul Lim, Mihye Lee, Hyun Ho Kim, Jiyeon Ohk, Hee-Yeon Jeon, Hyunsook Lee, Hosung Jung, Kyu-Won Kim, V Narry Kim
During the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT), maternal RNAs are actively degraded and replaced by newly synthesized zygotic transcripts in a highly coordinated manner. However, it remains largely unknown how maternal mRNA decay is triggered in early vertebrate embryos. Here, through genome-wide profiling of RNA abundance and 3' modification, we show that uridylation is induced at the onset of maternal mRNA clearance. The temporal control of uridylation is conserved in vertebrates. When the homologs of terminal uridylyltransferases TUT4 and TUT7 (TUT4/7) are depleted in zebrafish and Xenopus, maternal mRNA clearance is significantly delayed, leading to developmental defects during gastrulation...
April 5, 2018: Molecular Cell
Fabio Alexis Lefebvre, Éric Lécuyer
Early development is punctuated by a series of pervasive and fast paced transitions. These events reshape a differentiated oocyte into a totipotent embryo and allow it to gradually mount a genetic program of its own, thereby framing a new organism. Specifically, developmental transitions that ensure the maternal to embryonic control of developmental events entail a deep remodeling of transcriptional and transcriptomic landscapes. Drosophila provides an elegant and genetically tractable system to investigate these conserved changes at a dazzling developmental pace...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
Nicholas Treen, Tyler Heist, Wei Wang, Michael Levine
Most animal embryos display a delay in the activation of zygotic transcription during early embryogenesis [1]. This process is thought to help coordinate rapid increases in cell number during early development [2]. The timing of zygotic genome activation (ZGA) during the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) remains uncertain despite extensive efforts. We explore ZGA in the simple protovertebrate, Ciona intestinalis. Single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) assays identified Cyclin B3 (Ccnb3) as a putative mediator of ZGA...
April 2, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Kohtaro Morita, Mikiko Tokoro, Yuki Hatanaka, Chika Higuchi, Haruka Ikegami, Kouhei Nagai, Masayuki Anzai, Hiromi Kato, Tasuku Mitani, Yoshitomo Taguchi, Kazuo Yamagata, Yoshihiko Hosoi, Kei Miyamoto, Kazuya Matsumoto
Antioxidant mechanisms to adequately moderate levels of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important for oocytes and embryos to obtain and maintain developmental competence, respectively. Immediately after fertilization, ROS levels in zygotes are elevated but the antioxidant mechanisms during the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) are not well understood. First, we identified peroxiredoxin 1 (PRDX1) and PRDX2 by proteomics analysis as two of the most abundant endogenous antioxidant enzymes eliminating hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Wei-Lin Wang, Takashi Onikubo, David Shechter
Xenopus laevis development is marked by accelerated cell division solely supported by the proteins maternally deposited in the egg. Oocytes mature to eggs with concomitant transcriptional silencing. The unique maternal chromatin state contributing to this silencing and subsequent zygotic activation is likely established by histone posttranslational modifications and histone variants. Therefore, tools for understanding the nature and function of maternal and embryonic histones are essential to deciphering mechanisms of regulation of development, chromatin assembly, and transcription...
February 23, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
Dahyana Arias Escayola, Karla M Neugebauer
Nuclear bodies are RNA-rich membraneless organelles in the cell nucleus that concentrate specific sets of nuclear proteins and RNA-protein complexes. Nuclear bodies such as the nucleolus, Cajal body (CB), and the histone locus body (HLB) concentrate factors required for nuclear steps of RNA processing. Formation of these nuclear bodies occurs on genomic loci and is frequently associated with active sites of transcription. Whether nuclear body formation is dependent on a particular gene element, an active process such as transcription, or the nascent RNA present at gene loci is a topic of debate...
May 1, 2018: Biochemistry
Vladimir Despic, Karla M Neugebauer
Following fertilization, embryos develop for a substantial amount of time with a transcriptionally silent genome. Thus, early development is maternally programmed, as it solely relies on RNAs and proteins that are provided by the female gamete. However, these maternal instructions are not sufficient to support later steps of embryogenesis and are therefore gradually replaced by novel products synthesized from the zygotic genome. This switch in the origin of molecular players that drive early development is known as the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Richard M Schultz, Paula Stein, Petr Svoboda
The oocyte-to-embryo transition (OET) arguably initiates with formation of a primordial follicle and culminates with reprogramming of gene expression during the course of zygotic genome activation. This transition results in converting a highly differentiated cell, i.e. oocyte, to undifferentiated cells, i.e. initial blastomeres of a preimplantation embryo. A plethora of changes occur during the OET and include, but are not limited to, changes in transcription, chromatin structure, and protein synthesis; accumulation of macromolecules and organelles that will comprise the oocyte's maternal contribution to the early embryo; sequential acquisition of meiotic and developmental competence to name but a few...
July 1, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Massimo Vergassola, Victoria E Deneke, Stefano Di Talia
Early embryogenesis of most metazoans is characterized by rapid and synchronous cleavage divisions. Chemical waves of Cdk1 activity were previously shown to spread across Drosophila embryos, and the underlying molecular processes were dissected. Here, we present the theory of the physical mechanisms that control Cdk1 waves in Drosophila The in vivo dynamics of Cdk1 are captured by a transiently bistable reaction-diffusion model, where time-dependent reaction terms account for the growing level of cyclins and Cdk1 activation across the cell cycle...
March 6, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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