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maternal to zygote transition

Y H Jin, A Davie, H Migaud
Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are specified by maternally provided determinants in fish. PGCs migrate then into prospective gonadal sites during early development and give rise to germ cell lineage. PGC disrupted animals do not sexually mature which has a range of commercial as well as environmental benefits. To find potential target genes for sterilisation of Nile tilapia, relative mRNA abundance patterns and tissue distribution of four nanos, two piwil, dnd1, vasa and three pum genes were investigated during ontogenic development from unfertilised eggs to newly hatched larvae and in adult tissues, respectively...
November 30, 2018: Gene
Qian-Qian Sha, Jia-Li Yu, Jing-Xin Guo, Xing-Xing Dai, Jun-Chao Jiang, Yin-Li Zhang, Chao Yu, Shu-Yan Ji, Yu Jiang, Song-Ying Zhang, Li Shen, Xiang-Hong Ou, Heng-Yu Fan
Meiotic resumption-coupled degradation of maternal transcripts occurs during oocyte maturation in the absence of mRNA transcription. The CCR4-NOT complex has been identified as the main eukaryotic mRNA deadenylase. In vivo functional and mechanistic information regarding its multiple subunits remains insufficient. Cnot6l , one of four genes encoding CCR4-NOT catalytic subunits, is preferentially expressed in mouse oocytes. Genetic deletion of Cnot6l impaired deadenylation and degradation of a subset of maternal mRNAs during oocyte maturation...
November 26, 2018: EMBO Journal
Filip Horvat, Helena Fulka, Radek Jankele, Radek Malik, Ma Jun, Katerina Solcova, Radislav Sedlacek, Kristian Vlahovicek, Richard M Schultz, Petr Svoboda
Removal of poly(A) tail is an important mechanism controlling eukaryotic mRNA turnover. The major eukaryotic deadenylase complex CCR4-NOT contains two deadenylase components, CCR4 and CAF1, for which mammalian CCR4 is encoded by Cnot6 or Cnot6l paralogs. We show that Cnot6l apparently supplies the majority of CCR4 in the maternal CCR4-NOT in mouse, hamster, and bovine oocytes. Deletion of Cnot6l yielded viable mice, but Cnot6l -/- females exhibited ∼40% smaller litter size. The main onset of the phenotype was post-zygotic: fertilized Cnot6l -/- eggs developed slower and arrested more frequently than Cnot6l +/- eggs, suggesting that maternal CNOT6L is necessary for accurate oocyte-to-embryo transition...
August 2018: Life science alliance
Bingjie Zhang, Xiaotong Wu, Wenhao Zhang, Weimin Shen, Qingrui Sun, Kaili Liu, Yu Zhang, Qiujun Wang, Yuanyuan Li, Anming Meng, Wei Xie
The epigenome plays critical roles in controlling gene expression and development. However, how the parental epigenomes transit to the zygotic epigenome in early development remains elusive. Here we show that parental-to-zygotic transition in zebrafish involves extensive erasure of parental epigenetic memory, starting with methylating gametic enhancers. Surprisingly, this occurs even prior to fertilization for sperm. Both parental enhancers lose histone marks by the 4-cell stage, and zygotic enhancers are not activated until around zygotic genome activation (ZGA)...
November 15, 2018: Molecular Cell
Hajime Nakao, Yoko Takasu
Inheritance (sequestration of a localized determinant: germplasm) and zygotic induction are two modes of metazoan primordial germ cell (PGC) specification. vasa and nanos homologs are evolutionarily conserved germline marker genes that have been used to examine the ontogeny of germ cells in various animals. In the lepidopteran insect Bombyx mori, although the lack of vasa homolog (BmVLG) protein localization as well as microscopic observation suggested the lack of germplasm, classical embryo manipulation studies and the localization pattern of Bm-nosO (one of the four nanos genes in Bombyx) maternal mRNA in the egg raised the possibility that an inheritance mode is operating in Bombyx...
October 24, 2018: Developmental Biology
Winifred Mak, Jing Xia, Ee-Chun Cheng, Katie Lowther, Haifan Lin
Background: RNA binding proteins play a pivotal role during the oocyte-to-embryo transition and maternal phase of embryogenesis in invertebrates, but their function in these processes in mammalian systems remain largely understudied. Results: Here we report that a member of the Pumilio/FBF family of RNA binding proteins in mice, Pumilio 1 ( Pum 1), is a maternal effect gene. The absence of maternal PUM1 in the oocyte does not affect meiotic maturation but leads to abnormal preimplantation development...
2018: Cell & Bioscience
Junhao Ning, Chengwen Song, Danli Luo, Yuan Liu, Hourong Liu, Zhaoxia Cui
The maternal genome directs almost all aspects of early animal development. As development proceeds, the elimination of maternal gene products and zygotic genome activation (ZGA) occur during the maternal to zygotic transition (MZT). To study the molecular mechanisms regulating this developmental event in Eriocheir sinensis, RNA-Seq technology was applied to generate comprehensive information on transcriptome dynamics during early embryonic stages. In total, 32,088 annotated unigenes were obtained from the transcriptomes of fertilized eggs and embryos at the cleavage (2-4 cell) and blastula stage...
October 12, 2018: Gene
Guillem Ylla, Maria-Dolors Piulachs, Xavier Belles
The success of neopteran insects, with 1 million species described, is associated with developmental innovations such as holometaboly and the evolution from short to long germband embryogenesis. To unveil the mechanisms underlining these innovations, we compared gene expression during the ontogeny of two extreme neopterans, the cockroach Blattella germanica (polyneopteran, hemimetabolan, and short germband species) and the fly Drosophila melanogaster (endopterygote, holometabolan, and long germband species)...
June 29, 2018: iScience
Christina Zakas, Jennifer M Deutscher, Alex D Kay, Matthew V Rockman
Evolutionary transitions from indirect to direct development involve changes in both maternal and zygotic genetic factors, with distinctive population-genetic implications, but empirical data on the genetics of such transitions are lacking. The polychaete Streblospio benedicti provides an opportunity to dissect a major transition in developmental mode using forward genetics. Females in this species produce either small eggs that develop into planktonic larvae or large eggs that develop into benthic juveniles...
September 10, 2018: ELife
Sara M Vliet, Subham Dasgupta, David C Volz
Niclosamide is an antihelminthic drug used worldwide for the treatment of tapeworm infections. Recent drug repurposing screens have revealed that niclosamide exhibits diverse mechanisms of action and, as a result, demonstrates promise for a number of applications, including the treatment of cancer, bacterial infections, and Zika virus. As new applications of niclosamide will require non-oral delivery routes that may lead to exposure in utero, the objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism of niclosamide toxicity during early stages of embryonic development...
December 1, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Jocelyn M Cuthbert, Stewart J Russell, Kenneth L White, Abby D Benninghoff
In mammals, small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) have been reported to be important during early embryo development. However, a comprehensive assessment of the inventory of sncRNAs during the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) has not been performed in an animal model that better represents the sncRNAs biogenesis pathway in human oocytes and embryos. The objective of this study was to examine dynamic changes in expression of sncRNAs during the MZT in bovine embryos produced by in vitro fertilization (IVF), which occurs at the 8-cell stage...
August 25, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Jiawei Sun, Lu Yan, Weimin Shen, Anming Meng
Maternal mRNAs and proteins dictate early embryonic development before zygotic genome activation. In the absence of transcription, elaborate control of maternal mRNA translation is of particular importance for oocyte maturation and early embryogenesis. By analyzing zebrafish ybx1 mutants with a null allele, we demonstrate an essential role of maternal ybx1 in repressing global translation in oocytes and embryos. Loss of maternal Ybx1 leads to impaired oocyte maturation and egg activation. Maternal ybx1 (M ybx1 ) mutant embryos fail to undergo normal cleavage and the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT)...
October 2, 2018: Development
Renato Martins, Newton Ruiz, Rodrigo Nunes da Fonseca, Itabajara da Silva Vaz Junior, Carlos Logullo
The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is an ectoparasite capable of transmitting a large number of pathogens, causing considerable losses in the cattle industry, with substantial damage to livestock. Over the years, important stages of its life cycle, such as the embryo, have been largely ignored by researchers. Tick embryogenesis has been typically described as an energy-consuming process, sustaining cell proliferation, differentiation, and growth. During the embryonic stage of arthropods, there is mobilization of metabolites of maternal origin for the development of organs and tissues of the embryo...
July 2018: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
Ricardo Fuentes, Mary C Mullins, Juan Fernández
Establishment and movement of cytoplasmic domains is of great importance for the emergence of cell polarity, germline segregation, embryonic axis specification and correct sorting of organelles and macromolecules into different embryonic cells. The zebrafish oocyte, egg and zygote are valuable material for the study of cytoplasmic domains formation and dynamics during development. In this review we examined how cytoplasmic domains form and are relocated during zebrafish early embryogenesis. Distinct cortical cytoplasmic domains (also referred to as ectoplasm domains) form first during early oogenesis by the localization of mRNAs to the vegetal or animal poles of the oocyte or radially throughout the cortex...
August 2, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Jean-Denis Beaudoin, Eva Maria Novoa, Charles E Vejnar, Valeria Yartseva, Carter M Takacs, Manolis Kellis, Antonio J Giraldez
RNA folding plays a crucial role in RNA function. However, knowledge of the global structure of the transcriptome is limited to cellular systems at steady state, thus hindering the understanding of RNA structure dynamics during biological transitions and how it influences gene function. Here, we characterized mRNA structure dynamics during zebrafish development. We observed that on a global level, translation guides structure rather than structure guiding translation. We detected a decrease in structure in translated regions and identified the ribosome as a major remodeler of RNA structure in vivo...
August 2018: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
Pedro Prudêncio, Leonardo G Guilgur, João Sobral, Jörg D Becker, Rui Gonçalo Martinho, Paulo Navarro-Costa
The transition from fertilized oocyte to totipotent embryo relies on maternal factors that are synthetized and accumulated during oocyte development. Yet, it is unclear how oocytes regulate the expression of maternal genes within the transcriptional program of oogenesis. Here, we report that the Drosophila Trithorax group protein dMLL3/4 (also known as Trr) is essential for the transition to embryo fate at fertilization. In the absence of dMLL3/4, oocytes develop normally but fail to initiate the embryo mitotic divisions after fertilization...
August 2018: EMBO Reports
Fumei Chen, Qiang Fu, Liping Pu, Pengfei Zhang, Yulin Huang, Zhen Hou, Zhuangzhuang Xu, Dongrong Chen, Fengling Huang, Tingxian Deng, Xianwei Liang, Yangqing Lu, Ming Zhang
Maternal-effect genes are especially critical for early embryonic development after fertilization and until massive activation of the embryonic genome occurs. By applying a tandem mass tag (TMT)-labeled quantitative proteomics combined with RNA sequencing approach, the proteome of the buffalo was quantitatively analyzed during parthenogenesis of mature oocytes and the two-cell stage embryo. Of 1908 quantified proteins, 123 differed significantly. The transcriptome was analyzed eight stages (GV, MII, 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, 16-cell, morula, blastocyst) of Buffalo using the RNA sequencing approach, and a total of 3567 unique genes were identified to be differently expressed between all consecutive stages of pre-implantation development...
October 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Willian T A F Silva
The starting point of a new generation in sexually reproducing species is fertilization. In many species, fertilization is followed by cell divisions controlled primarily by maternal transcripts, with little to no zygotic transcription. The activation of the zygotic genome (ZGA) is part of a process called maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT), during which transcripts from the zygotic genome take control of development, setting the conditions for cellular specialization. While we know that epigenetic processes (e...
2018: PloS One
Cecilia Lanny Winata, Vladimir Korzh
Since their discovery, the study of maternal mRNAs has led to the identification of mechanisms underlying their spatiotemporal regulation within the context of oogenesis and early embryogenesis. Following synthesis in the oocyte, maternal mRNAs are translationally silenced and sequestered into storage in cytoplasmic granules. At the same time, their unique distribution patterns throughout the oocyte and embryo are tightly controlled and connected to their functions in downstream embryonic processes. At certain points in oogenesis and early embryogenesis, maternal mRNAs are translationally activated to perform their functions in a timely manner...
September 2018: FEBS Letters
Ken-Ichiro Abe, Satoshi Funaya, Dai Tsukioka, Machika Kawamura, Yutaka Suzuki, Masataka G Suzuki, Richard M Schultz, Fugaku Aoki
In mice, transcription initiates at the mid-one-cell stage and transcriptional activity dramatically increases during the two-cell stage, a process called zygotic gene activation (ZGA). Associated with ZGA is a marked change in the pattern of gene expression that occurs after the second round of DNA replication. To distinguish ZGA before and after the second-round DNA replication, the former and latter are called minor and major ZGA, respectively. Although major ZGA are required for development beyond the two-cell stage, the function of minor ZGA is not well understood...
July 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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